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18/11/2015

STF1053
BIODIVERSITY

LU8:
HOWCAN
BIODIVERSITY
BESUSTAINED?

Attheendoftheunit,youshouldbeableto:
1. DiscusstheroleandselectedarticlesunderConvention
onBiologicalDiversity(CBD).
2. Differentiateinsitu andexsitu conservation.
3. Compare3levelsofbiodiversityconservation:Genes,
Species&Ecosystems.
4. DiscusstheroleofCITES.

PartI

Conventionon
Biological
Diversity(CBD)

5. Definecladistic prioritization.

Conventionon
Biological
Diversity(CBD)

OpenedforsignatureattheUNConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopment
(RiodeJaneiro,1992).
CBDenteredintoforceon29December1993.Currentlyhas196Parties(168
Signatures).
Ithas3mainobjectives:
Theconservationofbiologicaldiversity
Thesustainableuseofthecomponentsofbiologicaldiversity
Thefairandequitablesharingofthebenefitsarisingoutoftheutilizationof
geneticresources

MaintainingBiodiversity

History commitment by nations of the world.

Articles in the convention useful framework for maintenance


into the future.

Maintenance touches on many of human activities.

Prevent individual species from becoming extinct or provision


of nature reserve and other protected areas for conservation.

42Articles

Conventionon
Biological
Diversity(CBD)

ARTICLE6

Conventionon
Biological
Diversity(CBD)

ARTICLE8
Insitu conservation

General measures for conservation and sustainable use


each contracting party shall in accordance with its
particular conditions and capabilities .

Each contacting party shall as far as possible:


a)

Established a system of protected areas or areas where special


measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity

a. Develop national strategies, plan and programmes for


the conservation and sustainable use of biological
diversity or adapt existing strategies plan or
programmes.

b)

Develop guidelines for selection, established and management of


protected areas where special measures needed to conserve
biological diversity.

c)

Manage biological resources important for conservation.

d)

Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and


maintenance of viable populations of species in natural
surrounding.

b. Integrate appropriate conservation and sustainable


use for biological diversity into relevant sectorial or
crosssectorial plans programmes and policies.

18/11/2015

e)

Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in


areas adjacent to protected areas.

f)

Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and promote the


recovery of threatened species through management strategies.

g)

Established or maintain to regulate manage or control the risks


associated with the use and release of living modified organism
from biotechnology:

adverse environmental impacts


affect conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity
taking into account the risks of human health

h) Prevent introduction, control or eradicate alien species which


threaten ecosystems, habitats or species:

prevention of invasion is much less costly than control once established.


effective quarantine measures are vital.
eradication of established introductions is sometimes possible particular
from island or small areas.

Existingprotectedareas
A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognised,
dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to
achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated
ecosystem services and cultural values. (IUCN Definition 2008)
Protected areas such as national parks, wilderness areas, community
conserved areas, nature reserves and so on are a mainstay of
biodiversity conservation, while also contributing to peoples livelihoods,
particularly at the local level.

ARTICLE8

Insitu conservation(cont..)

Provide conditions needed for compatibility between present use and the
conservation of Biological diversity and sustainable use.
Subject to national legislation, respect, preserve and maintain knowledge,
innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant
for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Encourages equitable sharing of benefits arising from utilization of such
knowledge, innovations and practices.
Develop or maintain necessary legislation /regulatory provisions for
protection of threatened species populations
Cooperate in providing financial and other support for insitu
conservation particularly in developing countries.
Poorer countries need financial support.
Damage to ecosystem direct impact to the poorsuffer polluted
environment, loss of productive lands, collapse of fisheries, loss of
traditional sources of food, fodder, fuel and fiber when forest are cut
down.

Insituconservation
Organismsorpopulationsaremaintainedintheir
ownplace.
Thisstepiscrucialinorderfororganismsto
reproducewithoutdisturbancefromhuman
activities.
Theconditions suitableNationalPark,Forest
Reserveandwildlifesanctuaries.
Wildlifesanctuarieswildspecies
TamanNegara elephantse.g.Taman
NegaraPahang

Protectedareasystemsrequiredasacentralplanofnationalstrategyfor
conservingbiodiversity.
Existingprotectedareas=20,000inworldwiderecognizedbyIUCN
Estimated13.2millionkm2;
Marinecovers1.3millionkm2

NationalParks commercialandnon
commercialtresseg.belian,ramin

Birdsanctuaries e.g Kuala


Gula BirdSanctuary

SomeoftheexistingprotectedareasinMalaysia
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world
find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and
development challenges.
IUCNs work focuses on valuing and conserving nature, ensuring
effective and equitable governance of its use, and deploying nature
based solutions to global challenges in climate, food and development.
IUCN supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the
world, and brings governments, NGOs, the UN and companies together
to develop policy, laws and best practice.

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic,


conservation status and distribution information on plants, fungi and
animals that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List
Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative
risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to
catalogue and highlight those plants and animals that are facing a higher
risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically
Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes
information on plants, fungi and animals that are categorized
as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because
of insufficient information (i.e., are Data Deficient); and on plants, fungi
and animals that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or
that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxonspecific
conservation programme (i.e., are Near Threatened).

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Conventionon
Biological
Diversity(CBD)

ARTICLE9
Exsitu conservation

Each contracting party shall as far as possible :


Adopt measures for the purpose for exsitu conservation of
components of biological diversity, preferably in the country
of origin.
Establish and maintain facilities for exsitu conservation and
research on flora fauna and microorganism, preferably in the
country of origin of genetic resources.
Adopt measures for the recovery and rehabilitation of
threatened species and for their reintroduction in the natural
habitats under appropriate conditions.

ARTICLE8

Exsitu conservation(cont..)

Exsitu conservation
Semenggoh Wildlife
Center

Regulate and manage collection of biological resources from natural


habitats for exsitu conservation purposes as not to threatened
ecosystems and insitu population of species.

Populationofparticularorganismsaremovedfrom
theirplaceoforiginandnursedatexperimentalplot
orfencedareas.
Exsituconservationisanalternativeand
complimentofinsituapproach.

Cooperate in providing financial and other support for exsitu


conservation in developing countries.
Exsitu conservation measures may include seeds bank, sperm and ova
bank, culture collections (plant tissues), artificial propagation of plants
and captive breeding of animals.
The costs and benefits of exsitu conservation have been much debated.
This particularly true with regard to large mammals.
Key issues short term and long term viability of both wild and captive
populations

Botanical
Gardens/Arboretum
propagationofrareand
threatenedindigenous
plants

Zoos
e.g.endangeredspeciesin
zoo,trytobreedthem,and
reintroducetheiroffsprings
inthejungle.(doneincase
ofpandas,orangutansetc.)

* Exsitu conservation plays a secondary role to insitu conservation.

Conventionon
Biological
Diversity(CBD)

ARTICLE10
SustainableuseofComponentsof
BiologicalDiversity

Each contracting party shall as far as possible and as appropriate:


a. Integrate consideration of conservation and sustainable use of
biological resources into national decision making.
b. Adopt measures relating to the use of biological resources to
avoid or minimised adverse impacts on biological diversity.
c.

Protect and encourage customary use of biological resources


in accordance with traditional cultural practices that are
compatible with conservation or sustainable use requirement.

ARTICLE10

SustainableuseofComponentsof
BiologicalDiversity(Cont.)

c)

Support local populations to develop and implement remedial action in


degraded areas where biological diversity has been reduced.

d)

Encourage cooperation between its governmental authorities and its


private sector in developing methods for sustainable uses of biological
resources.

To live sustainably human population must be able to use the biological


resources sustainably within the biosphere's regenerative capacity
drawing natural capital without depleting the capital stock.
Example of present unstable use of particularly high economic value:
mahoganies, horn from rhinoceros ivory from elephants, whaling
focuses on short term economic gain rather than long term sustainability.
Sustainable use requires the support of local people and protection and
encouragement of customary use in one way to achieve this.

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INCENTIVEMEASURES
Biodiversity loss is driven by majority economic forces.
Each contracting party shall as far as possible and as appropriate :
Adopt economically and socially sound measures that act as incentives for
conservation and sustainable use of components of biological diversity
Obligation to adopt measures that encourages conservation and sustainable
use.
Interaction between society and the environment are complex, requires
careful analysis to determine full consequences of particular actions.
A casual framework for examining these interactions adopted by European
Environment agency is DPSIR which provides a useful basis for working through
such complexities

SUMMARY
Convention on biological diversity is one of the main goal attempts to set
agenda for maintaining biodiversity and provides a useful framework.
Main objectives: conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use
of its components and the fair ad equitability sharing of the benefits
arising from utilization of genetic resources.
Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity will not emerge
fortuitously in each nation, but will require the establishment of explicit
mechanism. Information need to cross check whether the strategies,
programmes and plans are appropriate.
Conservation need network protected areas for insitu protection and
also exsitu conservation measures.

RESPONSESTOCONVENTION
Convention have produced biodiversity strategies and
action plans.
Implementing the changes requires to conserve
biodiversity effectively and to exploit it in a sustainable
fashion is difficult.
The way forward employed by other treaties and
agreement is to establish and agree targets for each
party to achieve in fulfillment of the convention, and
protocols for reporting progress so that this can be
vigorously assessed.

References
Gaston, K.J. & Spicer, J.I. 2004. Biodiversity
an Introduction. Second edition. Blackwell
Publishing, UK. QH 541.15 B56 G256 2004.
Melchias, G. 2001.
Biodiversity and
conservation. Science Publishers, Inc. UK. QH
541.15 B56 M518

Sustainable use will only be attained by its integration into national


planning, to minimize the adverse impacts of use on biodiversity.

ClassActivity(Thinkpairshare):
What are the major THREATS of human activities on
biodiversity?
What are the CONSERVATION efforts that can be
done to sustain the biodiversity?

STF1053
BIODIVERSITY

LU8:
HOWCAN
BIODIVERSITY
BESUSTAINED?
PartII

18/11/2015

CONSERVATIONOFBIODIVERSITY

PRESERVATION

Protectionofbiodiversityfrom
anykindofhumanactivity
Nostalgia
Humanbenefits valueof
humansociety
Needs

CONSERVATION
Protectionofbiodiversityforsustainableutilization.
Philosophy of managing the
environment in such as way that
it does not despoil, exhaust or
extinguish it or the resources and
values it contains.
Emphasis on management should
be redirected towards the overall
conservation
of
world
biodiversity and ecosystems
rather than to single target
species.

CURRENTPRACTICEINCONSERVATION
Conservation of biodiversity can be attempted at 3
levels: Genes, Species and Ecosystems.

CONSERVATION(cont)
The ecosystem functions in dynamic equilibrium that not only
serve as lifesupport systems for the Earth but also critical to
the continuing survival of human kind.
Conservation applies the principles and results of diverse
disciplines such Ecology, Biogeography, Population Genetics,
Economics, Sociology, Anthropology, Geology, Philosophy and
many others.
Therefore becomes a synthetic field to develop scientific
principles and then apply them to developing technologies
for the maintenance of biological diversity.

CURRENTPRACTICEINCONSERVATION
Level: Ecosystem
Maintenance of ecosystem diversity implies
conservation of species which constitute that
ecosystem, although it is feasible to conserve a species
independent of the ecosystem of which it is a normal
component.

Species
diversity
Genetic
diversity

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CURRENTPRACTICEINCONSERVATION(cont.)

Level:Genes(ConservationofGeneticDiversity)

What is genetic diversity?


Genetic diversity is the combination of
different genes found within a population of
a single species, and the pattern of variation
found within different populations of the
same species

Whygeneticdiversitymatter?(cont..)
If a population has low level of genetic diversity
(genetically homogenous), when a virulent form of
disease arises, all individuals may be susceptible and
die.
But as a result of natural genetic diversity within
population, they may be some individuals that are
resistant and are able to survive and thus perpetuate the
species.
From a human and development perspective, genetic
diversity is a vital to maintain and potential for genetic
improvement to meet changing end use requirements
and dynamically evolving environmental conditions.

Whygeneticdiversitymatter?(cont..)
Population seems to be the most reasonable level at which
genetic conservation can be attempted. The reasons are as
follows:

The population and not species is the ecologically and evolutionarily


significant (i.e. functional) units (ESU)

Genetic changes take place in the population over generations

Local adaptive changes likewise occur in the population

Geographically and genetically isolated populations offer greatest


potential for speciation

Conservation at species level will overlook the dynamics and attributes


of individual populations within it as well as their ecological functions

Conservation at a level of below populations, say at the allelic level, is


impractical

Whygeneticdiversitymatter?
From a biological viewpoint, genetic diversity is needed to
ensure presentday and future adaptability of the species
as well as their continued evolution.
Genetic diversity is key to the long term survival of a
species.
Species must have available pool of genetic diversity if
they are to survive environmental pressures exceeding the
limits of developmental plasticity.

Whygeneticdiversitymatter?(cont..)
Allgeneticconservationstrategiesandactions
shouldbecompatiblewiththreeconservation
goalsandonthreetimescalesofconcern:

Maintenanceofviablepopulationintheshortterm
inordertoavoidextinction SHORTTERMFITNESS

Maintenanceoftheabilityofthepopulationto
continuetoundergoadaptivechanges
ADAPTATION

Maintenanceoftheabilityofthepopulationfor
continuingspeciation SPECIATION

Whygeneticdiversitymatter?(cont..)
How many individuals in a population are needed for
conservation of genetic diversity?
50/500 Rule A genetically effectively population size
(Ne) of at least 50 individuals is necessary for conservation
of genetic diversity in the short term and to avoid
inbreeding depression.
A Ne of 500 is needed to avoid serious genetic drift in long
term.

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Geneticconservationhasitsownlimitations:

Very young science or still in the developmental


stage.

Many genetic techniques useful in assessing


genetic diversity are not cheap are not easily
learned, can be misused and misapplied.

CURRENTPRACTICEINCONSERVATION(cont.)

Level: Species
Conservation of species diversity will take care to
some extent of both ecosystem maintenance and
genetic maintenance.
Loss of species diversity is more obvious and
quantifiable than genetic or ecosystem diversity loss.
Conservation based on species maintenance is called
Species based approaches.

Level: Species
ConservationofSpeciesDiversity
One of the main players in conservation conceptually,
biologically and legally is the SPECIES.
Many powerful legislations on conservation at the world and
national levels are focused on species.

CITES (theConventiononInternationalTradeinEndangeredSpecies
ofWildFaunaandFlora,alsoknownastheWashingtonConvention)
www.cites.org

CITES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of


IUCN (The World Conservation Union). The text of the Convention was finally agreed at a
meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D.C., the United States of
America, on 3 March 1973, and on 1 July 1975 CITES entered in force.
Itsaimistoensurethatinternationaltradeinspecimensofwildanimalsandplantsdoes
notthreatentheirsurvival.

CITES, Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA)


Loss of species diversity is also very obvious and more easily
detectable and quantifiable than either loss of genetic or
habitat diversity.
Even conservation approaches based on habitat or
ecosystems depend on an intimate understanding of the
biology of their constituent species.

The CITES species


Roughly 5,600 species of animals and 30,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against
overexploitation through international trade. They are listed in the three CITES Appendices.
The species are grouped in the Appendices according to how threatened they are by
international trade.
(updated on 2 October 2013)
AppendixI

AppendixII

AppendixIII

Mammals

300spp.(incl.11popns)+23
sspp.(incl.3popns)

501spp.(incl.16popns)+7
sspp.(incl.2popns)

45spp.+10sspp.

Birds

154spp.(incl.2popns)+10
sspp.

1278spp.(incl.1popn)+3
sspp.

25spp.

Reptiles

80spp.(incl.8popns)+5
sspp.

673spp.(incl.6popns)

40spp.

Amphibians

17spp.

126spp.

FAUNA

3spp.

Fish

16spp.

87spp.

Invertebrates

63spp.+5sspp.

2162spp.+1sspp.

22spp.+3sspp.

FAUNATOTAL

630spp.+43sspp.

4827spp.+11sspp.

135spp.+13sspp.

FLORA

301spp.+4sspp.

29592spp.(incl.162popns)

12spp.(incl.2popns)+1
var.

GRANDTOTAL

931spp.+47sspp.

34419spp.+11sspp.

147spp.+13sspp.+1var.

Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITESlisted animals and
plants. They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in
specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial, for
instance for scientific research. In these exceptional cases, trade may take place provided it
is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit (or reexport
certificate).
Appendix II lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that
may become so unless trade is closely controlled. It also includes socalled "lookalike
species", i.e. species whose specimens in trade look like those of species listed for
conservation reasons. International trade in specimens of AppendixII species may be
authorized by the granting of an export permit or reexport certificate. No import permit is
necessary for these species under CITES.
Appendix III is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates
trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent
unsustainable or illegal exploitation. International trade in specimens of species listed in
this Appendix is allowed only on presentation of the appropriate permits or certificates.

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ConservationofSpeciesDiversity(cont.)
ConservationofSpeciesDiversity(cont.)
Management of conservation based on knowledge of
speciesarea relationships, lifehistory requirements of
the species and minimum of individuals.
Threatened species and those of actual or potential
resource value or keystone, dominant and crucial
species required for well being of an ecosystem are
selected on a priority basis for conservation such as
threatened species or exhibiting rarity.
Species selected for conservation should be broadly
assessed for a range of factors leading to rarity such as
ENDEMIC TAXA.

Cladistic Prioritisation
Method designed to assess, and to some extent
quantify, the distinctiveness between taxa
considered for conservation.
Based on phylogenetic relationship between species,
expressed as divergence since their most recent
common ancestor.
Any character ranging from morphological to
molecular.

ConservationofSpeciesDiversity(cont.)

Whatiscladistics?
Secondcategoryofspeciesforconservation
Members of a group share a common evolutionary history, and are
"closely related," more so to members of the same group than to other
organisms. These groups are recognized by sharing unique features which
were not present in distant ancestors.
Three basic assumptions in cladistics:
1. Any group of organisms are related by descent from a common
ancestor [all life on Earth today is related and shares a common
ancestor].
2. There is a bifurcating or branching of patterns [new kinds of
organisms may arise when existing species or populations divide into
exactly two groups or multiple lineages].
3. Change in characteristics occurs in lineages over time [It is only
when characteristics change that we are able to recognize different
lineages or groups].

ConservationofSpeciesDiversity(cont.)
Thirdcategoryofspeciesforconservation

Indicator species Particularly sensitive to pollutants,


human interferences, ecological instability and other
disturbances.

Umbrella species Usually required larger space and


that provide protection for other species within the
ecosystems with scarce resources. Absence in smaller
areas with residual vegetation.

Keystone species Important to maintain the ecological


integrity of the community and are essential to survival
of other species.

Charismatic species Significant for social, cultural or


anthropomorphic standpoints and usually attractive.

Recreational species Popular for collection, growing or


observation.

Directly harvested plants such as forest trees, medicinal taxa,


spices, ornamentals, food and forages.
Plants which are a source of propagating materials for
planting elsewhere.
Plants that are sources of genetic variation useful for breeding
and improvement programmes.

ConservationofSpeciesDiversity(cont.)

Usedinsitu andexsitu methods


Major advantage of the speciesbased approach is
that it allows resource allocation to the most urgent
cases to species which are in danger of immediate
extinction on the basis of priority analysis.
Disadvantages:
Only an extremely small proportion of the worlds
species can be adequately surveyed to set
priorities for conservation.
Priorities are based on individual prejudices.

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Insituconservation
Organismsorpopulationsaremaintainedintheir
ownplace.
Thisstepiscrucialinorderfororganismsto
reproducewithoutdisturbancefromhuman
activities.
Theconditions suitableNationalPark,Forest
Reserveandwildlifesanctuaries.
Wildlifesanctuarieswildspecies
TamanNegara elephantse.g.Taman
NegaraPahang
NationalParks commercialandnon
commercialtresseg.belian,ramin

Birdsanctuaries e.g Kuala


Gula BirdSanctuary

SomeoftheexistingprotectedareasinMalaysia

Exsitu conservation
Semenggoh Wildlife
Center

Populationofparticularorganismsaremovedfrom
theirplaceoforiginandnursedatexperimentalplot
orfencedareas.

SUMMARY
Conservationofbiodiversitycanbeattemptedat3levels:

Exsituconservationisanalternativeand
complimentofinsituapproach.

Botanical
Gardens/Arboretum
propagationofrareand
threatenedindigenous
plants

Zoos
e.g.endangeredspeciesin
zoo,trytobreedthem,and
reintroducetheiroffsprings
inthejungle.(doneincase
ofpandas,orangutansetc.)

Easilydetectable&
quantifiable
CITES
Cladistic
Prioritisation
Secondcategory
species
Thirdcategory
species
Insitu &exsitu
methods

Species
diversity
Genetic
diversity

Shortterm
fitness
Adaptation
Speciation
50/500rule

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ASSIGNMENT
WhatisAichiTargets
Target1 20
StrategygoalA E(5groups)
Presentin2weeksasmindmap 5mineach
group

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