Purpose of Handbook
ɩis handbook is designed to assist law enforcement and senior citizens in implementing a
comprehensive crime prevention program for older persons.
ɩis guide explains what Triad is, why it is needed, how to use it to address current issues aĊecting
older individuals, and how to implement a Triad.
Triad: A Concept in Action
Triad is a commitment shared by chiefs of police, the sheriĊ, senior leaders and aċliated
organizations. Vorking together, they reduce elder victimization and increase law enforcement
services to older persons.
ɩe purpose of a Triad is to develop and implement crime prevention and education programs for
older individuals. Activities address crime from both a pre-victimization (preventive) standpoint as
well as from a post-victimization standpoint (victim/witness assistance).
Triad should also focus on reducing fear of crime by identifying misconceptions, educating seniors
on criminal activity that aĊects them, and creating programs to reduce elder crime with a strong
emphasis on information exchange between law enforcement and older persons.
Triad’s Beginnings
ɩree national organizations agreed that the crime-related needs of older individuals could be best
met by their cooperative eĊort-AARI, International Association of Chiefs of Iolice (IACI) and
the National SheriĊs' Association (NSA). ɩis Triad of organizations signed a cooperative
agreement in 1988. Today, Triad at the community level can involve the hre department, the Council
on Aging, the Agency on Aging, emergency services, social services, RSVI groups and other
organizations that work directly with elder citizens.
The NATI Logo
ɩe National Association of Triads, Inc. logo signihes the
necessity of equal national-level participation and leadership
of three organizations for a successful Triad program.
ɩree triangles symbolize a working relationship among
leaders from law enforcement, seniors and service providers.
Table of Contents
Chapter One—Why Triad is Necessary ............ 2
Chapter Two—Starting a Triad .......................... 4
Agreeing ................................................................................................... 4
Meeting ..................................................................................................... 4
Getting Under Vay ............................................................................... 4
Variables ................................................................................................... 5
Chapter Three—Making Triad Work ................. 6
Representation ........................................................................................ 6
Law Enforcement Members ................................................................ 7
Other Members ...................................................................................... 7
Role of the S.A.L.T. Council ............................................................... 8
Activities of the S.A.L.T. Council ...................................................... 8
Survey of Seniors .................................................................................... 8
Directory .................................................................................................. 9
Additional Irograms ............................................................................. 9
Evaluation ................................................................................................ 9
Information Sharing and Education ................................................. 9
Advocacy and Advisory Group ........................................................... 9
Reassurance, Crime Reporting .........................................................10
Vhat the Council is Not ...................................................................10
S.A.L.T. Council Meetings ................................................................10
Supplies ..................................................................................................11
Iublicity ..................................................................................................11
Success ....................................................................................................11
Ten Tips for S.A.L.T. Councils ........................................................11
Chapter Four—Crime and Seniors ................. 12
ɩe Older Victim .................................................................................13
Vhat are Targeted Crimes. ..............................................................13
Impact .....................................................................................................14
Income ....................................................................................................14
Independence ........................................................................................14
Quality of Life .......................................................................................14
Secondary or Vicarious Victimization ...........................................14
Chapter Five – Structure of Triad .................... 16
Local Triad .............................................................................................16
Regional Triad ......................................................................................16
State Triad .............................................................................................16
Chapter Six—Elements of Triad .......................17
Combating Vulnerability ...................................................................17
Safer Seniors-Beginning Irojects .................................................18
Chapter Seven—Fostering Understanding
Through Triad ............................................... 22
Training for Oċcers ............................................................................22
Vhat Oċcers Know ..........................................................................22
Victimization and its EĊects .............................................................22
Crime Reporting by Older Individuals ...........................................22
Alzheimer's Education ........................................................................23
Training for Citizens ...........................................................................25
Starting a Citizen Iolice Academy ..................................................25
Chapter Eight—Senior Volunteers .................. 26
Recruiting ..............................................................................................26
Vhat Volunteers Can Do .................................................................27
Law Enforcement Agencies ...............................................................27
ɩe Community ...................................................................................27
Victim and Vitness Assistance ........................................................28
Benehts ...................................................................................................28
For Law Enforcement ....................................................................28
For the Community ........................................................................28
For the Volunteer ............................................................................28
Chapter Nine—Evaluating Triad ...................... 29
Ilanning for Evaluation ......................................................................29
Timing ....................................................................................................30
ɩe Measuring Stick ...........................................................................30
Goals and Objectives ...........................................................................30
Keeping Score .......................................................................................30
Methods of Gathering Information ................................................30
Chapter Ten—Avoiding Missteps .................... 33
Involving Triad Iartners .....................................................................33
Budget .....................................................................................................34
Manpower Constraints .......................................................................34
Programs ............................................................. 35
Appendix ............................................................. 51
Resources ........................................................... 77
NATI Alert Pages ................................................ 85
NATI Resource Pages ....................................... 95
Less than 10%
15% or more
Note: Data for the year 2000 are middle-series projections of the
populations. Reference populations: These data refer to the resident
population. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Projections.
Chapter One
enerally speaking, older individuals have higher levels of trust with regard to strangers,
telephone salespersons, contractors, workers, oċcials and others they deal with. ɩey therefore
become an easier target for home invasion, fraudulent home repairs, fraudulent banking
transactions, identity theft and other crimes directed toward seniors.
But it is not only crime of a hnancial nature that poses a threat to older persons. ɩough recorded
in fewer instances, seniors are also victimized by more violent elder crimes, such as mugging, sexual
violence, domestic abuse, neglect, intimidation and mental abuse. ɩe memory-impaired senior is
more vulnerable to these crimes.
ɩe victim may not recover from the physical and mental repercussions of the crime, aĊecting
independence and self-conhdence. And the possibility of criminal activity occurring or reoccurring
can be debilitating, taxing limited law enforcement and social resources.
ɩe 2000 Census states that about 35 million people were over 65, a 12 percent increase from 1990.
In addition, 4.2 million were over the age of 85-a 35 percent increase from 1990. By the year 2030,
there will be about 70.3 million Americans over the age of 65, with a signihcant rise in the number of
non-whites. Americans are getting older, more diverse, and they are living longer.
Percentage of the population age 65 and older, by state, 2000
Surveyed seniors consistently state that most worry about crime and fear victimization. Unique
vulnerabilities are inherent to some in this population. Fortunately, large numbers of active and capable
older adults are willing to invest time and energy in Triad.
Who are Seniors?
ɩe majority 65 or older surveyed describe themselves as healthy and enjoying life-continuing to
work and be active in paid or volunteer capacities. Vhen an older person becomes a crime victim,
that level of interaction can change drastically. ɩe results will have lasting consequences for those
whose resources-physical, emotional and hnancial-are limited.
Elders do not recover with the same agility as those from other demographic groups, potentially
leading to irreversible health issues, fear and loss of assets.
Projected distribution of the population age 65 and older, by race and Hispanic
origin, 2000 and 2050
2000 2050
Asian and
Pacific Islander
16% Non-Hispanic
Indians and
Alaska Native
Asian and
Pacific Islander
Indians and
Alaska Native
Note: Data for the year 2000 are middle-series projections of the populations. Reference populations:
These data refer to the resident population. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Projections.
Chapter Two
ɩe hrst step in forming a Triad involves law enforcement leaders. In most cases, this is the sheriĊ
and chiefs of police providing an opportunity to work together for safer seniors in their community.
A Triad begins with one law enforcement leader bringing together other law enforcement, seniors
and those who serve them to form a team. As an example, a chief of police may contact other chiefs,
the sheriĊ and someone to represent older residents and their services. ɩis person may be an RSVI
leader or another senior with experience, knowledge of the community and the ability to motivate
others-someone who normally works with older individuals.
Schedule the hrst meeting as a second step. Agree to work together to assess senior needs and
enhance crime-related services. At the hrst meeting a Triad Cooperative Agreement should be signed
(see Appendix A). Obtain media coverage of law enforcement focusing on crime-related elder needs.
Triad focuses on prevention, criminal victimization and safety-emphasizing that all agencies work
jointly and cooperatively.
- ɩe growth of the elder population:
- Iow law enforcement services are aĊected by population changes:
- Educating older individuals who may not know how/where to obtain services:
- Iow the practice of referring seniors to needed services
benehts law enforcement:
- Educating law enforcement with pertinent information
about the elder population:
- Teaching law enforcement elder communication skills:
- Discuss Triad benehts to law enforcement, other service
providers, older residents and the community:
- ɩe benehts of having a council composed of law
enforcement leaders
and seniors.
Getting Under Way
Establish a S.A.L.T. Council (a senior advisory council) as the next step.
Consider members for this council and set a date for the hrst council meeting.
ɩis process is discussed in detail in Chapter ɩree: Making Triad Vork.
Many law enforcement agencies have a departmental policy on the Triad
approach to crime and senior individuals. A model policy can be found in
Appendix B.
ɩe involvement of the police department(s), sheriĊ's oċce, older leaders and
those who work with seniors is essential to create a successful Triad.
Although there is no format for replicating Triad activity and success,
established Triads report some commonalities:
- ɩe sheriĊ and at least one chief attend most council meetings:
- Oċcers and deputies provide guidance and support rather than chair council meetings:
- Vithin the hrst few months, a survey of older residents is hrst reviewed by the council and
then conducted with the assistance of members:
- Monthly council meetings-groups meeting only quarterly tend to move slowly and rely
perhaps too heavily on the support and involvement of law enforcement professionals:
- Triad-sponsored crime prevention seminars for older persons:
- Recruitment of senior volunteers to work with law enforcement agencies:
- An eĊort to identify and publicize programs that assist older persons, and
- Outreach to vulnerable seniors living alone.
ɩe commitment of agency representatives and volunteers will dictate the variety of programs
and services of Triad that can be oĊered. ɩe Triad will progress through the eĊorts of a group
of individuals who know the community and understand elder concerns.
Chapter Three
mportant to Triad's success is the advisory council-consisting of older community members,
people who work with older individuals, and law enforcement. ɩe council focuses on seniors'
crime-related needs.
Open dialogue allows chiefs of police and sheriĊs to hear hrsthand from older residents about
crime-and their fear of crime, as perception and reality do not always coincide. Both groups focus
on unmet needs and concerns, as well as alleviate fears.
ɩe council assumes an active role, adopting available programs, recommending appropriate
initiatives or beginning new programs.
Triad may accomplish its goals through one council or several, depending upon the size of the
county, the population and the needs of the area's citizens.
ɩis action group is known as S.A.L.T., which is an acronym for 'Seniors And Law (Enforcement)
Together.' ɩe council has a vital role, and careful consideration of members is paramount. Diverse
representation renecting the community is important. Ideally, selection is based on leadership and
familiarity with senior issues-and the amount of time and energy members have to give.
Community leaders and senior-related agencies can suggest council members who will work to
accomplish Triad goals. Volunteers hll many roles in Triad-only a limited number may be actual
S.A.L.T. members.
Law Enforcement Members
Law enforcement leaders must participate in the council
and hear senior concerns hrsthand. Also include district
attorneys and state police. Other representatives will
include staĊ members working with planning, crime
prevention, victim assistance or seniors.
In counties with a large number of incorporated areas
and police departments, each department might rely
on a smaller S.A.L.T. group. Representatives may then
attend regional or national meetings. Vith a large
number of councils, allow each to send one or two
representatives to the regional council.
Other Members
Older persons and professionals who work with older individuals should compose
half of the council. ɩese individuals must know the community and its resources.
Vith each potential member, renect on contributions of ideas, action, attitude and
geographical area being represented.
- ɩFDMFSHZA representative of the ministerial association, a retired priest,
minister, rabbi or imam:
- ɩFCVTJOFTTDPNNVOJUZA representative of business or industry, the Chamber of
Commerce or Better Business Bureau:
- )FBMUIDBSFQSPGFTTJPOBMTSomeone from the mental health held, hospital,
auxiliary, geriatric physician or retired doctor:
- 4FSWJDFPSNFNCFSTIJQPSHBOJ[BUJPOTLocal councils on aging, area agencies on aging, AARI,
Retired Teachers representative, Jaycees, Kiwanis, Exchange Club, Masons or Federation of
Vomen's Clubs:
- -PDBMBHFODJFTXPSLJOHEJSFDUMZXJUITFOJPSTɩe public housing authority, Council of
Governments, city/county council, mayor's oċce or Retired Senior Volunteer Irogram (RSVI):
- "HJOH1SPGFTTJPOBMTA representative from the aging network, including social services, adult
protective services, organizations promoting nutrition (such as Meals on Vheels), agency or
council on aging, senior centers or others:
- .FEJBA representative from newspapers, radio or television stations.
S.A.L.T. Council members with knowledge of the police and sheriĊs' oċces tend to be more
eĊective. Acquaint volunteers with law enforcement and activities of individual departments. Social-
service providers and others with knowledge of community facilities may conduct training for Triad
members-both law enforcement and civilian. An orientation format is included in Chapter Six:
Fostering Understanding through Triad.
Start as a small group of no more than 10 members. Additional members can be added as needs
arise. A letter of invitation explaining the role of the S.A.L.T. Council may clarify volunteer rules and
limitations. A sample letter is included as Appendix C.
Role of the S.A.L.T. Council
ɩe S.A.L.T. Council is an action group for Triad, focusing on senior crime and safety. ɩe council
should review programs and recommend those with community beneht. ɩe group should also work
to recruit volunteers.
Meetings should oĊer an opportunity for frank discussion, and the council should function as a
working group and source of ideas. Samples of S.A.L.T. groups' purpose, role, model policies and
bylaws are listed as Appendices D and E.
Activities of the S.A.L.T. Council
Each Triad pursues issues appropriate for its senior community. In some areas, crime is intense
and could be the sole focus. In others, reassurance or agency volunteering may take priority. ɩe
following covers the primary steps for building eĊective S.A.L.T. groups:
Survey of Seniors
Do not assume that you know which criminal activities and fears are aĊecting older adults-ask
them. Ierception and reality might not correlate.
A survey of older persons is the hrst order of business for Triad. Sample surveys are included in
Appendix F-adapt them as necessary to meet local needs. Surveys should be easy to read, short,
For additional information about conducting surveys, see: Conducting Community Surveys,
by Deborah Weisel (Bureau of Justice Statistics and Office of Community Oriented Policing
Services, 1999). This guide along with accompanying computer software, provides practical,
basic pointers for law enforcement in conducting community surveys. The document is also
available at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs.
Additionally, see: A Police Guide to Surveying Citizens and Their Environments, Bureau of
Justice Assistance, 1993. This guide offers a practical introduction for law enforcement to two
types of surveys that officers find useful: surveying public opinion and surveying the physical
environment. It provides guidance on whether and how to conduct cost-effective surveys.
simple to complete, easily distributed and easily collected.
A survey subcommittee can draw from the generic survey form. ɩe council can review the hnal
draft. ɩe survey committee can also recommend methods for administering the questionnaire,
assist in distribution and tabulate hndings.
Strive for wide questionnaire distribution:
- Include in newspapers, senior papers or bulletins of organizations:
- Distribute at libraries and senior centers:
- Iand out during meetings of religious/civic groups:
- Ask Meals on Vheels and others to distribute/collect surveys: and
- Request that utility companies include with monthly statements.
Inventorying existing community senior services eliminates program duplication. A subcommittee
may recommend expanding existing programs or creating new ones. A subcommittee can also help
locate volunteers.
Utilize subcommittees as the Triad work force. It is eċcient to assign tasks to these smaller groups.
Subcommittee recommendations provide the foundation for the council's actions.
Additional Programs
In many areas, law enforcement agencies lack staĊ for senior-targeted prevention. ɩe council
and volunteers work with professionals and agencies to provide assistance not previously available.
Volunteers become valuable assets to law enforcement agencies with personnel constraints. Be sure
to assess need CFGPSF the council creates new programs or expands an established one.
ɩe work of a Triad evolves as needs change and its focus is adjusted as necessary. Create an evaluation
tool for each program to measure eĊectiveness. Vith grant funding, a measurable improvement often
means further funding.
Information Sharing and Education
ɩe council provides for information exchange between and among seniors, agencies and law
enforcement. To understand the limitations of law enforcement, the S.A.L.T. group should have
knowledge of law enforcement responsibilities. (See $IBQUFS4JY'PTUFSJOH6OEFSTUBOEJOHɩSPVHI
Advocacy and Advisory Group
Volunteers can disseminate to other seniors information about law enforcement's capabilities and the
constraints placed on criminal justice personnel.
Vhile the council has no authority and is not intended as a citizen review board, the perspectives of its
members can provide oċcers with insight. ɩe group can act as a focus group for law enforcement on
senior issues.
Reassurance, Crime Reporting
Older volunteers who are part of a reassurance program report that they derive 'immense
satisfaction' from their work with victimized seniors.
Volunteers can answer a 'senior line' in law enforcement agencies. Seniors can encourage callers to
report suspicious activities or crimes. ɩey gather details with call-back-victim programs. ɩe older
volunteer is also helpful when it comes to dealing with chronic callers and callers with unrealistic
expectations of law enforcement, freeing up law enforcement to tend to other duties.
What the Council is Not
ɩe council has limitations as well. ɩis group is not a law enforcement review board. It is not a
policy-making body. ɩe S.A.L.T. Council is not involved in agency operations and has no authority
over agency personnel. Members normally have no supervisory or sworn authority.
S.A.L.T. Council Meetings
S.A.L.T. Councils, if not properly organized, will become obsolete. Listed below are proven methods
for a healthy, organized, successful and long-lasting councils.
Initially meet more than once a month to establish objectives, devise a plan of action and get Triad
activities under way. Afterward, schedule your meetings for the same time each month. Consider
daylight hours for meeting times, as some volunteers may prefer not to drive or be out after dark.
Establish a meeting place as the Triad is formed. Often, agencies will have a convenient meeting
space. To learn about other agency operations, alternate meetings between police and sheriĊ's oċces.
Others meet at police departments and hre departments, when space is available.
ɩe most convenient location may be a community/senior/religious center or library. S.A.L.T. groups
may schedule meetings in diĊerent parts of the community, making it easier for seniors in diĊerent
areas to attend.
Leadership by a capable older volunteer is desirable. Law enforcement leaders, acting as a resource,
will balance council ownership. Law enforcement and senior-service providers can contribute and
provide guidance.
Most meetings are divided into information and planning segments. Typical agenda items include:
- $SJNFVQEBUF on crimes aĊecting seniors as well as seasonal crime awareness-crime statistics can
be reported, but seniors should be allowed to discuss concerns and remedies to crime during this
part of the meeting:
- 3FQPSUTGSPNDPNNJUUFFTon new and ongoing activities:
- *OGPSNBUJWFQSPHSBNT such as crime prevention presentations:
- 4IPSUUFSNQMBOT for S.A.L.T. activities: and
- -POHUFSNHPBMT to reduce elder crimes and their fear of crime.
A sample agenda for a S.A.L.T. meeting is included as Appendix G. Meetings can be more formal or
less formal as the group wishes, but they must have meeting structure and provide thorough agenda
coverage. Encourage senior input by holding meetings at senior gathering places.
OĊer nametags, agendas and Triad information packets, especially to newcomers, visitors and
speakers. OĊering refreshments is a certain way to increase attendance.
Invite members of the press from local publications, radio, TV and newspapers to join the S.A.L.T.
Seek publicity for Triad to build awareness among new volunteers, companies and organizations.
Articles and programs on crime prevention help to keep senior issues before the public.
ɩe S.A.L.T. Council succeeds by implementing and maintaining one program at a time from the
prioritized survey list and seeing results. Once one issue is addressed, it will be time to address the
next issue.
Ten Tips for S.A.L.T. Councils
1. Start with a small council. Expand the group as needs arise.
2. Create subcommittees to handle planning and activities.
3. Select a capable senior to chair meetings.
4. Iold a brief session before each meeting for the chairperson and law enforcement
to determine the meeting goals.
5. Ilan the meeting agenda around crime prevention.
6. Evaluate all subcommittee eĊorts, either formally or informally.
7. Include all members. Allow them to participate and provide input.
8. Ilan meetings during daylight hours if possible.
9. Establish a regular meeting day and time. End meetings on time with clear
subcommittee follow-up assignments.
10. Invite members of the media often.
Finally, utilize your Triad to improve the safety of the seniors in your community. By focusing your
Triad on this ultimate goal, you will enrich the lives of the seniors you serve as well as those of the
individuals who serve them.
Chapter Four
ɩe primary purpose of Triad is to prevent crimes against older persons with focus on
pre-victimization and post-victimization (victim assistance).
Triad's victim-assistance program helps the senior through incidences of violent crime. At the time
of this writing, the federal Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) provides funding in every state for both
compensation and victim assistance. Utilize it to fund Triad victim activities from emergency room
to courtroom-with the goal of helping the senior move past the event. Use senior crime victims as
both volunteers and advocates, allowing them to assist the senior victim and empower themselves.
Triad may help prevent or discourage the targeting of seniors for hnancial victimization-and
thereby prevent loss of earnings or lifetime savings. Triad can also help in repairing damage done
to a senior who has been targeted for hnancial crimes.
Triad can help seniors contend with other types of crime and victimization as well. For example,
a Triad 'buddy' assigned to a senior can be trained to notice and report abuse, resulting in
investigations of elder abuse or neglect.
Senior volunteers can take part in a senior call program-a program in which senior volunteers call
to check on the welfare of seniors who have requested the service. ɩe volunteers can then alert law
enforcement to instances when seniors fail to respond.
ɩe primary avenues for helping seniors with
crime issues are the joint programs carried out by
law enforcement and Triad. Seniors present ideas,
take part in initiatives and assist law enforcement
in dealing with crime against seniors.
The Older Victim
Vhen addressing criminal victimization of
older persons, the following questions must be
considered: Iow many area older people are
crime victims: Iow many are victims of violent
as opposed to nonviolent crimes: And, why is
fear of crime such an issue:
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice, older persons
actually are not highly victimized. Violent crime most frequently involves young males aged 18 to 25.
Seven percent of serious violent crimes aĊect those over age 50. Of murder victims, 12 percent were
over 50. Seniors do not always respond to what statistics say, however. Understanding senior victims
begins with acknowledging their concerns for safety and criminal activity despite what statistics
might show. Seniors are less likely to report crimes against them for a variety of reasons.
According to the publication, FIRST RESIONSE TO VICTIMS OF CRIME 2001 (U.S.
Department of Justice, Oċce of Justice Irograms, Oċce for Victims of Crime), elder victims face
other worries. ɩey may doubt their ability to meet law enforcement expectations when reporting
the incident and worry that oċcers or family members will perceive them as incompetent. ɩey may
also fear oĊender retaliation for reporting the crime. Finally, older individuals may feel guilty for
'allowing' the victimization to occur.
What are Targeted Crimes?
Frauds and scams, purse snatching, pickpocketing, theft of checks from the mail and crimes in long-
term care settings more often happen to older victims, according to AARI studies. Elder abuse is
another crime that specihcally targets seniors.
Older individuals fear the possibility of crime, even if they have not been victims. Often, seniors
take necessary precautions and continue with their lives. But others acutely alter their lifestyle
or withdraw, which can have a debilitating eĊect on the senior. Iere are some specihc ways that
targeted crimes can aĊect elders:
Elder victimization has far-reaching consequences. ɩose who are injured tend to recuperate
more slowly. Ihysical and emotional trauma can lead to incapacitation of the elderly victim.
According to the U.S. Department of Justice, robbery accounted for a quarter of the violent crimes
against persons age 65 or older. Financial loss, whether the result of street robbery, home burglary,
telephone fraud, real estate scam, identity theft, or other crime, can do irreparable damage to a
limited budget as well as to emotional well-being.
Victimization may destabilize an older person's sense of security. It can compromise the will to cope
with future problems. ɩe crime may be the catalyst that brings about an end to emotional and
hnancial independence.
Quality of Life
Recovering from victimization, worrying about the likelihood of another incident or regretting the
consequences of a poor decision, older victims may become reclusive. Embarrassed, distressed and
suĊering from poor self-conhdence, the individual might choose to lock out the outside world, which
can have a detrimental impact on quality of life. ɩis can happen in varying degrees, as well.
Secondary or Vicarious Victimization
Senior victimization often frightens the victims' peers. ɩey abandon patterns of visiting friends,
going to worship, shopping and other social interaction. According to the American Nurses
Association, this 'secondary victimization' can lead to a condition of hyper-vigilance, suspicion and
paranoia. ɩis becomes more acute with violent crimes.
Compounding the problem is the fact that for the isolated or incapacitated senior, perception of the
outside world is based on, and often skewed by, media reports. As a result, media reports of crime
may make seniors feel especially vulnerable.
ɩe U.S. Department of Justice states that among victims of non-lethal violence, persons 65 or older
were about six times more likely than younger persons to never go out at night. Until this fear is
alleviated, secondary victims will disproportionately aĊect law enforcement workload.
ɩrough education and training by law enforcement professionals, community leaders, senior-issues
professionals and volunteers, Triad can help prevent senior-targeted crime, alleviate this unwarranted
and debilitating fear of crime, and assist victims. For example, Triad crime prevention programs
address personal safety, demeanor, how to avoid high-risk situations and taking sensible precautions
to reduce the chances of victimization, taking into account the nature of actual criminal activity in
the area.
ɩe workbook section of this handbook will address programs to implement in your community.
Listed below are a few easily implemented Triad programs that can be used with other community
programs that it addresses.
$VMUVSBM"XBSFOFTTBOE6OEFSTUBOEJOHɩere may be less cultural integration into a community
when older individuals are concerned. Cultural values may inhibit interaction between law
enforcement or volunteers and an elder resident, victim or witness.
Elder members of a group may have cultural or historical innuences aĊecting how they perceive and
interact with other races, backgrounds and gender in law enforcement.
Understanding diĊerences that drive behavior can lead to successful interchange and reduction
of obstacles. Use Triad to address cultural diĊerences and the ways that cultural values, beliefs
and traditions aĊect individual perception. Remember, 'ageism'-or the stereotyping of older
individuals-is a barrier as well.
Understand your local cultural norms to begin the process of removing barriers. A panel of
community members within each sub-culture in your community can answer questions that law
enforcement and volunteers might have. Contact social-service agencies, cultural-specihc community
centers, if applicable, religious centers, or leaders within each sub-culture for insight on minimizing
cultural diĊerences and misconceptions.
Chapter Five
Local Triad
Iistorically, the hrst local Triad was established by the sheriĊ of St. Martin Iarish, Louisiana,
working with four police chiefs in the county. ɩe group was organized to address senior needs.
Eventually, Louisiana chiefs of police, sheriĊs and AARI leaders signed the hrst statewide Triad
Triad consists of the sheriĊ, police chief(s), and community leaders who may have a leadership role
with an AARI chapter, RSVI, Retired Teachers Association, local Council on Aging, area Agency
on Aging or similar organization. Triad is the BHSFFNFOU among these groups to work together to
reduce crime against seniors. ɩey may serve on the S.A.L.T. Council or, if they do not, they may
oĊer representatives to serve. ɩis council assesses senior needs through surveys and information
gathering. ɩe survey focuses on crime, perception of crime and the needs of older individuals-the
primary concerns of Triad. Vith survey results in hand, a subcommittee is created to address each
issue that is identihed. Volunteers change as needs change.
Regional Triad
Vhere a regional planning group exists, Triad activities are conducted for a larger area: information
and programs are shared among towns and counties. Iarticipants plan crime prevention programs
for local train-the-trainer events.
Regional or multi-county Triads present successful programs and resources to beneht other counties.
Each area should be represented at the regional S.A.L.T. group.
For best results, work with local resources to secure space and training materials for the regional
meeting. Choose meeting times not connicting with local S.A.L.T. Council meetings. Maintain focus
on senior safety.
State Triad
A state-level Triad may concentrate on training and providing advice and technical support. ɩe state
training academy may be involved, making training available to oċcers as well as to volunteers on
such topics as the process of aging, expansion of senior services and community organization.
Document and publicize statewide resources. Legislative issues can be addressed at this level. Use
a statewide team of law enforcement, RSVI and social services to identify senior issues. Identify
model Triad programs to replicate and create advanced programs for nascent local Triads to follow.
Once the local/regional Triads mature, create a state-level Triad for training conferences.
Disseminate pertinent state and federal legislation and provide advanced training. Address aging
issues from a state and national perspective as well as national crime trends and remedies. It is critical
to the state-level Triad's success to have the right delegates from the local Triads represented at the
state level-selection of delegates therefore must be carefully considered.
Chapter Si x
riad begins by focusing on the crime and specihc concerns seniors indicate on the initial
survey. Start with one or two programs. Expand Triad as programs succeed.
ɩe S.A.L.T. Council prioritizes activities so as to balance abilities with issues-bear in mind that
expectations must be based on the new Triad program's capabilities. For best results, start with the
most pressing activity, address it to the best of the programs' ability and then expand to the next
Combating Vulnerability
Use law enforcement leadership and S.A.L.T. Council members to develop programs helping seniors
assess and reduce their risk of victimization.
Vhen expanding existing crime prevention programs, or adding new ones, consider the following:
Crime statistics for elder victimization-area by area in your community-can be valuable. Know
and be able to tell seniors what, when and where crimes are occurring. Use these statistics to dispel
unwarranted or exaggerated fears. Surveys can indicate whether statistics and actual criminal activity
are consistent. Sample surveys are located in Appendix F.
Ilan a crime prevention education campaign to reach seniors-information should be concise, clear
and provided frequently. Vhere other agencies sponsor crime prevention programs for elder citizens,
expand on those eĊorts. ɩese agencies provide an opportunity for information gathering, alliance
building and possibly recruitment of volunteers for the new Triad.
Safer Seniors—Beginning Projects
Address older individuals with a crime prevention message unique to seniors, communicated in a
variety of ways and repeated often. To bring about a change in behavior and have a positive impact
on the safety of older persons, it is essential to make this communication a repeated eĊort. It is
important to inform seniors about crimes and scams that should concern them, tools to combat
them, and perceptions of crimes that are disproportionate to reality.
Consider the following tools or programs to reinforce your Triad message:
Print media: newspapers: community bulletins: council on aging newsletters: neighborhood
association/housing authority newsletters: papers for seniors, retired veterans and educators: and
employee bulletins-often, these venues are provided as a free community service. For those that are
not, consider a sponsoring partner to cover costs. Senior-service providers are an excellent resource
for Triad partnerships.
S.A.L.T. Speakers' Bureau: members of the S.A.L.T. Council, law enforcement, and other seniors
can be trained to deliver crime prevention messages tailored for the community. AARI chapter
meetings, religious groups, community groups, senior meal sites and other gatherings provide ideal
forums for your topic.
Crime prevention events: Integrate senior safety seminars into current senior events, if your
community has these. Focus on crime against seniors and victim-prevention techniques. Or, initiate a
community event with sponsors, seminars, and safety personnel.
Iair crime prevention messages with other outings or social events for older adults. Senior centers
serving meals may provide a ready audience at lunchtime. OĊering refreshments along with a brief
program garners a receptive audience.
Triad calendar: Irint a calendar for seniors with safety and crime prevention tips for each month.
Sponsors (often printing companies themselves) normally absorb the cost of printing. Iraise them
Public Service Announcements: Radio and television are often eager to broadcast community-
service messages about crime prevention. Ask the local community college to produce ISAs
explaining Triad and its crime prevention emphasis. Utilize community resources to beneht both
Triad and the resource.
Neigbborbood Watcb groups: Seniors involved in community crime prevention communicate
with their peers. Many crime prevention groups are led and sustained by retired persons. Expand
Neighborhood Vatch to focus attention on elder neighbor needs. Train older persons to assist law
enforcement by observing and reporting suspicious activities. Many older persons may be willing to
take on leadership roles in the program. Expand the Neighborhood Vatch/Triad partnership into a
comprehensive community/senior watch program.
Senior centers and retirement communities: Most places where seniors reside or gather will be
willing to add your programs to their agenda. Focus the program on law enforcement, crime and
prevention of crime, or on all three. Open a forum to reach seniors, allay fears and answer questions.
Public bousing projects: City government, social services, law enforcement and housing
administration oċcials share concern for criminal issues in public housing, particularly regarding
older persons living in unsatisfactory or unsafe arrangements in such a setting. In high-risk areas,
deliver a crime prevention message with concrete strategies for older persons' safety. Build a coalition
involving law enforcement, senior services, groups such as RSVI and volunteers to protect seniors in
high-risk areas.
Inner-City Elders: For older persons living in high-risk areas, use lectures as discussed earlier in this
manual, but focus primarily on safety and prevention. Obtain relevant statistics and survey results,
caution seniors about current crime, and oĊer training on maintaining a safe living space. Emphasize
perpetual locking of doors and on how criminals gain entry into senior homes. Some programs oĊer
equipment, such as whistles, or collect unused cell phones to assist with keeping seniors safe-a
charged cell phone, even without a purchased service agreement, can reach 911.
Senior Escort Partnersbips: Carefully select youth or youth programs to accompany older
individuals, when needed. Collaborating with other social services can help you hnd Triad
volunteers. Bring community attention to specihc older individual needs, such as escorts to and from
religious services, grocery shopping and community events, where crime against elders is prevalent.
Recruit oċcers to live in senior housing or to be assigned with crime prevention projects-chieny to
serve as a deterrent to crime.
Safe Walks: Mr. Mark Fenton, editor of the Boston-based 8BMLJOH.BHB[JOF, states that the
psychological benehts of regular physical activity for older adults are great.
'Ve see again and again that regular exercise gives an improved sense of self-worth and an improved
sense of purpose,' he said. 'It's also clear that regular activity may reduce the likelihood of clinical
depression-a problem among older individuals who may begin to feel they are a burden to their
family. Vith regular exercise, they can continue to be contributing members of society and if they
want, they can get involved in volunteer work or part-time work.'
Iealth benehts from regular physical activity such as walking include:
- reduced risk of dying prematurely
- decreased risk of dying from heart disease
- decreased risk of developing colon cancer
- reduced risk of developing high blood pressure
- help in reducing blood pressure
In some neighborhoods, however, venturing out can be potentially dangerous. Remove seniors from
these neighborhoods by locating a neutral, public place where they can go. Irovide transportation
and supervise walking events to alleviate the dangers of unsafe neighborhood exercise. Distribute
notices through newspapers, senior centers, food-distribution programs, religious centers and local
publications to ensure participation.
- decreased risk of developing diabetes
- lower risk of developing hypertension
- increased muscle strength/nexibility/balance,
reducing the risk of falls
- help in controlling weight.
In addition to serving as a senior exercise option, walks provide an
opportunity to educate seniors on crime prevention. Make this a
weekly event arranged in a community space, such as the zoo, mall
or park. Local hospitals or other health organizations may agree
to be sponsors, providing juice or fruit. Although this event can
be construed as a social gathering, maintain focus on the crime
prevention message.
4FOJPS4BGF4IPQQJOHCo-sponsored by Triad and local grocery
store chains, the program provides safe senior transportation to
buy groceries on designated days. OĊ-duty oċcers or volunteers
escort seniors into the store, where clerks assist them, allowing for
additional time to shop and check out. Some grocery stores provide
additional services to accommodate the group, such as using
smaller packages of produce and providing shopping assistants,
chairs or refreshments. Tie this event into the crime prevention
message prior to the store visit.
3FGSJHFSBUPS$BSETOriginating in Monmouth County, N.J., this easily replicable product is now
widely used throughout the United States and other countries. A brightly colored card is designed
to display senior health information. ɩe cards are printed and distributed by Triads. ɩey list
names and numbers of emergency contacts, doctors, health-care plans, known allergies and current
medications. See Appendix I for a Refrigerator Card example. Due to the risk of identity theft, do
not post personal data, such as a social security number.
'JMFPG-JGFAn idea originally developed in Bridgeport, Connecticut, this program utilizes a clearly
marked envelope, also to be placed on the door of the refrigerator, mounted magnetically. Along with
medical information, the envelope can contain a copy of important health-related papers, a living will
or other documentation a physician may need.
0MEFS1FSTPOT3FGFSSBM$BSEOriginally developed in Volusia County, Florida, these cards are
carried by law enforcement so that they can make appropriate referrals to special services for seniors
that may be in need.
Law enforcement can use the card, included in Appendix I, to obtain services for seniors who may be
suĊering from conditions such as dementia or malnutrition, for example. Use volunteers to follow up
with agency/service recommendations. ɩe volunteer checks to make sure that the senior is making
use of the service and reports results.
"EPQUB4FOJPSBegun in St. Martin Iarish, Louisiana, law enforcement oċcers 'adopt' a
vulnerable senior, with consideration to individual special needs. ɩe program provides an outside
contact for seniors who are isolated. ɩe law enforcement oċcer visits and telephones assigned
seniors once a week. ɩis program allows isolated seniors to maintain independence. Suggested
guidelines are in Appendix J.
4FOJPS#VEEZ4ZTUFNAccording to the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study, more than
500,000 Americans aged 60 and over were victims of domestic abuse in 1996. ɩis study also found
that only 16 percent of the abuse situations are referred for help: 84 percent remain hidden.
Triad focuses on preventing elder abuse by discussing the necessity of planning for one's later
years and developing reliable support networks. Establish a network system to help prevent or
stop abuse: be it hnancial, physical, psychological, neglect or self-neglect. Train volunteer buddies
to recognize changes in health, well-being, mental attitude or hnances. Seniors tend to be more
comfortable conhding in a peer that information which they feel they cannot share with law
enforcement or strangers.
%JTBTUFS1SFQBSFEOFTTVhen disaster threatens,
older persons are among the most vulnerable.
Establish an emergency preparedness subcommittee
that would chart locations of seniors in disaster-
prone areas and care for them. Create a plan
CFGPSF disaster strikes-for example, planning for
the evacuation of those with special needs. ɩis
builds relationships between Triad and emergency
personnel. ɩis program can also assist with trained
volunteers to assist law enforcement with non-
critical duties in a disaster situation. Team up with
your local Neighborhood Vatch program to further
implement the program.
5FMFQIPOF3FBTTVSBODFSeniors state that
their safety and sense of security increase with a
daily telephone call. Telephone contact programs
become Triad activities when law enforcement
agencies sponsor the program through the S.A.L.T.
Council. Locate seniors through senior groups,
media articles, the Oċce on Aging and referrals
from friends, neighbors, relatives and Older Ierson
Referral Cards.
Live calls are strongly recommended. Senior
volunteers make or receive calls at the law
enforcement agency or other suitable locations.
Dependent on resources, either have the volunteer place the call, or have the volunteer be available to
take the call from the senior daily. A telephone reassurance program model is located in Appendix K.
ɩe S.A.L.T. Council establishes a subcommittee for reassurance programs, such as Adopt-A-
Senior, telephone reassurance, and the recruiting and assigning of buddies. For program volunteer
help, turn to your local senior organizations.
Chapter Seven
aw enforcement and seniors may only connect when problems arise-which often fosters
impatience, misunderstanding and miscommunication. Triad can help address this problem by
providing a forum for both law enforcement and seniors to discuss common misperceptions.
Training for Officers
Oċcers often know little about the process of aging. ɩerefore, they can be more eĊective in their jobs
when considering:
- Vision, hearing and depth perception are sometimes limited in seniors. ɩis will aĊect how the
senior responds to the oċcer.
- Fear of crime is often paramount. Some oċcers may not appreciate the impact that the fear of
crime has on older persons-or the reasons behind certain senior actions.
- Seniors are often susceptible to specihc kinds of 'targeted' crime and fraud.
To train law enforcement, obtain educational materials from senior services, AARI, the local Council
on Aging, the area Agency on Aging or a community relations/training/senior resource oċcer. Invite a
doctor, nurse or social worker skilled in elder care to conduct a training session for the law enforcement
and volunteers. OĊer training at a local or state training academy, university, in-service training or a roll-
call training. Obtain CEU or continuing education credit for your program in advance, to assure success.
What Officers Know
ɩe quiz in Appendix L may reveal oċcer misconceptions.
- ɩe process of aging
- Communicating with older persons
- Impairments-observe vision/hearing limitations and then make adjustments in
communication as needed
- Medication-the eĊects of medication, mixing medications, or results of failure to
take the appropriate dosage
- Detecting elder abuse
- Facts/eĊects of criminal victimization.
Victimization and its Effects
ɩe older victim often does not report crime and has diċculty recovering from the experience.
Oċcers who are cognizant of this when responding to elder calls will be more eĊective in gathering
evidence, handling crime reports and oĊering reassurance to the senior.
Crime Reporting by Older Individuals
Reporting tendencies among this population can be divided into three categories: non-reporters,
chronic callers and those seeking immediate action. Non-reporters fear that oċcers will not/cannot
do anything or are too busy. ɩey also may fear retribution, or they may convince themselves that the
crimes are comparatively insignihcant.
Be cognizant of these barriers to reporting when
responding to senior crimes. Are they embarrassed by
the prospect of neighbors observing a uniformed oċcer
at their door: Might they fear law enforcement: Could
they be hesitant about becoming involved with the
judicial process: Do they lack awareness of anonymous
reporting programs, such as Crime Stoppers: Answering
these questions can remove roadblocks to the capture
and prosecution of criminals, ensure that senior crime
statistics fully renect the reality of actual cases and
inhibit reoccurrence.
Chronic callers may contact agencies repeatedly to report
minor activities that often do not constitute law breaking.
By reinforcing the fact that oċcers can only enforce the
law, Triad can help raise awareness and perhaps a new
appreciation of law enforcement's limitations.
Individuals who seek immediate action are often lonely,
fearful or are losing a realistic perspective. Some could
be victims of Alzheimer's disease. Raising awareness of
these possible reasons may alleviate miscommunication
when oċcers respond to these callers.
Alzheimer’s Education
Alzheimer's disease aČicts an estimated four million
middle-aged and older adults in the United States.
According to the National Institute on Aging,
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a gradual brain disorder that
results in progressive degradation of memory, attention
and judgment along with behavior and personality
changes. Many mildly impaired AD patients appear alert
and physically ht.
ɩe course of this disease varies, as does the rate of
decline. On average, patients with AD live for eight to 10 years after diagnosis, though the disease
can last for up to 20 years. AD advances progressively, from mild forgetfulness to a severe loss of
mental function.
Symptoms normally appear after age 60. Risk increases with age. It also can aĊect behavior in
seemingly criminal ways. ɩe following behaviors are typical of some Alzheimer's victims:
- Wandering. A patient wanders from caregivers, becoming disoriented quite near his/her home.
ɩe disease aĊects the associative capabilities that allow people to relate to familiar landmarks.
- Indecent exposure. Repetitive behaviors such as concerted attention to buttons and zippers are
often cases of hdgeting. A victim who zips and unzips his pants or unbuttons a blouse in public
may be hdgeting.
- Sboplifting. AD patients lose the ability to sequence events and as a result may forget to pay for
things. ɩey are unaware of the fact that they have an item, are in a store or that it is necessary
to pay. ɩey may also forget pocketbooks, wallets and money. Confronted with a charge of
'shoplifting,' they may become confused, irritated and accusatory.
- Appearance of intoxication. Several behavior patterns resemble intoxication. Confusion,
disorientation, problems with short-term memory, language or coordination may be AD.
- VictimizationIfalse report. AD patients may be deluded in thinking that they have been
victimized. ɩey may report a crime that has not occurred-even implicating friends or family
members. In contrast, when reporting crimes, they may not be able to communicate coherently.
- Driving. Vhen memory, judgment and problem-solving ability are impaired, AD patients who
continue to drive may be involved in accidents. ɩey may also 'wander' as they drive and wind
up in an unknown location with no idea of how to return.
- Failure to pay bills. Evictions, repossessions or termination of utility service may be
complications of AD.
Behaviors indicating Alzheimer's include:
- ɩe repeated question. Iatients may ask the same question over and over.
- Inappropriate reactions or expressions. Facial expression may be blank or inappropriate
to the situation.
- Inappropriate dress. An AD patient may wear clothing inappropriate to the weather and
- Delusions. A delusion is a persistent incorrect belief that remains hxed in spite of all rational
evidence to the contrary.
- Sbort-term memory loss. Short-term memory becomes most acutely aĊected-and
non-existent in advanced stages-while recollection of events long past may be vivid.
- Problems witb language. AD patients may ramble in a confused manner. ɩe victim may
lose the ability to understand what they hear.
Keep the following techniques in mind when confronted with unusual behavior:
- Check for an Alzheimer's disease ID bracelet.
- Speak slowly, clearly, simply, in a reassuring tone, one idea at a time.
- Speak directly to the patient in a non-confrontational fashion.
- Take charge of the situation in a calm manner.
Invite disease specialists to provide training. Alzheimer's Association chapters, for example, oĊer
training and may assist agencies and families. Vhen there is no chapter in the area, develop a
referral list of professionals and institutions familiar with AD. As a resource that may be of beneht,
Admissions Director Joni Slentz created the Elopement Drill Evaluation Form, Missing Resident
Response Kit and Elopement Risk-Assessment forms-see Appendix O.
Training for Citizens
To promote civilian-law enforcement cooperation, educate members of the S.A.L.T. group and
seniors about the criminal justice system-laws, courts and law enforcement.
Schedule a 'citizen police academy' after establishing the S.A.L.T. Council. Both seniors and
volunteers receive this training, which should be oĊered to volunteers before work begins.
Starting a Citizen Police Academy
Citizens are invited by the chief(s) of police and sheriĊ to participate in the program. Individuals
hll out an application and sign a liability waiver. A background check is performed on participants.
A sample application and liability waiver are included in Appendix M.
ɩe objectives are to:
- provide insight into law enforcement training and duties
- explain departmental policies and procedures to promote understanding and dispel
misconceptions and
- target senior safety issues.
Topics to cover:
- responsibilities of police and sheriĊ agencies
- oċcer training
- patrol procedures
- crime scene investigation
- narcotics and vice investigation
- crime prevention
- traċc accident investigation
- duties of highway patrol: and
- hrearms training, safety and deadly force issues
Ideally, the program will be repeated semi-annually or quarterly.
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Chapter Eight
ccording to the Ioints of Light Foundation, volunteers represented more than nine million
full-time employees, worth $225 billion with an hourly value (for 1998) of $14.30. Forty-three
percent of seniors aged 75 and over said they volunteered. Volunteers will beneht your law
enforcement agency.
A law enforcement agency's capabilities can be expanded without increasing paid staĊ. Seniors can be
especially faithful assistants who bring maturity and experience to a task.
Utilize the S.A.L.T. Council to form a subcommittee to hnd, enlist, manage and keep volunteers.
Screening and selecting volunteers for specihc programs are the initial steps. Making the volunteers
feel involved, needed and important to the eĊort is part of the process.
According to a Gallup Ioll, nine out of 10 individuals volunteered when asked. Results of an AARI
survey about volunteering revealed that many seniors didn't volunteer because 'nobody asked me.'
Iere are some tips when recruiting volunteers.
- Explain clearly what the volunteer job is and what it is not.
- Iresent the opportunity both realistically and enthusiastically. EĊective volunteers must place
value in the program.
- Recruit in community, professional, civic and charitable organizations. A personal invitation to
volunteer in Triad can be especially eĊective.
ɩe one-on-one approach is more successful than a blanket invitation. ɩere are numerous ways to
disseminate the need for volunteers. ɩese may include:
- Local newspapers (crime prevention articles, advertisements and letters):
- Local radio or television (talk shows and public service announcements):
- Community/spiritual/senior newsletters/bulletins:
- Merchant window displays:
- Flyers in public libraries, waiting rooms, etc.:
- Bulletin boards in places where seniors shop or gather: and
- Neighborhood/condominium associations and civic groups.
ɩe NATI partnership with ɩe Retired Senior Volunteer Irogram (RSVI) is a good source of
volunteers. As of this writing, RSVI also provides liability coverage for volunteers and, in some
localities, a modest stipend.
After volunteers are recruited, begin educating-for example, through the Citizen Academy.
Volunteers link law enforcement and the community. Solicit suggestions and implement when
What Volunteers Can Do
Older volunteers can serve in a variety of ways. Before recruiting
volunteers, the S.A.L.T. Council should have a clear vision of what
the Triad program will accomplish, including timeframes and duties
to assign. ɩis in turn gives the volunteer a clear dehnition of duties
and expectations.
Law Enforcement Agencies
After training, the volunteer can assist with senior-related issues,
such as anonymous reporting, administrative/clerical tasks, civil
process administration, communications, crime prevention,
computer data entry, fraud alerts, investigative follow-up, missing
persons: neighborhood patrol, disaster evacuation, public relations/
media, search and rescue, and writing (reports, bulletins, etc.).
The Community
Block organizing, court watch, crime reporting, educational
presentations, excursion companion/escorts for seniors/disabled,
literature distribution, neighborhood-dispute resolution,
Neighborhood Vatch programs, pedestrian safety/training, personal/home security, property
identihcation, telephone reassurance, vacant house checks, and assisting school oċcers, to name a few
Victim and Witness Assistance
Advocacy services, compensation applications, complaint referrals, counseling, court assistance,
crisis support, emergency shelters, impact statement preparation, legislative watch, pre-trial briehngs,
transportation, trial date notihcation.
Many oċcers list the following as benehts for law enforcement:
- relieves sworn law enforcement so they may tend to other duties:
- enhances community policing:
- improves system eċciency:
- reduces senior isolation:
- provides for oċcer-citizen interaction.
Benefits (continued)
Leaders see the following as community benehts:
- prompts understanding of law enforcement functions:
- renews community pride:
- facilitates property return to owners:
- prompts the development of new programs and activities.
Seniors see the following as volunteer benehts:
- provides a chance to help others:
- enriches daily living:
- reinforces self-conhdence:
- develops talents/new skills:
- provides fellowship and friends, and
- gives the satisfaction of contributing to the community.
Before bringing on volunteers, identify tasks and supervisors. Establish screening procedures for
volunteers. Vrite job descriptions. Identify liability/insurance requirements. Establish standard task
measurement prior to assigning tasks. Develop a plan for how contributions of volunteers will be
Chapter Ni ne
valuation is a necessary component of any successful Triad-at the volunteer, assigned-task
and program levels.
To measure how Triad is meeting the needs of law enforcement and seniors, plan for assessment to
be an integral part of the program from the start.
An evaluation, pertinent at all three aforementioned levels, should answer these questions:
1. Does the volunteer/program do what you want done.
2. Is the program being carried out the way you had planned.
3. Should the volunteer assignment/program continue as originally begun, or change.
Assessment justihes continued Triad/agency involvement. Funding assistance is often based on
successful demonstration of the program's eĊectiveness.
Planning for Evaluation
Include evaluations into the program planning stages. Because Triad is composed of law
enforcement, seniors and public organizations, each should be engaged in the review.
Establish who will oversee the Triad evaluation after the cooperative groups are formed. If possible,
engage a specialist in the design and administration of the evaluation.
Ideally, a single person or group will take responsibility for the evaluation. ɩis can be an excellent
opportunity to work with colleges, universities, high school social science classes, local businesses or
other organizations having research capability.
Do not postpone evaluation until the program is under way. Ilan for appraisal-or see progress suĊer
as a result.
The Measuring Stick
ɩese questions can help you focus on what should be evaluated.
- Does the community know about your Triad:
- Do law enforcement and seniors know what Triad is and what is its purpose:
- Is there duplication of Triad programs in the community:
- Are individuals representing Triad doing so eĊectively:
- Are Triad goals being met:
- Are goals specihc and understandable:
Goals and Objectives
Base evaluations and progress on the fundamentals of a Triad program: (a) reducing criminal
victimization of seniors: (b) educating seniors on community-specihc crime and crime prevention
information: (c) starting/expanding reassurance programs: and (d) educating law enforcement to
work more eĊectively with older persons.
If the objectives are not clearly dehned or are unrealistic, accurate evaluation may be elusive or even
unattainable-and so will success for the program.
Keeping Score
Maintain progress as goals are accomplished. For example, an informal check-up sheet might
read like this:
1SPHSBNCrime prevention presentations (initial programs planned for senior centers during
March and April). Topics: personal safety, spring home-repair scams.
0CKFDUJWFT (1) Inform seniors about crime-related scenarios and appropriate responses designed
to reduce victimization. (2) Oċcer Jones will train Mr. Senior Volunteer to conduct similar
1BSUJDJQBOUTOċcer Jones, Deputy Smith, and Mr. Senior Volunteer.
ɩe purpose of the evaluation is to conhrm that objectives are being met or to identify aspects that
need to be changed. Some programs can be assessed by pre/post-testing. Evaluate programs in a
standard, measurable format.
Ierceptual programs are more diċcult to evaluate. Follow-up calls with a brief survey can document
perceptions. Carry out this portion of the evaluation by volunteers in the victim/witness program.
Methods of Gathering Information
Vritten questionnaires should be brief, clear and easy to read. If multiple-choice-type questionnaires
and yes/no answers are employed, little writing will be required. Question individuals by asking
standardized questions (for comparison purposes).
ɩe sample forms, illustrated here, may be adapted to ht local programs.
1. I (am) (am not) aware that our police department and sheriĊ's departments are working together
to reduce crimes against senior citizens.
2. I (have) (have not) attended one or more of the crime prevention programs in the last six months.
3. If a salesman or repairman whom I did not know appeared unexpectedly at my door, I (would)
(would not) know how to determine if he were legitimate.
4. I would (feel comfortable) (hesitate) calling the police or sheriĊ's department if I saw something
5. I (know about) (do not know about) the Senior Call program at the police department.
6. I (know) (do not know) whom to contact about programs or services I might need.
ɩe following hypothetical situation illustrates another measuring method-from desired results to
assessment of actual results.
Reduce the incidence of victimization and the level of fear among the elder residents of Oakdale
Manor: increase the number of older individuals involved in civic activities.
Conduct at least one personal safety and crime prevention presentation per week for an audience
composed of older persons: establish volunteer escort service daily from 3-7 p.m.: persuade city to
route mini-buses through the area: install streetlights in hve key areas.
Determining Results by:
- Actual count of reported crime incidents involving older victims before Triad eĊorts start, and at
six-month and one-year points:
- Number of crime prevention presentations and numbers of persons addressed:
- Number of bus routes rescheduled and changes in ridership: and
- Number of new streetlights installed.
- Ire- and post-surveys of senior attitudes/activities-daytime and evening:
- Resident attendance at evening events: and
- Changed behavior on the part of residents as the result of crime prevention programs.
Tabulation of this information provides the basis for a realistic evaluation.
- Uniformly interview participants, volunteers and program staĊ:
- Analyze existing data-census, crime reports, economic and social data:
- Direct observations by evaluators:
- Reviews of programs, reports and key group surveys:
- Data on actual crimes in the area: and
- Volunteers could record meeting attendance.
Ioor evaluation results should not be discouraging. Break down the program into its elements:
keep those that are successful and re-evaluate/modify elements that were not.
Sample surveys are included in Appendix F. ɩese may be adapted.
- Be sure it gets done. Triad doesn't work without an evaluation process.
- Ilan for an evaluation method from the beginning of the program.
- Look at the process and the results.
- Assess changes in feelings and perception as well as facts.
- Use your results to improve the program.
(Core program based on: 5BLJOHB4UBOEBHBJOTU$SJNFBOE%SVHT from the National Crime
Irevention Council.)
Chapter Ten
he S.A.L.T. Council should be prepared to encounter and overcome diċculties or work
around them. Begin by looking at well-known Triad programs similar to those you
foresee establishing. ɩis manual also includes suggestions to avoid missteps.
Involving Triad Partners
- Indicate that Triad is a program for seniors by seniors, using few law
enforcement resources.
- Emphasize the community aspects of the program and the fact that lines of
communication between law enforcement and seniors will be enhanced.
- Indicate the ways Triad benehts seniors and the law enforcement agency.
- Emphasize senior beneht in incorporated and unincorporated areas.
- Emphasize public-relations-tool aspects of Triad, such as appointment of
S.A.L.T. Council members.
- Emphasize that 'business as usual' equates to status quo in crime and fear.
Seniors trust law enforcement they know and work
- Reassure agency personnel that the S.A.L.T. Council is
purely advisory, voluntary and not a review board.
- Use resources to cite reported and typically unreported
senior crime.
- Ask a senior leader to accompany you to strengthen your
invitation for participation or to make a separate appeal
in person.
- Triad is a positive public relations and marketing tool for
service providers.
- Emphasize the benehts to seniors and be sure to refer to
other Triad successes when doing so. Survey results are
benehcial in this respect.
- Discuss the mutual advantage in sharing resources-crime prevention
programs, materials, ideas and volunteers.
- Mention intent-senior surveys, crime prevention/reassurance and education.
- Invite older individuals who can make the Triad a success. ɩis is best done in
person or by telephone. Send a follow-up letter to underline importance.
- Contact seniors requesting crime prevention programs or home-security
surveys for their organizations or themselves.
- Rely on other volunteer programs to assist or supply volunteers.
- Normally, most Triads have little or no budget.
- Seniors volunteer their time and can provide much of the leadership.
- Senior-service organizations usually provide support.
- Iospitals and medical associations often cooperate, adding crime prevention to health-care
events and assisting in other ways as well.
- Firehghters, libraries, educational institutions, church-aċliated organizations, and civic and
Masonic groups are often very supportive.
- Organizations to whom seniors are important as clients or customers may oĊer in-kind or
other support (Agencies on Aging, grocery stores, drugstores, etc.).
Manpower Constraints
If an oċcer is not available, choose capable seniors or retired oċcers who can lead. In this
instance, oċcers serve in an advisory capacity. ɩey suggest, encourage, help to plan, but do
not direct the program.

Victim Assistance Irograms
Program Description:
Seniors often feel law enforcement is unable to assist when victimization occurs, that law
enforcement is too busy-or that the crime is not worth reporting. Triad helps break down these
myths. Iolice, the sheriĊ's oċce, and the district attorney's oċce can help with victim assistance.
Cultural innuence will aĊect law enforcement perceptions. Some older people aren't sure what
constitutes a crime. Others are embarrassed by the prospect of family or authorities knowing that
they have been swindled. A primary Triad activity is victim assistance. Triad must hrst identify
who needs assistance, a task complicated by the unwillingness of some older people to report crimes.
A goal of Triad is to develop a program in which senior volunteers educate fellow seniors on senior
crime. ɩrough such a program, a comfortable means of reporting crime should be provided, and
assistance oĊered in the aftermath of crime against a senior.
Supporting Documentation for Program:
Based on surveys of crime victims aged 65 or older, about half of the violent crimes they experienced
were actually reported to the police in 1997, and only 35 percent of property crimes were reported,
states the Bureau of Justice Statistics. After victimization, few seniors understand the court system
and how to navigate it. Surveyed seniors have stated a need for a peer who is able to explain the
process and oĊer support.
Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material requirements):
For in-depth training on the subject, contact the Oċce for Victims of Crime Training and Technical
Assistance Center. Irovided as a professional development opportunity and community service, as
of this writing, OVC TTAC gives special consideration to requests with state or regional impact or
that assist multiple agencies or a network of professional service providers. Training and technical-
assistance application forms are available by mail or online at 1/866/682-8822 or www.ojp.usdoj.
gov/ovc/assist/welcome.html. In addition, contact victim-assistance programs in your area to utilize
lecturers and resources. AARI's Citizen's Guide to the Criminal Justice System is a widely used
resource. Obtain senior volunteers through RSVI, advertisements and other senior programs.
Procedures (How program is put together):
Irimarily, through the S.A.L.T. Council, work to educate seniors on the importance of reporting
crime and its benehts-lower recidivism, safer neighborhoods, lessening of repeated crimes against
other seniors. Irovide education on what constitutes a crime, and why, when and how to report
crime. Irovide information on law enforcement functions and the availability of anonymous
reporting, such as through Crime Stoppers.
Establish a victim-assistance program. Establish a committee to recruit older persons with
counseling experience. Irovide suċcient volunteer training, provide peer assistance and recognize
that older victims are comfortable discussing experiences with a peer. Often, former victims can heal
by helping others in similar straits.
In certain circumstances, it may be appropriate for the victim-assistance volunteer to:
- Listen to a crime victim, share experiences and oĊer support:
- Act as liaison to service providers, such as lock/window replacement:
- Assist in obtaining appropriate counseling:
- Act as criminal justice system guide, escorting victims to court/hearings:
- Recommend involvement in Neighborhood Vatch: and
- Take part in a crime report callback program, updating victims on the progress of the
investigation. Volunteers can also get crime information details.
If your community already has a victim-assistance program, expand it, having older volunteers
assist older victims. Triad thereby can help the senior reduce the chance of repeat victimization.
Utilize your local citizen academy or law enforcement to coach/train volunteers on how to assist
senior victims.
Evaluation Process:
Initially, your crime reporting rate may actually register an increase as seniors become more
comfortable in reporting crimes. Establish education programs on how to avoid victimization for
diĊerent crime categories and lecture on these repeatedly. Monitor statistics for each crime category.
Victimization rates among seniors eventually should drop in correlation to lecture programs and
eventual reduction in recidivism. Administer a survey to seniors after attending your program.
Ask clear questions, such as, 'Do you feel safer now knowing more about __________ crime:' or
asking direct questions in regards to identifying criminal behavior. Iave an evaluation process in
place before implementing your program.
Potential Model Programs/Notes:
Iroperty Crime Irograms
Program Description:
ɩe U.S. Department of Justice states that 2.5 million property crimes occurred against persons
65 or older in 1997, and 92 percent of crimes reported against older individuals were property
crimes. In addition, 51 percent of victims of non-lethal violence age 65 or older oĊered no resistance
to the crime, often a tempting target for criminals. Triad can oĊer several lecture programs to
educate seniors about property crimes and how to make themselves an unlikely target.
Supporting Documentation for Program:
Burglary, theft and vandalism can be especially distressing economically and emotionally for
older people. Seniors have a fragile sense of security and limited ability to replace stolen or
damaged property.
Some seniors do not report crimes and suspicious activities, fearing retaliation. Defacement of
property and automobile vandalism are often viewed as a personal attack. Educating seniors on
localized crime and prevention methods therefore becomes a key objective of Triad.
Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material requirements):
Utilize your crime prevention oċcer or trained seniors/senior providers to lecture in senior
gatherings about crime, crime safety and prevention. As of this writing, training materials are
available through the Oċce for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center.
Irovided as a professional development opportunity and community service, OVC TTAC gives
special consideration to requests with state or regional impact or those that assist multiple agencies
or a network of professional service providers. Training and technical assistance application forms
are available by mail or online at 1/866/682-8822 or www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/assist/welcome.html.
In addition, RSVI, the local Agency on Aging, Area Agency on Aging, or AARI can provide
training materials. Contact information is located in the glossary of this manual. Obtain senior
volunteers through RSVI, advertisements and other senior programs.
Procedures (How program is put together):
Establish a property theft program by creating several diĊerent training programs on senior-targeted
crimes. Iresent these programs where seniors gather, or create a senior venue to educate them on
senior crime safety. Topics vary by community, though several remain consistent. Train citizens to
make themselves and their property less attractive to thieves and vandals-illustrate ways to carry
money safely, leave most valuables at home and carry money in unconventional ways.
Citizens can deter theft, or more easily reclaim stolen property, by marking valuables with an
identifying number (Operation Identihcation). Ilease visit www.usaonwatch.org and contact the
National SheriĊs' Association or telephone participating local law enforcement agencies for details.
ɩieves often are aware of when monthly checks are delivered and act accordingly.
Encourage citizens to use direct-deposit to their banks rather than mail delivery.
Inform citizens about crime deterrence, but convey information
without frightening them. Foster caution and safe habits: do not
feed paranoia.
Evaluation Process:
Initially, your crime-reporting rate may increase as seniors
become more comfortable in reporting crimes, as stated earlier.
Establish an education program for avoiding property crime and
lecture on that topic repeatedly. Monitor statistics for property
crime. Iroperty victimization rates among seniors should drop
in correlation to lecture programs. Administer a survey to seniors
after attending your program. Ask clear questions, such as 'Can
you list three ways to keep your property safe:' or asking direct
quiz questions in regards to rectifying property vulnerability.
Potential Model Programs/Notes:
Elder Abuse Irograms
Program Description:
Often a community's most hidden crime, elder abuse may not be evident in your community.
Elder abuse can be physical or mental (intimidation, for example) in nature. It could also be hnancial
or involve neglect-or self-neglect. Triad volunteers can become adept at recognizing signs of abuse
and act upon it. ɩey can implement prevention programs for seniors to prevent elder abuse.
Supporting Documentation for Program:
ɩe National Crime Victimization Survey cannot accurately measure elder abuse, as the mentally
impaired often cannot report victimization or describe details. Victims dependent on abusive
caretakers may not report abuse. In addition, hnancial exploitation may occur without the victim's
ɩe National Center on Elder Abuse states that about two of three cases involve a caretaking
relative of the victim: the Center estimates a 5-to-1 ratio of abuse cases going unreported.
Neglect constituted about 59 percent of crimes, physical abuse accounted for 16 percent and
hnancial exploitation was approximately 12 percent. ɩe Senate Special Committee on Aging
states that from 1999 to 2000 there were 2.5 million incidents per year, a 20 percent increase.
Self-neglect is abuse, often due to diminished mental or physical ability or social isolation. Many older
persons see no options other than the neglectful or abusive situation. Currently, if a competent elder
person chooses to remain in such a situation, it is his or her right to do so.
Research says that 'passive neglect'-failing to provide proper nutrition, hygiene, living conditions,
or to administer medication-occurs with the most frequency and can lead to serious health
problems or death.
Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material requirements):
Irinted information can be provided by health care, mental health or certain social services, law
enforcement oċcers and volunteers. Find volunteers by approaching social/spiritual organizations,
posting requests in senior related areas, and RSVI chapters. Utilize your local Meals on Vheels
programs and other senior outreach programs to disseminate abuse information.
Procedures (How program is put together):
Make abuse awareness a regular topic for examination. ɩe topic should include detection, assistance
and prosecution, with older individuals educated to assist themselves and/or others. Understand the
hidden nature of the topic-one that won't readily be discussed. Rely on your local professionals to
lecture on this topic.
Search your community resources to identify and provide education on the following:
- elder abuse,
- organizations oĊering assistance,
- providing alternatives to the abusive situation, and
- post-abuse assistance programs.
Establish 'buddy networks.' Volunteer buddies may be friends, acquaintances, or someone unknown
to the individual who is eĊective at detecting and preventing the mistreatment of older people.
Telephone banks, which entail telephoning seniors placed on the Triad telephone list, can serve to
both deter and detect abuse. Telephone calls provide the opportunity for individuals reluctant to
discuss abuse to be more forthcoming.
Go to senior venues and obtain lecture times during regular senior events. If none of these venues
are available, create your own senior safety fair, tapping resources through your senior provider
Evaluation Process:
Monitor before-and-after statistics on elder abuse through your crime statistics and victim-assistance
programs, or your local law enforcement agencies. Surveys can also be utilized after lecture
programs. Keep surveys easily quantihable.
Potential Model Programs/Notes:
Frauds and Scams Irograms
Program Description:
For older persons, hnancial loss can be devastating. ɩe trusting nature of older individuals
leaves them susceptible to frauds and scams from individuals - often family members or primary
caregivers, predatory institutions, and organized scammers.
Supporting Documentation for Program:
According to AARI studies, 37 percent of telemarketing crimes are perpetrated against the elderly.
According to the National Fraud Information Center, the list below contains the top telemarketing
scams and frauds. ɩe majority of these are directed toward the shut-in, the easily confused and the
Telemarketing Scams, January—March 2005
Requests for payment to claim prizes that
never materialize
Work-at-Home Plans
Materials sold on false promises of big
profits working at home
Scholarships/Edu. Grants
Falsely promise to help get scholarships or
government educational grants, for a fee
Lotteries/Lottery Clubs
Requests for payment to claim lottery
winnings or get help to win, often foreign
Credit Card Offers
False promises of credit cards, even if credit
is bad, for a fee
Buyers Clubs
Charges for memberships in discount buying
clubs consumers never agreed to join
Magazine Sales
Misrepresent cost of subscriptions or pretend
to be publisher offering renewals
Calls pretending to be from well-known
source asking to confirm personal
Advance Fee Loans
False promises of loans, even if credit is bad,
for a fee upfront
Fake Check Scams
Consumers paid with phony checks for
work or items sold, instructed to wire
money back
ɩere are various factors leading to victimization-more so when combined with reduced mental
and physical abilities, loneliness, grief, isolation, loss, sensory impairment, illness, vanity, limited
income and mistrust of banks.
Congress estimates that U.S. consumers lose more than $40 billion annually through telemarketing
fraud. As many as one in ten callers may be fraudulent.
*% of All Complaints **Average Loss
31%* $5,302**
13% $407
10% $258
7% $306
6% $1,583
4% $60
4% $1,808
3% $246
3% $598
3% $7,115
Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material requirements):
1SFEBUPSZ-FOEJOHɩe county or state oċce of consumer aĊairs or state attorney general's oċce can
provide information on informed borrowing that can be helpful in preventing victimization through
predatory lending. ɩe assistance of a qualihed attorney, hnancial advisor, housing counselor or a panel
of these individuals can provide ongoing information to seniors to prevent a very painful experience.
Call the U.S. Department of Iousing and Urban Development (IUD) for IUD-certihed housing
counselors or local agencies at 888/466-3487. ɩe Veb address is www.hud.gov/fha/sfh/ with
information listed under 'At your Service'. Another useful document is the AARI's 'Borrower's Guide
to Iome Loans,' a step-by-step guide to getting the best loan possible. Call 800/424-3410 to order
these booklets.
)PNF*NQSPWFNFOUTɩe Federal Trade Commission's Consumer
Response Center publishes 'Iome Improvement Tools You
Can Use,' helpful for this type of fraud. ɩey can be reached at
(877) 382-4357.
5FMFNBSLFUJOHRequest speakers from local sources, your Better
Business Bureau, and fraud unit within your agency. Obtain written
materials from Experian, Equifax, and TRV credit reporting
agencies (contact information located in this manual appendix)
National Fraud Information Center, and National Center for
Victims of Crime.
Find volunteers by approaching social/spiritual organizations,
RSVI and AARI. Use your local senior outreach programs to
reach shut-in seniors. Repeat your message often.
Procedures (How program is put together):
Locate and inform seniors about frauds and scams. Utilize crime prevention oċcers, volunteers, articles,
brochures and presentations with follow-up bulletins and reminders to educate seniors about fraud
and scams-and how to recognize those who perpetrate them. A few of the most prevalent frauds and
scams are listed below.
1SFEBUPSZ-FOEJOHIome loans and predatory lending schemes can result in the loss of seniors' homes.
ɩese oĊers come by telephone, mail, e-mail and door to door.
)PNF*NQSPWFNFOUTAccording to the Consumer Federation of America, home improvement
and contractors are the second largest U.S. consumer complaint. ɩey involve workmanship issues,
overpricing, abandonment or unhnished work, failure to meet building code requirements and failure
to use a written contract. ɩey are often connected to predatory lending scams to hnance the work.
Iome-improvement fraud is more prevalent in the aftermath of community disasters.
5FMFNBSLFUJOHAARI hnds that more than half of telemarketing fraud victims were over the age of
50. Encourage seniors to adopt a prepared response to suspicious unsolicited oĊers. Older individuals
will be better able to resist high-pressure and often fraudulent sales pitches with replies such as:
- 'Leave your number and I will get back to you after I check with (the Better Business Bureau,
police department, relative, attorney, etc.).'
- 'Send (or leave) some literature and I will consider it.'
- 'I no longer respond to telephone solicitations.'
- 'I have to consult my (husband, wife, brother, daughter, attorney) before I make that sort of
- 'If I have to give you an immediate answer, the answer will have to be 'no'.'
Instruct citizens not to transact with their credit card numbers over the telephone unless they
themselves have placed the call. If your state has a 'do not call' law, encourage seniors to add their
names to the list.
Interaction with law enforcement encourages seniors to call when they suspect someone is
attempting to defraud them. Iromote it in Triad meetings and seminars. Use law enforcement, the
S.A.L.T. Council and volunteers to alert seniors when fraudulent operators are in the area. Contact
your local media to create Iublic Service Announcements for these topics.
Evaluation Process:
Monitor before-and-after program statistics on scams and fraud through your crime statistics and
victim-assistance programs, or your local law enforcement agencies. Surveys can also be utilized after
lecture programs. Keep surveys easily quantihable.
Potential Model Programs:
Senior Identity ɩeft Irevention
Program Description:
As one of the fastest growing crimes in the U.S., identity theft aĊects twice the number of seniors as
the rest of the population-nearly 10 million Americans overall. (Federal Trade Commission, 2003
*EFOUJUZɩFGU4VSWFZ3FQPSUVashington, DC: Federal Trade Commission.)
Vith identity theft, an individual's identity is assumed either temporarily or longer term to commit
fraud. A criminal will assume the name, address, social security number, bank or credit account
number, or other identifying information without the victims' knowledge to commit fraud or other
crimes. In 54 percent of the reported complaints, no law enforcement agency was notihed, signifying
that many victims do not have proper training as to how to report and rectify these crimes.
Supporting Documentation for Program:
ɩe average victim spent an average of 30 hours resolving identity theft in 2002. ɩe FTC suggests
that Americans spent almost 300 million hours resolving identity theft in 2002.
Agencies strengthen eĊorts to combat
identity theft by involving Triad, its
programs, and volunteers listed in this
resource manual.
Resources Needed
Contact the Federal Trade Commission,
local law enforcement agencies, the
three major credit-reporting agencies
(Equifax, Experian, Trans Union) for
distribution materials (see Appendix
for more information). Obtain a copy
of the Consumer Action Iandbook for
general consumer assistance.
Additional materials and resources can
be obtained from AARI, your local
RSVI organization, the local Council
on Aging, area Agency on Aging, or by
contacting the Department of Justice.
Contact your local bank for bank fraud representatives, Better Business Bureau personnel, fraud
investigators or specialized law enforcement personnel for presenter contacts.
Volunteers will be needed for distribution of handouts and fraud leanets.
For presentations, utilize senior-accessible space, such as a community center or library. Utilize your
local Meals on Vheels or equivalent to distribute informative placemats with printed identity theft
Use local printing and advertisement resources for your program.
Procedures (How program is put together):
Educate seniors about identity theft to reduce underreporting and the occurrence of hnancial crimes.
Educate seniors to identify fraudulent activities before victimization, and if defrauded, how they can
rectify the situation.
Irovide articles, brochures, and presentations-with follow-up bulletins and reminders-to
individuals and senior organizations outlining fraud recognition, prevention and rectihcation.
To combat this type of crime, contact the Federal Trade Commission, local law enforcement agencies
and the three major credit-reporting agencies, Equifax, Experian, and Trans Union for materials.
Iresent seminars on the trends of fraud in your area, with community experts as presenters.
ɩe presenters/moderators of the program could include bank fraud representatives, Better Business
Bureau, fraud investigators, or other specialized department. Summarize the material in nier format,
distributed through channels used to advertise your program. Contact information for materials is
listed in the appendix of this publication.
Citizens are instructed not to make any transaction in which they give credit card information over
the telephone unless they placed the call. If your state has the 'do not call' list, encourage seniors to
add their names to it.
Criminals obtain personal information by rummaging through trash, stealing wallets, purses, mail,
pre-approved applications or tax information. ɩey pose as telemarketers or sweepstakes employees
to get personal information over the telephone. ɩey send false e-mails requesting information.
Some dishonest employees steal employer records with personal information. Criminals will watch
or listen for IIN numbers, calling card or credit card numbers. According to the FTC, 66 percent
of identihcation-theft victims gave criminals requested personal information. Actions related to
identihcation theft can be a federal oĊense and violations of these federal laws are investigated by
Federal Law Enforcement agencies including:
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I.)
- United States Secret Service
- United States Iostal Inspection
- Social Security Administration oċce of the Inspector General
- Federal identity theft cases are prosecuted by the United States Department of Justice
Advertise your program. If seniors are unaware of your seminars and eĊorts, your program will fail.
Many radio stations consider this kind of initiative as a public broadcasting announcement, making
this cost free. Triad should have or create a contact sheet of local senior center newsletters, long-term
care facilities and other senior-targeted publications to relay seminar information. Other advertising
venues are local news coverage, niers in public areas, spiritual centers and volunteer programs, such as
Meals on Vheels.
Finally, train law enforcement to interview older victims eĊectively. ɩe quality of information
gathered from seniors will increase the likelihood of apprehending oĊenders. Law enforcement must
be trained to identify and work around impairments often prevalent in seniors. Ihysical, sensory,
memory or other cognitive impairments can interfere with an oċcer's attempt to gather information.
Improved techniques allow the oċcer to develop a quality investigation and to positively impact
victims' attitudes, behaviors and perceptions toward law enforcement. Address all relevant inquiries,
to include victim/oĊense/oĊender characteristics. Create and utilize a detailed investigation checklist
for the senior's estate, hnancial arrangements and relevant legal documents. Utilize crime victim
volunteers to gather additional information, after the initial law enforcement interview.
Evaluation Process:
In evaluating your program, use a quiz after the presentation to assess the level of information
seniors absorbed. Asking generalized questions on recognizing, preventing, and rectifying identity
theft can determine weaknesses in presenters for the next seminar. By oĊering these seminars and
evaluations often and updating the material as criminal activity evolves, you help ensure that seniors
are continually reminded of the factors that constitute identity theft.
A reduction of identity theft in your community is an evaluation tool to measure program success.
Review crime statistics for these changes.
Law enforcement is not accountable to Triad. Keep a working rapport with the sheriĊ, chief
of police, or other oċcers to increase the number of law enforcement oċcials attending and
contributing to training.
Potential Model Programs:
Iome Safety Inspection Irograms
Program Description:
In addition to senior crime safety, your Triad can implement programs that keep seniors safe.
Statistics show that higher percentages of seniors are injured and killed by falls due to an unsafe
environment and from hres caused by equipment that has not been maintained. Although not
a senior crime safety issue pcr sc. these statistics have bearing on law enforcement duties. ɩis
program of home hre safety and security inspections is a joint eĊort between the sheriĊ's oċce,
police departments, hre departments and EMT workers. Vork with law enforcement and seniors to
perform home inspections to reduce fall and hre statistics.
Supporting Documentation for Program:
Often, seniors are unable to maintain their homes, and the cycle of disrepair and neglect can lead to
an unsafe environment. In addition, safety equipment such as locks, peepholes, and hre detectors
may be out of date or not functioning. As the National Safety Council chart below indicates, deaths
in the home are attributed to unsafe environments.
Home Accidents
Falls 31.8%
Poisoning 21.0%
Fire/burns 16.4%
Obstructed airway 8.7%
Suffocation 3.6%
Firearms 2.6%
Poison (gas) 2.1%
Io||s os o pcrccr: oj jo:o| |omc occ:ácr:s orc :rcrcos:rg. Morc :|or 8ó/ oj :|c v:c::ms orc óS or o|ácr.
According to the U.S. Fire Administration, Americans over the age of 65 are at a high risk of death
and injuries due to hres and represent over 1,000 hre-related deaths each year. Ieople over age 80 die
in hres at a rate three times higher than the rest of the population.
By addressing fall, hre and safety issues as it pertains to seniors, Triad will alleviate law enforcement
duties but also help to keep seniors safe.
Resources Needed (Volunteers/Staff/Material requirements):
Contact the Federal Online Resources, AARI, Administration on Aging, American Federation for
Aging Research, International Association of Fire Chiefs, the National Volunteer Fire Council, the
National Fire Irotection Association, National Safety Council, and the National Center for Injury
Irevention and Control for distribution and lecture materials on fall/hre/home safety. If you prefer
to create your own materials, team up with printing services in your area to produce fall and hre
safety information. Recruit volunteers for leanet distribution, signup and maintenance/installation
eĊorts. For presentations, any space accessible by seniors, such as a community center, library, or
other facility with lecture space, will suċce. Utilize local advertisement resources for your program.
Procedures (How program is put together):
Distribute prevention information through spiritual groups, civic organizations, Meals on Vheels,
Neighborhood Vatch, and senior centers. Arrange for safety lectures where seniors gather.
Iromote your free evaluation and home safety inspection program, after setting qualifying factors
for participants. Volunteers should take registrations for a free inspection. Obtain volunteers from
among other resources, high school and trade schools with handyman capabilities (woodshop, for
example), Masons, Kiwanis Clubs, Eagle Scouts, etc.
Schedule each person for a one-hour slot. Allow 30 minutes for a law enforcement security check and
30 minutes for a hre department/EMT fall and hre prevention check. Team up with local hardware
companies to sponsor the program. ɩe company normally donates hre alarm systems, peepholes,
night lights, light bulbs, or other safety devices for seniors lacking safety equipment. Obtain reliable
volunteers to install equipment. Iromote the donor to establish repeat participation.
Make prevention awareness a regular lecture topic, including home assessment materials, free
inspections, and volunteer services and equipment. Appendix N includes a sample home
inspection form.
Evaluation Process:
Evaluate your program by the number of seniors who sign up for your program. You may also
administer a short survey after the inspection/walkthrough lecture, to evaluate retained information.
Potential Model Programs/Notes:

Appendix A: Triad Cooperative Agreement
Triad Cooperative Agreement of
Area, County
Senior Citizens Group(s)
County SheriĊ's Oċce
Iolice Department(s)
Major polls indicate that crime and the fear of crime impact seniors. Recognizing the increasing number of older
persons, we desire to identify and address more eĊectively the problems faced by older citizens.
Because of the aging of the population and the increasing demands placed on law enforcement agencies to meet
the needs of older citizens, it is important that the county's leading law enforcement agencies support programs
designed to beneht senior citizens.
Statement of Agreement
In light of the above, the Senior Services of _____________, ______________, and ____________
____, the Chiefs of Iolice of __________________, _________________, and __________ and
the ___________ County SheriĊ's Oċce are determined to eĊect change. ɩese groups and agencies agree
that the older population has special needs with respect to victimization and fear of crime, loss, and isolation.
Ve agree that these needs can be met by law enforcement agencies and the county's premier organization(s) of
seniors, working together at all levels of free societies.
Ve hereby commit to work together to enhance the crime safety of older persons. Our purpose is to reduce
criminal victimization through cooperative strategies, planning and programming, and increase law enforcement
awareness of older persons' need for security and dignity.
ɩis initiative is designed to mobilize community resources to ascertain the needs and concerns of older citizens
and to provide mechanisms for meeting those needs.
ɩe sharing of resources is the hrst step in achieving an eĊective means of providing eĊective programs.
ɩis process will involve law enforcement, seniors, and senior services in the development, implementation and
evaluation of acceptable solutions. Together, we will strive for a renewed sense of responsibility for the security
and well being of older citizens through public awareness, training, and the provision of criminal justice services.
ɩerefore, by agreement, the Triad will initiate the appropriate actions to achieve these objectives.
Name Date
Name Date
Name Date
Name Date
Name Date
Name Date
Name Date
Name Date
Appendix B: Triad Cooperative Agreement
Officer Interaction with Seniors
I. Purpose
ɩe _______________________ Iolice Department/SheriĊ's Oċce will take a leadership role
in promoting recognition of a unique challenge, as well as the important source of support for law
enforcement that the older person presents. Oċcers should be aware that the fear of crime and certain
types of criminal victimization tend to be problems more often for our older individuals. For these
reasons, oċcers shall pursue steps to ensure that the rights and protection guaranteed by law are available
for the older citizen. ɩe department will seek and use appropriate community resources to:
- Iromote a cooperative expansion of community crime prevention:
- Irovide educational programs to reduce fear and victimization:
- Vork to identify and arrest those who commit crimes against older individuals: and
- Involve older volunteers in support roles in this process.
Crime, harassment and circumstances resulting in fear are serious. It is recognized that crimes against
older individuals may be subtle or hidden. Some are victimized by family members, health-care
providers, or fraudulent business practices. Such acts cause some older persons to be averse to participate
in community or social activities.
ɩe _______________________ Iolice/SheriĊ's Agency will maintain an advisory Council whose
membership should include a local AARI/RSVI member, a crime prevention oċcer, a local clergy
representative, a local social services representative and the Chief Executive Oċcer of other interested
area law enforcement agencies. Additional relevant membership is welcome. ɩe Council shall be named
S.A.L.T. 'Seniors and Law (Enforcement) Together.'
ɩe purpose of the Council shall be to research and oĊer programmatic remedies to the needs and
concerns of older persons as it pertains to criminal activity. It shall be a forum for communications and
discussion between law enforcement and seniors. ɩe Council may develop its own agendas, focusing
on crime and security-related concerns of older persons. ɩe Council shall determine meeting frequency
and the formality of goals, minutes, topics, projects, etc.
II. Definition
An older person is dehned for members of the ___________________________Iolice/SheriĊ's
Agency as a person who has attained the age of ________ years. (Local statutes may dehne applicable
III. Policy
It shall be departmental policy to bring investigative and enforcement elements into prompt action
following each reported or observed incident involving a victimized older adult. Emphasis should be
placed on victim assistance and accessing community resources to assist the victim. Oċcers shall be
alert to the quality of life for the older person and document and report substandard conditions to the
appropriate authority or a police supervisor.
IV. Procedures
Vhen an oċcer determines that an incident involves an older person, that oċcer shall ensure
that the following procedures are enacted:
A. ɩe incident shall be fully investigated and documented:
B. If circumstances threaten the older person's health, safety or welfare, the oċcer shall
immediately notify his/her supervisor:
C. Oċcers shall refer to the list of social agencies that may resolve any immediate threat.
(ɩe department should prepare and update an appendix to this policy listing all relevant
service providing agencies.)
D. Initial-response oċcers shall:
1. Respond in a manner that is sensitive, with consideration to the condition of a victim:
2. Ireserve the crime scene and evidence:
3. Identify and interview witnesses:
4. Initiate a follow-up visit by family, friend, oċcer, or social service, if warranted, and
request notihcation of hnal disposition: and
5. Advise a supervisor of additional assistance needed.
E. ɩe reviewing or notihed supervisor shall:
1. Ensure that immediate threats to health, safety or welfare are resolved:
2. Respond to the scene if requested by the oċcer:
3. Ensure that oċcer responsibilities (see above) are met:
4. Assure victims that the department will render appropriate assistance:
5. Verify arrangements for any support person or agency to provide assistance:
6. If warranted, arrange for increased patrol of the area to either prevent/solve crime and
or reassure a victim: and
7. Inform police administrator or his/her designee of any health, safety or welfare condition
that may need follow-up.
V. Training and Records (Optional)
A. ɩe department shall provide periodic in-service training to patrol and investigative oċcers on
topics relevant to the aging process, senior crime prevention, senior crime trends, and senior
B. ɩe department shall keep such records that will allow for analysis of victimization data so that
appropriate countermeasures can be developed for reduced victimization.
C. To the extent possible, it shall be the policy of the department to share knowledge and records
of senior crime, abuse or neglect with other law enforcement and governmental social service
agencies that have a legitimate interest in the case.
Appendix C: Sample Letter of Invitation
Dear :
I would like to invite you to serve on a committee of law enforcement, seniors, and senior services
working together to make ____________ community a safer place for senior citizens-called
Seniors and Law (Enforcement) Together, or S.A.L.T.
In some of our communities, seniors are defrauded, victimized or are afraid to leave home, shop,
worship, or socialize, for fear of crime.
SheriĊ _____________________, Chief __________________, RSVI representative
____________________, and I have signed an agreement that commits our community's law
enforcement, working with senior volunteers, to address senior-related crimes of our area. Also, the
State SheriĊs' Association, the State Association of Chiefs of Iolice, and RSVI have signed a Triad
Agreement committing them to work with seniors to reduce senior-targeted crimes.
If you accept this invitation to serve on the S.A.L.T. Council (normally, hfteen of your peers), please
plan to attend two meetings within a month, and subsequently meet once every month thereafter.
Meetings are normally one hour. ɩe Council would attend these meetings with SheriĊ/Chief
______________, or designee.
SheriĊ _________________ and I have selected you to serve on this committee based on
your skills and expertise, and we hope you will join us. ɩe program will be rewarding to seniors,
community, and to you personally. If you agree to serve, please call my oċce. Ve need your services:
________________ (name)
Chief of Iolice
___________City Iolice Department
___________, __ ___________
Appendix D: Senior Advisory Council Iolicy
S.A.L.T. Council of _________________________________ County/City; and Municipalities
of ______________________________ and _______________________________.
ɩe Senior Advisory Council meets on the hrst Tuesday of each month at 1:00 p.m., alternating meeting
locations among the _____________________ Iolice Department, __________________
Iolice Department, and ____________________________ SheriĊ's Oċce. At least two meetings
each year shall be held at the _______________________ and the ________________________,
with all county seniors invited to attend.
Meetings are to be informative, with the S.A.L.T. Chairman oċciating.
ɩe agenda is determined by the chairman, with input from the chiefs and sheriĊ or designate.
S.A.L.T. members shall be notihed by call, card, or letter at least one week before the listed meeting, stating the
meeting date and place.
Meeting minutes will be recorded by a S.A.L.T. group designee and distributed to members no more than ten
days after the meeting.
It is expected that all S.A.L.T. Council members will attend the monthly meetings unless unavoidably prevented
from attending. ɩose unable to attend will notify the chairperson prior to the meeting time in order to continue
participation on the Council. ɩree consecutive unexcused absences will terminate membership.
Community participation shall be encouraged by establishing subcommittees of the S.A.L.T. Council as needed.
It is expected that subcommittees will be involved in: surveys of the needs and concerns of older citizens, crime
prevention education, reassurance program development/expansion, victim services, and special projects. Sub-
committees shall be established to meet the immediate and changing needs of the community-specihc crimes
against older individuals.
Appendix E: Triad S.A.L.T. Council Bylaws
Article I. NAME
ɩe name of this organization shall be Seniors And Law (Enforcement) Together Council (S.A.L.T.) of the
________________ Triad.
ɩe purpose of the S.A.L.T. Council shall be to further the goals and objectives of the Triad, a joint venture
between the SheriĊ's Oċce, the Chiefs of Iolice in the County and RSVI to reduce the criminal victimization
of older persons.
A. ɩe S.A.L.T. Council shall consist of not more than twenty but not fewer than ten members.
B. Membership shall be ex-oċcio and at-large
1. Ex-oċcio Members shall be the designated representatives of each of the Triad organizations:
a. RSVI (or equivalent)
b. _______________________________ SheriĊ's Oċce
c. _______________________________ Chief(s) of Iolice
2. At-large membership shall be open to oċcers, community representatives and civic organizations, service
providers, and seniors.
C. Selection of S.A.L.T. Council members-at-large shall be made by a membership committee consisting of the
elected oċcers and two members selected at the October meeting. Recommendations for membership may
be made to the committee in writing.
D. ɩe regular term of oċce for members-at-large shall be three years. Membership shall be staggered so that
one-third of the members completes their term each year. Term of membership shall begin January 1 and end
December 31. Resigned memberships will be hlled by the membership committee.
A. ɩe elected oċcers of the S.A.L.T. Council shall be the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and Secretary/
B. A hve-member nominating committee shall be elected at the July meeting and shall present a slate of
candidates for oċce at the October meeting. ɩe committee shall elect its own chairman.
C. ɩe oċcers shall be elected from within the Council for a one-year term. ɩe election shall be held at the
October meeting, with those elected assuming oċce January 1. Oċcers may be re-elected to the same oċce
for succeeding terms.
A. Duties of oċcers:
1. Chairman shall preside at all meetings of the Council, appoint chairmen as needed, and serve as an ex-
oċcio member of all committees with the exception of the nominating committee.
2. Vice-Chairman shall preside in absence of the Chairman, and assume other duties as requested.
3. Secretary/Treasurer shall maintain a membership list, keep meeting minutes, send timely notihcation of
meetings to members, and keep records of moneys under the jurisdiction of the Council.
B. Duties of members:
Each member shall be familiar with S.A.L.T. Council purposes, attend regular and special council meetings,
and serve on at least one standing committee.
ɩe Steering Committee shall be comprised of the elected oċcers, chairmen of the standing committees, and
immediate past chairman of the Council. ɩe Steering Committee shall have the authority to conduct Council
business between meetings and to hll by appointment any oċce vacancy, with approval of the membership.
A. Standing committees of the S.A.L.T. Council shall be:
1. Advisory
2. Crime Irevention
3. Legislation
4. Resource Coordination
5. Training
6. Victim Assistance
7. Volunteers
8. Membership
9. Nominating
10. Media or Iromotional
B. Special committees may be appointed by the Council Chairman as needed.
C. Committees shall consist of the chairman, at least two Council members, and committee chairman
A. ɩe S.A.L.T. Council shall meet the hrst Tuesday of the month unless otherwise ordered by the Chairman,
with Steering Committee approval.
B. Special meetings may be called at the request of the Council Chairman.
C. A quorum shall consist of one-third of the current membership. A simple majority of the voting members
present shall be the voting rule.
Appendix F: S.A.L.T. Community Action Survey
AARP/Police Department(s)/Sheriff’s Office
Ve need your help to assist us in taking positive steps to improve our community. Ilease answer each question
by placing a check in the column that best describes your views. (Ilease complete this survey only once). To what
extent does each of the following aĊect your life.
Major Concern Minor Concern Very Little Concern
1. Fear of going out after dark.
2. Fear of fraud or con artists.
3. Vandalism in the neighborhood.
4. Lack of public transportation.
5. Sense of personal isolation.
6. Fear of robbery (i.e. purse snatching).
7. Fear of burglary (home invasion).
8. Vendors knocking on the door.
9. Neglect by family or friends.
10. Fear of personal abuse.
11. Other.

Some suggested improvements in this community include the following:
Vould these changes/additions improve your life.
Very Much To Some Degree A Total Waste
1. Street lighting improvements.
2. Expanded Neighborhood Vatch
3. Iublic transportation.
4. Iome security recommendations by
5. Group housing resident Councils.
6. Daily reassurance phone calls.
7. Senior van available at night.
In which section do you live: Northeast ____: Northwest ____: Southeast ____: Southwest ____
Town of ______________. Sex: Male___ Female___ Age: 55-65 ____: 65-75 ____: Over 75 ____
Optional Information: Your name and address might be helpful, but are not required:
Name: Ihone number:
TRIAD Quality of Life Survey
1. Vhich of these communities do you live in or closest to. (Triad to insert list of areas)
2. Do you live alone. Yes: ___ No: ___
3. Indicate in order of importance (1 being most important) the top 5 crime-related concerns in
your area:
___ Fear of Crime ___ Burglary ___ Solicitors/Vendors
___ Vandalism ___ Vacant/Abandoned Iouse ___ Iurse Snatching
___ Animal Iroblems ___ Traċc Concerns ___ Rape
___ Victimization ___ Fraud/scams ___ Abuse/Neglect
___ Residential Burglary ___ Murder ___ Assault
___ Mail Fraud ___ Telemarketers ___ Internet Fraud
4. Vould you be interested in any of the following crime prevention programs.
___ Neighborhood Vatch ___ Iome Security Survey ___ Iersonal Safety Skills
5. Vould you be interested in participating in a volunteer program to assist law enforcement.
___ Yes ___ No
Ilease specify areas of interest:
___ Neighborhood Vatch ___ Reassurance Visits ___ Oċce Vork
___ Victim-Assistance Irogram ___ Iome Security ___ Crime Irevention
6. Do you need assistance in: ___ Transportation/courier ___ Shopping ___ Running Errands
___ Other
Optional Information, helpful but not required: Age: ___ Sex: ___
Name: Ihone number:
ɩank you for taking the time to hll out this survey. ɩis survey will help your Triad and S.A.L.T.
Council (Seniors and Law [Enforcement] Together) to help you. Ilease return survey to (Name and
address) or call (phone number) to have a S.A.L.T. volunteer pick it up.
Appendix G: Sample Agenda
S.A.L.T Council Meeting
Date, Time, Location
I. Velcome - Chairman, Chief(s) and SheriĊ or
II. Introduction of Council Members and any guests
III. Minutes of Last Meeting
IV. Overview of S.A.L.T. Iurpose and Activities to Date
V. Crime Update (Current Statistics, Iroblems, Trends)
a. Reported Crimes
b. Input from seniors-Unreported crimes. Rumors.
VI. Reports from Committees
a. Crime Irevention Iresentations/Irograms
b. Volunteers
c. Reassurance Irograms
d. Victim Assistance
e. Training
f. Evaluation
VII. Short-Term Ilans to Meet Needs of Older Residents
VIII. Long-Term Ilans
IX. Crime Irevention Information-Tips for S.A.L.T.
Members, also to be shared with friends and acquaintances
X. Other Concerns
XI. Next Meeting
Appendix H: Sample Refrigerator Card
(Local Law Enforcement Agency)
Refrigerator Card
Whom to Contact and Phone Numbers:
Doctor’s Name:
Doctor’s Phone Numbere:
Health Care Plan:
Health Plan Number:
Medicare Number:
Date Card Completed:
Phone Number:
Allergies to Medications:
Date of Birth:
Major Illnesses:

(Local Law Enforcement Agency)
Back Side of Sample Refrigerator Card
Current Medications Date Updated Dosage Strength How Often Taken When Taken
Appendix I: Older Ierson Referral Card
“Seniors & Law Enforcement Together”
[Name of Local Law Enforcement Agency(ies)]
City: State: Zip:
Phone Number:
Nearest Relative:
Emergency Phone Number:
During the course of my duties, I observed the above person in need of the following:
Food: Security:
Clothing: Heat:
Care-Taking: Prevention Materials/Type:
Lighting: Other:
Officer Signature ID #
Older Ierson Referral Card (Backside)
Auxiliary Signature ID#
Appendix J: Adopt-A-Senior Irogram
ɩe Adopt-A-Senior program is sponsored by Triad. It is a joint venture involving
the _______________ Iolice Department, the _______________ SheriĊ's Oċce
and the _______________ Council on Aging. It is intended to provide support and
reassurance for older adults with special needs. Considered for participation are older
persons with limited mobility or medical problems, conhned to their homes, or living
alone with limited family support. ɩis program is intended to supplement care
provided by other persons/agencies.
ɩe Adopt-A-Senior purpose is to establish communication and cooperation among
law enforcement, state/local agencies, and seniors to maximize resources and ensure
that senior needs are monitored and referred as necessary.
ɩe following agencies will provide oċcers who will adopt one or more seniors.
Background information will be provided on the older person, explaining any special
needs or medical problems. ɩe oċcer will contact the referral agency to schedule
the hrst meeting with advance notice and a caseworker present for the initial visit, if
necessary. Afterward, the oċcer plans for future visits - at least one per week. ɩe
oċcer will call the senior(s) at least once a week.
During each visit or call, the oċcer should be aware of needs or attention required for
the senior. In the event an oċcer feels that a referral is in order, the oċcer should hll
out an Older Iersons Referral Card to notify the Adult Irotective Services, Senior
Referral Irogram, or appropriate service agencies.
ɩis program will be coordinated by ___________________________________.
Appendix K: Application for Triad Call-In Irogram
Name: Phone #:
Description of Home:
Name of Nearest Neighbor: Neighbor’s Phone #:
Medical Problems:
Doctor’s Name: Doctor’s Phone #:
Name of person to be notified in case of illness (name, address, phone number, relationship)
Signature: Date:
[Please describe exact location of your residence (example: route number, color of house, right or
left side of road, apartment house, etc.)]
Waiver of property damage: I hereby authorize any state or county law enforcement officer and/or medical unit to forcibly enter
my home (address above) in the event there is reasonable cause to suspect that I am in need of immediate medical assistance.
I agree to hold the state and county, together with its agents and/or employees, harmless for any damage to my property, both
personal and real, resulting from said forcible entry.
Appendix L: Ialmore Quiz-Selected Questions
True or False
1. In general, most seniors are fairly similar.
2. Over 15° of the U. S. population is now age 65 or older.
3. ɩe aged are more fearful of crime than are persons under 65.
4. Many older people (age 65+) are senile (i.e., defective memory, disoriented, or
5. More older persons (age 65+) have chronic illnesses that limit their activity than their
younger counterparts.
6. At least one-tenth of the aged are living in long-stay institutions (i.e., nursing homes,
mental hospitals, homes for the aged, etc.).
7. Older people usually take longer to learn something new.
8. Most older workers cannot work as eĊectively as younger workers.
9. ɩe reaction time of most old people tends to be slower than that of younger persons.
10. ɩe majority of older people are socially isolated and lonely.
11. ɩe majority of older people are working or would like to have some kind of work to
do (including housework and volunteer work).
12. Most seniors are set in their ways and unable to change.
1. False. ɩere appear to be as many diĊerences between older people as any age level. Some evidence
indicates that people tend to become more heterogeneous as they age.
2. False. In 2000, there are an estimated 35 million people age 65 or older in the United States,
accounting for almost 13 percent of the total population.
3. According to National Council on the Aging, in 1974, 23 percent of older people (65 and older) said
fear of crime was a 'very serious problem.' Today, 9 percent voiced the same worry. ɩe aged are more
acutely fearful of crime within this 9 percent, despite their lower rates of victimization. Iowever, in
part due to senior safety educational programs such as Triad, this fear has been reduced signihcantly
since 1974. Vomen, blacks, and metropolitan aged have higher percentages fearful of crime. ɩis more
acute fear of crime among the aged may be another reason their actual victimization rate is lower.
4. False. Only about 1° of all healthy people over 65 develop Alzheimer's each year. According to the
Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, increases in memory impairment normally
occur with advanced age: only about one-third of men and women age 85 and older has moderate or
severe memory impairment.
5. More persons over 65 have chronic illnesses that limit their activity (43°) than younger persons (10°).
6. False. Only 4.9° of persons 65 or over were residents of any long-stay institutions according to census
data. Even among those aged 75 or over, only 9.2° were institutionalized.
7. True. Experiments have consistently shown that older people take longer than younger people to learn
new material.
8. False. Despite declines in perception and reaction speed under laboratory conditions, studies under
actual working conditions generally show that older workers perform as well as, if not better than,
younger workers on most measures.
9. True. One of the best documented facts about the aged on record, it appears to be true regardless of the
kind of reaction that is measured.
10. False. Older individuals living alone comprise close to 30.5 percent of all older households. Vith
frequent visits and contacts with relatives and friends, participation in churches and other voluntary
organizations, the majority of older people are far from socially isolated and seldom lonely.
11. True. Seniors make up 14.5 percent of the current work force or have stated that they would like to
have some kind of work to do, including housework and volunteer work.
12. False. ɩere is some evidence that older people tend to become more stable in their attitudes, but it is
clear that older people do change and adapt to the many major life events that occur in old age.

Appendix M: Citizen Law Enforcement Academy Application
Date of Application
Name Date of Birth
City State 7ip
Vork Ihone Iome Ihone
Social Security # Driver's License #
Employer Occupation
Employer's Address
Iave you been arrested for any oĊense other than traċc: Vhen Vhere
Ilease list or describe any civic activities/organizations you are involved in:
Vhat experience have you had with law enforcement: (Circle One) Iositive Negative
Brieny explain:
Brieny explain your interest in the citizen academy:
Vhat do you expect to gain from attending this academy:
Vill you be able to attend all of the class sessions: (Schedule Attached) Yes No
Ierson to be contacted in case of emergency during your attendance at the Academy:
Relationship: Ihone:
Liability Vaiver
I hereby certify that the information contained in this application is true and complete to the best of my knowledge. You are hereby
authorized to make any investigation of my personal history deemed necessary for consideration to attend the Citizen Police Academy.
Signature Date
Appendix N: Independent Living Veek 2004
Release Form
I certify that I am the owner of this home and that my gross monthly income is less than $900.00
(one person) or $1200.00 (two persons). I request that the Independent Living Veek Team visit my
home and assess it for safety and security. I understand that I am under no obligation to make any
changes to my home and that I can withdraw my request if I change my mind. I also understand
that there is no fee for this service and that it may take up to 12 months to complete the authorized
repairs due to the workload of the Senior Assistance Irogram staĊ.
Iome Owner Date Ihone
City State 7ip
Iomeowner's Signature
Assessment Team Volunteer Signature
____Yes ____No I authorize ______________ County TRIAD Inc, and its related agencies
to utilize pictures of myself and my home if taken in any and all publications both paper and
electronic for the purposes of furthering this organization's eĊorts to improve the quality of life of
older residents in ______________ County.
Type of Construction:



Manufactured Iome

Mobile Iome
1. Vhat type of windows: Awning Double Iung Jalousie
2. Are windows/doors easy to open/close. Yes No
3. Are locks sturdy/easy to operate Yes No
4. If not, what type of deadbolt lock is required. Single lock Double lock
5. Does the door have a peephole. Yes No
Is it at proper height. Yes No
6. Does one need to be installed. Yes No
Floor Surfaces
7. Are any surfaces not safe, (tripping hazard). Yes No
8. Ias it been repaired. Yes No
9. If not, what type of surface is it and what needs to be done.
10. Are they in good repair. Yes No N/A
11. Are there handrails on both sides. Yes No N/A
12. Are stove knobs clearly marked, easy to use. Yes No
13. Are faucets easy to use. Yes No
14. Are there any leaks in or around the faucets. Yes No
If yes, where.
15. Can you get out of tub or shower with ease. Yes No
16. If no, should grab bars be installed. Yes No
17. Assess whether hand-held shower head is needed. Yes No
18. Assess whether shower chair is needed. Yes No
19. Is toilet seat secure. Yes No
Electrical outlets
20. Are there any outlets that are inoperable. Yes No
If so, how many. Vhere are they located.
Fire Safety:
21. Are there smoke detectors in all necessary areas. (Test each detector) Yes No
22. If the answer is no, how many were installed.
23. Is there a telephone available for emergencies. Yes No
24. Is telephone equipped with hearing enhancement. Yes No N/A
25. Are house numbers visible from street. Yes No
Project Information
Date Iroject Started: Date Iroject Completed:
Actual Cost:
StaĊ Iours: Volunteer Iours:
Iome Improvement Vorker Signature:
Assessment Form
Appendix O: Elopement Drill Evaluation Form
To be completed and sent to the Regional Director of Operations
Community: Date: Date:
Location of hidden item:
Time Drill Started: Time Drill Ended:
Yes No Comments
Lost subject prohle completed
Ioint of last seen
Apartments/rooms checked
Iead count initiated and completed
Community search conducted in a
timely, organized manner
All common/work areas searched
Outside search initiated and conducted
in a organized, timely manner
All staĊ followed protocol per missing
persons standard practice
Vas a lead person identihed and search
organized through lead
Overview and follow-up:
Signature of Iarticipants:
Signature of Iarticipants:
Each community will prepare a kit to be used in the event of an elopement. ɩe kit should be
inspected and updated regularly, and at the time of a missing resident drill.
Contents (or directions where to find these items in the community)
1. Obtain a copy of resident photo from the chart. Make at least four good copies: One for the
police, two for the search teams and one for the person in charge. Ihotos should be taken at
2. Flashlights (wide beam, shatter-resistant, batteries checked on drill, extra batteries available).
3. Internal diagram of the building(s), showing all exits, doors and areas by name or identiher.
4. Map(s) of immediate area with street names provided and addresses of buildings on the campus
as well as residents and nearby businesses. Suggest the map contain physical markers such as
parking lots, ponds, bridges, fences, bus stations, etc. whatever may be helpful when searching
the outside perimeter and can be communicated over a radio or cell phones during a search.
5. List of key phone numbers and cell phone numbers in very large print of the following:
- Front desk
- Administrators
- Iolice
- Fire Department
- Local hospital
6. Guidelines on what to do when neighbors or the public oĊer to assist.
* Tailor this response to each community and discuss in safety committee, as each community is
* ɩank them, and mention the police are also searching: provide a description of the resident and
clothing and instruct the public on what would be most helpful, e.g. turn on lights, search their
own area, yards, cars, stairwells, and who to call if resident is seen or found.
Missing Resident Response Kit
Elopement Risk Assessment
To be completed upon admission, quarterly, and with signihcant changes in condition.
Resident Name: Date:
1. Resident is alert and oriented and not at risk for elopement. Yes No
(if yes, to #1 sign and date tbe form, If no, complete tbe assessment)
2. Resident often requests to go home and/or is searching for home. Yes No
3. Resident has a history of leaving his/her home or facility. Yes No
4. Resident experiences increased confusion at certain times of day. Yes No
5. Resident has had a decline in cognitive status. Yes No
6. Resident walks/paces about facility and is often found at an exit door. Yes No
7. Resident is capable of independent mobility. Yes No
8. Resident resists redirection. Yes No
9. Resident attempts to follow others when leaving the building. Yes No
10. Resident has eloped from facility. Yes No
11. Resident representative has requested to have resident monitored. Yes No
Assessment Outcome:
Resident is an elopement risk Yes No
Resident placed on a safety check list Yes No
Resident is assigned a wander-guard Yes No
Signature: Date:


Administration on Aging
Public Inquiries Unit
330 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20201
Phone: (202) 619-0724
TDD: (800) 877-8339
Eldercare Locator (800) 677-1116
Fax: (202)357-3555
Alzheimer’s Association
National Headquarters
225 North Michigan Avenue, Fl. 17
Chicago, IL 60601
Phone: (800) 272-3900
Fax: (312) 335-1110
601 E. Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20049
(888) 687-2277
American Bar Association
Commission on Law and Aging
740 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
Phone: (202) 662-8690
Fax: (202) 662-8698
American Federation for Aging
Research (AFAR)
70 West 49th Street, 11th Floor
New York, NY 10018
Phone: (212) 703-9977
Fax: (212) 997-0330
Better Business Bureau
Elder Fraud Hotline
4200 Wilson Blvd, Suite 800
Arlington, VA 22203-1838
Phone: (703) 276-0100
Fax: (703) 525-8277
Consumer Action Handbook
Name and Address to: Handbook
Pueblo, Colorado 81009.
Phone: (888) 878-3256
Credit Bureaus:
To report to your Credit Bureaus:
• To report fraud, call (888)
EXPERIAN or (888) 397-3742,
fax to (800) 301-7196, or write to
P.O. Box 1017 Allen, TX 75013. To
order a copy of your credit report
($8.00 in most states), write to
P.O. Box 2104 Allen, TX 75013 or
call (888)EXPERIAN or
(888) 397-3742
• To OPT OUT of pre-approved
offers of credit and marketing
lists, call (800) 353-0809 or
(888)5OPTOUT or write to
P.O. Box 919 Allen, TX 75013
• www.experian.com
• To report fraud call (800) 525-
6285 or write to: P.O. Box 740250
Atlanta, GA 30374-0250
• To order a copy of your credit
report ($8.00 in most states) call
(800) 685-1111 or write to P.O. Box
740241 Atlanta, GA 30374-0241
• To OPT OUT of pre-approved
offers of credit, call (888)
567-8688 or write EQUIFAX
OPTIONS, P.O. Box 740123
Atlanta, GA 30374-0123
• www.equifax.com
• To report fraud, call (800) 680-7289
or write to P.O. Box 6790 Fullerton,
CA 92634
• To order a copy of your credit
report ($8.00 in most states), write
to P.O. Box 390 Springfield, PA
19064 or call (800) 888-4213
• To OPT OUT of pre-approved
offers of credit and marketing
lists, call (800) 680-7293 or (888)
5OPTOUT or write to P.O. Box
97328 Jackson, MS 39238
• www.tuc.com
Deaf Telephone Services;
Operational Services, directory
assistance 1 (800) 855-1155
Department of Health and
Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20201
Phone (202) 619-0257
Toll Free: (877) 696-6775
Department of Justice (DOJ)
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20530-0001
Phone: (202) 514-2000
TYY: (202) 514-0716
Direct Marketing Association:
Direct Mailing List Removal
Access web site and follow
removal instructions
1120 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10036-6700
Phone: (212) 768-7277

Direct Marketing Association:
Telephone Preference Service
Access web site and follow
removal instructions
Eldercare Locator
Phone: (800) 677-1116
Fax: (202) 296-8134
TYY: (800) 677-1116
Federal Interagency Forum on
Aging-Related Statistics
3311 Toledo Road, Room 6227
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Phone: (301) 458-4460
Fax: (301) 458-4037
FirstGov for Seniors
U.S. General Services Administration
1800 F Street, NW
Washington, DC 20405
Phone: (800) 333-4636
Federal Online Resources
www.FirstGov.gov — official federal
and state government web sites.
Hearing Aid Helpline
International Hearing Society
16880 Middlebelt Road
Livonia, MI 48154
(800) 521-5247
Home Safety Council
The Federal Citizen Information Center
Dept. 656L, Pueblo, CO 81009.
(888) 878-3256 and ask for Item 656L.

ID Fraud, Contact:
• Federal Trade Commission
• U.S. Postal Service www.usps.
• U.S. Secret Service
• U.S. Social Security
Administration www.ssa.gov
• Federal Bureau of Investigation
• U.S. Department of Justice
• Privacy Rights Clearinghouse
• Identity Theft Prevention and
Survival www.identitytheft.org
International Association of
Chiefs of Police
515 North Washington Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone: (800) 843-4227
Fax: (703) 836-4543
International Association of
Fire Chiefs
4025 Fair Ridge Drive, Suite 300
Fairfax, VA 22033-2868
Phone: (703) 273-0911
Fax: (703) 273-9363
Legal Services for the
Elderly (LSE)
130 West 42nd Street, 17th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Phone: (212) 391-0120
Fax: (212) 719-1939
Meals On Wheels Association
of America
203 South Union Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone: (703) 548-5558
Fax: (703) 548-8024
Medicare and
Medicaid Services
7500 Security Boulevard
Baltimore, MD 21244-1850
Phone: (877)267-2323
TTY: (866) 226-1819
Medicaid Fraud Control Unit:
(800) 371-0824
National Association of State
Directors of Veterans Affairs
National Association of Area
Agencies on Aging
1730 Rhode Island Ave, NW,
Suite 1200
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 872-0888
Fax: (202) 872-0057
National Association of State
Units on Aging
Support Center
1201 15th Street, NW, Suite 350
Washington, DC 20005
Phone: (202) 898-2578
Fax: (202) 898-2583

National Center for Injury
Prevention and Control
Mailstop K65
4770 Buford Highway NE
Atlanta, GA 30341-3724
Phone: (770) 488-1506
Fax: (770) 488-1667
National Center on Elder
Abuse (NCEA)
1201 15th Street, NW, Suite 350
Washington, DC 20005-2842
Phone: (202) 898-2586
Fax: (202) 898-2583
National Center for
Victims of Crime
2000 M Street, N.W., Ste. 480
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (800) 394-2255
National Committee for the
Prevention of Elder Abuse
1612 K Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006
Phone: (202) 682-4140
Fax: (202) 223-2099
National Council on
Aging, Inc. (NCOA)
300 D Street, SW, Suite 801
Washington, DC 20024
Phone: (202) 479-1200
Fax: (202) 479-0735
National Domestic
Violence Hotline
Phone: (800) 799-7233
TTY: (800) 787-3224
National Fire Protection
1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02169-7471
Phone: (617) 770-3000
Fax: (617) 770-0700
National Fraud
Information Center
(800) 876-7060
National Hospice and Palliative
Care Organization (NHPCO)
1700 Diagonal Road, Suite 625
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone: (800) 658-8898
Phone: (703) 837-1500
Fax: (703) 837-1233
National Institute of
Environmental Health
Sciences (NIEHS)
National Institute of Health (NIH)
PO box 12233
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Phone: (919) 541-3345
TTY: (919) 541-0731
National Long Term Care
Ombudsman Resource Center
1424 16th Street, NW, Suite 202
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 332-2275
Fax: (202) 332-2949
National Organization for Victim
Assistance (NOVA)
1730 Park road, NW
Washington, DC 20010
Phone: (800) TRY-NOVA
Phone: (202) 232-6682
Fax: (202) 462-2255

National Sheriffs’ Association
1450 Duke Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-3490
(800) 424-7827
Fax: (703) 519-8567
National Volunteer
Fire Council
1050 17th Street, NW, Suite 490
Washington, DC 20036
202/887-5291 Fax
1-888-ASK-NVFC (275-6832)
Social Security Administration
Office of Public Inquiries
Windsor Park Building
6401 Security Boulevard
Baltimore, MD 21235
Phone: (800) 772-1213
TTY: (800) 325-0778

Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration
Department of Health and Human
1 Choke Cherry Road
Rockville, MD 20857
Phone: (800) 729-6686
Phone: (240) 276-2000
TTY: (800) 487-4889
Fax: (301) 468-7394
Training and Technical
Assistance Center
Office for Victims of Crime
10530 Rosehaven Street
Suite 400, Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone: (866) 682-8822
TTY: (866) 682-8880
Fax: (703) 279-4673
U.S. Health & Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20201
U.S. Senate Special
Committee on Aging
G31 Dirksen Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
Phone: (202) 224-5364
Fax: (202) 224-8660
Volunteers of America
1660 Duke Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Phone: (800) 899-0089
Phone: (703) 341-5000
Fax: (703) 341-7000
Young Men’s Christian
Association (YMCA)
101 North Wacker Drive, 14th Floor
Chicago, IL 60606
Phone: (800) 872-9622
Phone: (312) 977-9063
Young Women’s Christian
Association (YWCA)
1015 18th Street, NW, Suite 1100
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: 202-467-0801
Fax: 202-467-0802
Ohio Resources
Buckeye State Sheriffs’ Association
6230 Busch Blvd., Suite 260
Columbus, OH 43229
(614) 431-5500
Ohio Crime Prevention Association
6277 Riverside Drive, Suite 2N
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 718-3211
Ohio Attorney General’s Offce
Criminal Justice Initiatives Section
150 East Gay Street, 25th Floor
Columbus, OH 43215
(614) 466-5610
Healthcare Fraud Section
150 East Gay Street, 17th Floor
Columbus, OH 43215
(614) 466-0722
17 South High St., Suite 800
Columbus, OH 43215
(866) 389-5653
Ohio Department of Aging
50 West Broad Street, 9th Floor
Columbus, OH 43215
(614) 466-5500 or (614) 466-6190 – TTY
Ohio Association of Chiefs of Police, Inc.
6277 Riverside Drive, Suite 2N
Dublin, OH 43017
(614) 761-0330
Ohio Domestic Violence Network
(800) 934-9840
Action Ohio Coalition for Battered Women
36 West Gay Street, Suite 311
Columbus, OH 43215
(888) 622-9315
Ohio Coalition for Adult Protective Services
1335 Dublin Road, Suite 214A
Dublin, OH 43215
(614) 481-3511
Buckeye State Sheriffs’ Association
6230 Busch Boulevard
Suite 300
Columbus, OH 43229
Ohio Association of Chiefs of Police
6277 Riverside Drive #2N
Dublin, OH 43017
Ohio Attorney General’s Offce
Crime Victims Assistance and Prevention
150 East Gay Street
25th Floor
Columbus, OH 43215
Ohio Crime Prevention Association
P.O. Box 857
Delaware, OH 43015
Ohio Department of Aging
50 West Broad Street
9th Floor
Columbus, OH 43215
Ohio Triad Partners


A Police Guide to Surveying
Citizens and Their
Bureau of Justice Assistance,
1993. This guide offers a practical
introduction for police practitioners to
two types of surveys that police find
useful: surveying public opinion and
surveying the physical environment.
It provides guidance on whether and
how to conduct costeffective surveys.
Assessing Responses to
Problems: An Introductory Guide
for Police Problem-Solvers
by John E. Eck (U.S. Department
of Justice, Office of Community
Oriented Policing Services, 2001).
This guide is a companion to the
Problem-Oriented Guides for Police
series. It provides basic guidance to
measuring and assessing problem-
oriented policing efforts.
Bringing Victims into
Community Policing
The National Center for Victims of
Crime and the Police Foundation.
(Bureau of Justice Statistics and
Office of Community Oriented
Policing Services, 2002).
Call Management and
Community Policing
Tom McEwen, Deborah Spence,
Russell Wolff, Julie Wartell, Barbara
Webster. (Bureau of Justice Statistics
and Office of Community Oriented
Policing Services, 2003).
Conducting Community Surveys
by Deborah Weisel (Bureau of Justice
Statistics and Office of Community
Oriented Policing Services, 1999).
This guide, along with accompanying
computer software, provides
practical, basic pointers for police in
Recommended Reading
conducting community surveys.
The document is also available at
The COPS Collaboration Toolkit:
How to Build, Fix, and Sustain
Productive Partnerships
Gwen O. Briscoe, Ph.D., Anna T.
Laszlo, Tammy A. Rinehart.
(U.S. Department of Justice, Office
of Community Oriented Policing
Services, 2001).
Crime Prevention Studies
Edited by Ronald V. Clarke
(Criminal Justice Press, 1993, et
seq.). This is a series of volumes of
applied and theoretical research on
reducing opportunities for crime.
Many chapters are evaluations of
initiatives to reduce specific crime
and disorder problems.
Excellence in Problem-Oriented
Policing: The 1999 Herman
Goldstein Award Winners
This document produced by the
National Institute of Justice in
collaboration with the Office of
Community Oriented Policing Services
and the Police Executive Research
Forum provides detailed reports of the
best submissions to the annual award
program that recognizes exemplary
problem oriented responses to various
community problems. A similar
publication is available for the award
winners from subsequent years. The
documents are also available at www.
Not Rocket Science? Problem-
Solving and Crime Reduction
by Tim Read and Nick Tilley (Home
Office Crime Reduction Research
Series, 2000). Identifies and describes
the factors that make problem-
solving effective or ineffective as it is
being practiced in police forces in
England and Wales.
Opportunity Makes the Thief:
Practical Theory for Crime
by Marcus Felson and Ronald V.
Clarke (Home Office Police Research
Series, Paper No. 98, 1998). Explains
how crime theories such as routine
activity theory, rational choice theory
and crime pattern theory have
practical implications for the police in
their efforts to prevent crime.
Problem Analysis in Policing
by Rachel Boba (Police Foundation,
2003). Introduces and defines
problem analysis and provides
guidance on how problem analysis
can be integrated and institutionalized
into modern policing practices.
Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide
to Reducing Crime and Disorder
Through Problem-Solving
by Karin Schmerler, Matt Perkins,
Scott Phillips, Tammy Rinehart and
Meg Townsend. (U.S. Department
of Justice, Office of Community
Oriented Policing Services, 1998).
Using Analysis for Problem-
Solving: A Guidebook for Law
Timothy S. Bynum. (U.S. Department
of Justice, Office of Community
Oriented Policing Services, 2004).

Alert Pages

According to the Administration on Aging A Profile of Older Americans:2003, 77.4% of all seniors lived in
metropolitan areas—50% in suburbs and 27.4% in central cities. The remainder 22.6% lived in non-
metropolitan areas. In addition, the elderly are less likely to change residence than other age groups.
About thirty-one percent of seniors—10.5 million, live alone. The Bureau of Justice Statistics report, Criminal
Victimization and Perceptions of Community Safety in 12 cities, 1998, states that an approximate 42% of
metropolitan residents cite that they were fearful of crime in their neighborhood. In contrast, 71% cited a fear
of crime in their city. Senior statistics typically are higher. Those fearful of crime state that assault with a
gun and robbery as the street crimes they most feared.
Residents of the same study stated that neighborhood conditions reinforced these fears and affected their
sense of safety. Those conditions included public drug use, transients/homeless, abandoned buildings and
cars, vandalism or graffiti, loitering, poor lighting, trash, and empty lots.
Neighborhood Safety for Law Enforcement:
In 2000, there were 7.7 million background checks con-
ducted in the purchase of a firearm. Two percent
were found to be prohibited purchasers. Prohibiting
factors included prior felonies, history of mental ill-
ness, drug addiction, and domestic violence (Bureau of
Justice Statistics, Improving Criminal History Records for Back-
ground Checks, 2002).
Approximately 89% of state criminal history repositories
were automated by 2001. States held about 63.6 mil-
lion criminal records on individuals, with 3 of 4 histo-
ries accessible for background checks (Bureau of Justice
Statistics, Improving Criminal History Records for Background
checks, 2002).
In 2003, an estimated 82.8 percent of the U.S. population
lived in a metropolitan area, with an estimated 1.2
million violent crime offenses (Federal Bureau of Investiga-
tion, Crime in the United States, 2003).
There were approximately eight property crimes to every
violent crime, on average, in 2003 (Federal Bureau of
Investigation, Crime in the United States, 2003).
Approximately 35% of those surveyed in metropolitan
areas reported violent and property crimes to the po-
lice (Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization and Per-
ceptions of Community Safety in 12 Cities, 1998).
Law Enforcement Community Projects:
The National Institute of Justice formed the Strategic
Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI) to
pinpoint homicide prevention for law enforcement. The
study states that to reduce overall crime, consider the
x Reduce high crime neighborhood poverty
x Eradicate drug demand
x Federally prosecute all illegal gun carriers
x Offer parenting classes; and,
x Support conflict resolution training and anti-gang
programming in the schools.
Provide a local anonymous vehicle for reporting crime
and suspicious activity in neighborhoods. This
can be mailer forms posted in your newspaper or
public places, or a telephone number in which to
leave detailed information (Office of Justice Programs,
Project Safe Neighborhoods).
Partner with neighborhood groups to combat
neighborhood crime. Involve job training agen-
cies, small businesses, mortgage lending institu-
tions, educational associations and local govern-
ment to address neighborhood decay (the National
Training and Information Center).
Through Project Safe Neighborhoods, identify the
most serious, violent offenders in the city and in-
crease the arrest, prosecution and incarceration
of these offenders. Studies found that 40% of
homicides were connected with more than one
assailant and many victims and suspects had
prior involvement in the criminal justice system
(Office of Justice Programs, Project Safe Neighborhoods).

1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
triad@sheriffs.org � www.nationaltriad.org
Neighborhood Safety, Community Efforts:
For vacant lots, work with your local Environmental
Protection Agency, city council, and other local
officials to clean up and transfer them to the com-
munity for parks and recreation areas (U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency, A cleaner Outdoors, 2004).
Neighborhood safety programs that work to fight crime
and drugs are entitled by federal law to up to 15
percent of federally seized drug assets, such as
money and property. Pursue funding for
neighborhood initiatives (the National Training and Infor-
mation Center).
Initiate a federally funded Project Safe Neighborhoods
initiative through your director of public safety and
local law enforcement entities. This project works
to combat gun violence and crimes associated
with gun possession (Office of Justice Programs, Project
Safe Neighborhoods).
Work with law enforcement, social service providers,
community groups, and religious organizations to
give seniors crime prevention tools help make
them less likely victims of crime . Practitioners
agree that senior and community interaction in-
creases a sense of security (National Crime Prevention
Council, Coalition Principle: Crime Prevention Requires Coop-
eration Among All Elements of the Community, 2004).
U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20531
Project Safe Neighborhoods
Office of Justice Programs
810 7th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Community Transportation Association of America
1341 G Street, N.W., 10th floor
Washington, DC 20005
(800) 891-0590
(202) 737-9197
U.S. Administration on Aging
Department of Health and Human Services
Washington, DC 20201
(202) 619-0724
(202) 357-3560 fax
Eldercare Locator (800) 677-1116
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20460
(202) 272-0167
National Training and Information Center
810 North Milwaukee Avenue
Chicago, IL 60622
(312) 243-3035
(312) 243-7044
Form Number NATI-04-07
Neighborhood Safety for the Individual:
Start or strengthen a Neighborhood Watch, Window
Watch, Adopt-A-Senior, or other neighborhood
Find out whether your area has community policing. If
not, contact your local police department or sheriffs
office to begin one. Build repoire with your offi-
Help those who need a hand making their homes more
secure, such as seniors, people living alone, or
persons with disabilities.
Trim shrubs, install wide-angle viewers, put in deadbolt
Avoid high-crime areas in your neighborhood and pair
or group up for evening excursions.
Provide Senior Transportation:
Transportation is one of the most common needs ex-
pressed by seniors that can often lead to ‘shut-in’ mental-
ity, exacerbating the fear of crime. In order to enhance
transportation options, work with your local Eldercare
Locator and the Administration on Aging to address the
following objectives:
x Better coordination of transport resources.
x Helping older adults recognize and use their
transportation options.
x Developing creative and flexible designs for
transportation services.

Elder Abuse and Death:
Of the 1.7 million senior deaths in 2000—about
574 were classified as homicides, suggesting
that some go undetected. Less than one per-
cent of elder deaths have autopsies.
Dr. Elizabeth Burton, MD, Baylor Univ. School
of Medicine, noted a 44% discordance on
cause of death between clinicians and patholo-
Elder Abuse Defined:
Elder abuse refers to any knowing, intentional,
or negligent act by a primary caregiver or
other, that willfully or through negligence,
causes a senior harm, serious risk, or death.
Abuse Facts:
The National Center on Elder Abuse states that
about two of three cases involve a caretaking
relative – estimating a 5-to-1 ratio of abuse
cases going unreported.
About 59% of crimes were neglect, 16% physi-
cal abuse, and 12% financial crimes.
The Senate Special Committee on Aging states
that there were 2.5 million abuse incidents; a 20
percent increase from ‘99 - 2000.
Self-neglect is abuse often due to diminished
mental or physical ability or social isolation.
Many seniors remain in a neglected/abusive
situation. A competent senior may have the
right to remain in an abusive situation.
Passive neglect - failing to provide proper nutri-
tion, hygiene, living conditions, or administer
medication is common, leading to serious
health problems or death.
Most frequently hidden, elder abuse may not be evident in your community.Victims depend-
ent on abusive caretakers may not report abuse. Financial exploitation may occur without the
victim’s knowledge.
The National Crime Victimization Survey cannot accurately measure elder abuse, as it is
vastly unreported, and the mentally impaired often cannot report victimization or describe de-
Abuse may be:
x Physical - Threatening/inflicting physical
pain or injury, or depriving of a basic need.
x Emotional - Inflicting mental pain, anguish,
or distress by verbal/nonverbal acts.
x Sexual - Non-consensual sexual contact.
x Exploitation - Taking, misusing, or conceal-
ing senior funds, property, or assets.
x Neglect - Failure by caregivers to ade-
quately provide food, shelter, and/or health
care for a senior.
x Abandonment - The desertion of a senior
by a caretaker.

1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
triad@sheriffs.org � www.nationaltriad.org
Elder Abuse warning signs:
Listed below are some indicators of possible abuse:
x Bruises, pressure marks, broken bones, abrasions,
burns, or untreated injuries in various stages of heal-
x Unexplained withdrawal from routine activities, a
sudden shift in alertness, and unusual depression.
x Bruises or bleeding around the breasts or genital
area, or unexplained STD’s.
x Sudden changes in financial situations, unex-
plained disappearance of funds or valuables, or unex-
plained transfer of assets to a family member or
someone outside the family.
x Bedsores, unattended medical needs, poor hy-
giene, and abnormal weight loss.
x Behavior such as belittling, threats, and other uses
of power and control by caretaker.
x Strained or tense relationships, frequent argu-
ments between the caregiver and elderly person.
x Unusual behavior usually attributed to dementia
(e.g. sucking, biting, rocking).
x Desertion of an elder person in a hospital, nursing
facility, shopping center, or other location.
National Center on Elder Abuse
1225 I Street, NW Suite 725
Washington, DC 20005
(P) (202)989-2586
National Committee for the Prevention of Elder
Eldercare Locator:
Elder Abuse FAQ’s/NCEA Publications:
Form Number NATI-04-04
Self-Neglect signs:
Most cases reported to Adult Protective Services
are due to self-neglect. Self-neglect is often coupled
with health factors, lack of a social support group,
Alzheimer's disease/dementia, or drug/alcohol
Self-neglect often includes:
xFailure to take medications
xFailure to seek medical treatment
xNeglecting a stove/oven
xPoor personal hygiene
xInappropriate clothing (e.g. no coat in winter)
xPoor housekeeping
Types of Offenders:
Generally, a combination of psychological, social,
and economic factors, along with the mental and
physical conditions of the victim and the perpetra-
tor contribute to elder maltreatment.
Well-Intended, normally competent individuals—
now overwhelmed, highly stressed, with low re-
Well Intended, Impaired individuals—may have
chronic or cyclical impairments.
Narcissistic Individuals—Self centered, exclusive
interest in their own needs.
Abusive Individuals—Chronically angry, unhappy,
critical, and feels justified in abuse.
Sadistic Individuals—Derive a sense of power from
controlling/inflicting pain and suffering on others.

Identity theft is the fastest growing crime in the country – Last year nearly 10 million Americans had
their identities stolen. This cost nearly $50 billion with the average victim loss being $4,800. Sen-
iors are defrauded at twice the rate of the rest of the population.
Seniors are targeted for crimes for several reasons:
Availability—retired, less mobile, and perhaps in poor health, seniors are often home for cold calls,
and identification information.
Vulnerability—seniors alone with caretakers, unscrupulous family members, and with possible
memory impairments are targeted for identification fraud.
Money—targeted seniors are a ready money supply from savings or property.
Loneliness- Lack of friendships can position seniors to be receptive to fraud.
Identity Theft Defined
Identity assumed to commit fraud under the as-
sumed identity is identity theft. A criminal will
assume the name, address, social security
number, bank or credit account number, or
other identifying information, without the victims’
knowledge to commit fraud or other crimes.
Criminals obtain personal information by rum-
maging through trash, stealing wallets, purses,
mail, pre-approved applications, or tax informa-
tion. They pose as telemarketers or sweep-
stakes employees to get personal information.
They send false e-mails, requesting informa-
tion. Dishonest employees steal employer per-
sonnel records. Criminals will watch or listen
for pin numbers, calling or credit card numbers.
Identification Theft Facts:
A 2003 survey sponsored by the Federal Trade
Commission (FTC) found that almost 10 million
adults had their personal information misused
through identity theft in the past year. (Federal Trade
Commission, 2003.)
In 2003, according to the FTC Identity Theft
Data Clearinghouse, there were 214,905 iden-
tity theft complaints. 54% of the complaints did
not notify a law enforcement agency, indicating
that many victims do not know how to report
and rectify these crimes.
Victims spent an average of 30 hours resolving
the problems brought on by a theft of their iden-
tity in 2002. The FTC survey suggests that
Americans spent almost 300 million hours re-
solving problems related to identity theft in the
past year.
According to the FTC, 66% of identification
theft victims gave criminals requested personal
information. Actions related to identification
theft can be a federal offense and violations of
these federal laws are investigated by Federal
Law Enforcement agencies including:
x Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I.).
x United States Secret Service.
x United States Postal Inspection.
x Social Security Administration /Inspector General.
x Federal Identity Theft cases are prosecuted by the
United States Department of Justice

Credit Bureaus:
To report fraud, call (888) EXPERIAN, fax to
(800) 301-7196, or write to P. O. Box
1017 Allen, TX 75013
To order a copy of your credit report($8.00
in most states) write to P. O. Box 2104
Allen, TX 75013 or call (888)EXPERIAN
or (888) 397-3742
To OPT OUT of pre-approved credit offers
and marketing lists, call (800) 353-0809
or write to P. O. Box 919 Allen, TX
To report fraud call (800) 525-6285 or write:
P. O. Box 740250 Atlanta, GA 30374
To order a copy of your credit report:
($8.00 in most states) call (800) 685-
1111 or write to P. O. Box 740241 At-
lanta, GA 30374-0241
To OPT OUT of pre-approved offers of
call (888) 567-8688 or write EQUIFAX
OPTIONS, P. O. Box 740123 Atlanta,
GA 30374-0123
To report fraud, call (800) 680-7289 or write:
P. O. Box 6790 Fullerton, CA 92634
To order a copy of your credit report($8.00
in most states), write to P. O. Box 390
Springfield, PA 19064 or call (800) 888-
To OPT OUT of pre-approved offers of
credit and marketing lists, call (800) 680-
7293 or write to P. O. Box 97328 Jack-
son, MS 39238
To Combat ID Theft:
Better Business Bureau
Elder Fraud Hotline
Phone: (804) 780-2222
Consumer Action Handbook
Name and Address to: Handbook
Pueblo, Colorado 81009.
(888) 878-3256
Consumer Response Center
Federal Trade Commission
Washington, DC 20580
(202) FTC-HELP [382-4357]
TDD: (202) 326-2502
Reporting ID Theft: (when relevant)
Federal Trade Commission
U.S. Postal Service
U.S. Secret Service
U.S. Social Security Administration
Federal Bureau of Investigation
U.S. Department of Justice
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse
Identity Theft Prevention and Survival
Form Number NATI-04-02
1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
triad@sheriffs.org � www.nationaltriad.org

Presently, about one of every eight citizens in a given community is over 65 years of age. And, it is
estimated that as many as 90 percent of these older Americans, are still licensed to drive.
As we grow older, physical changes occur that affect our ability to drive safely. Eyesight, one of the
most critical aspects of driving, begins to deteriorate after age 40. Reaction time and flexibility also
diminish as we age.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration states that if a person lives long enough, physi-
cal changes or diminished ability due to disease will alter the performance level of critical skills
needed to drive.
Aging Facts:
In ten years, the US population over 65
grew by 47%.
By 2030 there will be 70 million seniors liv-
ing in the US (Administration on Aging).
In 2000 about 35 million Americans were 65
or older—about one of every eight (US Cen-
In 2000, there were 20 million older women
and 14 million older men, a ratio of 141
women for every 100 men. The ratio in-
creased with age (US Census).
There are 11 times more seniors (65+) in
America than there were in 1900, more
than tripling during the last century (US
There are 33 times more people over 85 at
the beginning of this century than in
1900 (US Census).
Aging Driver Facts:
Despite lower risk-taking, seniors are more
likely to be hurt or die in a car crash
Only teenagers have a higher crash fatality
rate than seniors (IIHS).
Older drivers frailty makes them more likely
to hurt themselves rather than others
(NHTSA and others).
Drivers over 65 are almost twice as likely to
die in a crash- over 75 are 2 ½ times
more likely to die and those over 85 are
almost 4 times more likely to die (AAA Foun-
dation for Traffic Safety).
Senior crash fatality rates have climbed
while overall fatality rates for all ages
combined have remained stable since
1991 (NHTSA).
Older drivers made up 10 percent of all li-
censed drivers in 2000, compared with 8
percent in 1989 (NHTSA).
There were 19.1 million older licensed driv-
ers in 2001—a 36% increase from 1990
By 2020, there will be more than 40 million
licensed drivers ages 65 and older
Driver Fat alit y Rat e ( per 100 million VMT)
Sour ce: NHTSA

1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
triad@sheriffs.org � www.nationaltriad.org
Licensed Drivers 70+ (Projected)
Source: NHTSA
1990 2000 2010 2020 1990 2000 2010 2020
Aging Driver Facts:
In 2002, 81 percent of fatal accidents involv-
ing older drivers happened during the
day. 75% involved another vehicle
Aging causes changes in psychomotor, cog-
nitive and visual ability—necessary for
safe motor vehicle operation (Widely cited).
Senior drivers are over-represented in inter-
section crashes, and senior pedestrians
are up to five times more likely to die in
crashes than any other age group (NHTSA).
According to the Insurance Institute for
Highway Safety, about half of fatal
crashes in 2002 involving drivers 80
years and older occurred at intersections
and involved more than one vehicle.
Training Issues:
Officers need to be trained about aging—
how it affects people, its broad impact on
society, its impact on police services de-
livery. They especially need to be
trained how an older driver population
will affect traffic safety.
Law enforcement officers need to know how
to recognize the signs of dementia.
Law enforcement officers need sensitivity
training that focuses on the needs of an
aging community.
Law Enforcement’s Role:
Cite offenders. The scope of the problem is
likely understated because officers are
reluctant to take enforcement action
against “grandma and grandpa.”
Know your state’s referral process for driver
licensing retesting. Request retests for
errant drivers as appropriate.
Build coalitions to effectively channel com-
munity resources. Undertake or
strengthen Triads.
Act as a referral resource to link seniors,
adult children and community outreach
Form Number NATI-04-01


F R A U D S , S C A MS , A N D T H E S E N I O R C I T I Z E N
Seniors are defrauded at twice the rate of the rest of the population. Through the efforts of officers
and Triad volunteers, seniors recognize fraud and scams and those who perpetrate them.
Seniors are targeted for crimes for several reasons:
x Availability—Seniors are often home for cold calls, and scam artists.
x Isolation—Very often seniors do not live in proximity of family and lack individuals to review in-
vestment or decision making.
x Loneliness- Lack of friendships can position some to be receptive to a friendly voice and con.
x Health issues—As one ages, natural health issues evolve. This often leaves seniors unable to
repair and upkeep homes, positioning them for scams and fraud.
x Money—Seniors are often targeted because cons see them as trusting and an easy target for
money from savings or property.
Fraud and Scam Facts:
Losses associated with home improvement
fraud against persons 65 and over, typically
range from $1,000 to $5,000, although figures
as high as $10,000+ have been reported
(American Association of Retired Persons. 2001).
Securities regulators estimate that securities
and commodities fraud totals approximately $40
billion a year (National White Collar Crime Center. 2002. Securi-
ties Fraud. Richmond, VA).
Check fraud is estimated to cost United States
businesses $10 billion a year (National White Collar Crime
Center. 2002. Check Fraud. Richmond, VA).
There are approximately $500 million worth of
checks forged annually (Federal Trade Commission. 2003).
The average loss to consumers from telemar-
keting fraud in 2002 was $845. The three most
common forms of fraud were telephone offers
for credit cards (27 percent); work-at-home of-
fers (18 percent); and prizes and sweepstakes
(16 percent) (National Fraud Information Center. 2003. Telemarket-
ing Fraud Statistics. Washington, DC: National Consumer League).
Twenty-six percent of victims of telemarketing
fraud overall in 2002 were age 60 or older. The
elder age group was victim of prizes and
sweepstakes fraud at a higher rate of 61 per-
cent (National Consumer League. 2003. Credit Card Scams Bump
Prizes and Sweepstakes as #1 Telemarketing Fraud. Washington, DC).
It has been estimated by the U.S. General Ac-
counting Office that healthcare fraud totals 10
percent of total healthcare expenditures each
year. Total expenditures currently exceed $1
trillion a year, which puts annual healthcare
fraudulent losses at $100 billion (National White Collar
Crime Center. 2002. Healthcare Fraud: Richmond, VA).
The National Fraud Information Center received
reports of Internet fraud totaling $14,647,933
during 2002. Ninety percent of the losses oc-
curred at online auction sites (National Fraud Information
Center. 2003. Internet Fraud Statistics. Washington, DC: National Consumer
Consumer Sentinel, the fraud complaint data-
base developed and maintained by the Federal
Trade Commission received 380,103 consumer
fraud and identity theft complaints in 2002. Con-
sumers reported losses from fraud of more than
$343 million (Federal Trade Commission 2003).

1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
Fighting Elderly Fraud and Scams
Predatory Lending: Home loans and preda-
tory lending schemes can place older in-
dividuals in a situation where they can no
longer pay their mortgage, resulting in the
loss of their home. Many times, these of-
fers come by telephone, mail, e-mail and
even the seniors’ door.
Home Improvements: According to the Con-
sumer Federation of America, home im-
provement and contractor-related com-
plaints are the second largest consumer
complaint in the U.S. Often, these home
improvement scams are directed toward
the elderly. Frequent complaints involve
workmanship issues, overpricing, aban-
donment or unfinished work, failure to
meet building code requirements, and fail-
ure to use a written contract.
Telemarketing: Congress estimates that
consumers lose more than $40 billion an-
nually to telemarketing fraud. As many as
one in ten callers may be fraudulent.
AARP finds that more than half of tele-
marketing fraud victims were over the age
of 50. These calls may take the form of
phony charity collection, investment op-
portunities, sweepstakes, or lotteries.
Better Business Bureau
Elder Fraud Hotline-Phone: (804) 780-2222
Consumer Response Center
Federal Trade Commission
Washington, DC 20580
(202) 382-4357 TDD: (202) 326-2502
Credit Bureaus:
To report fraud, call (888) 397-3742 or write
to P. O. Box 1017 Allen, TX 75013
To report fraud call (800) 525-6285 or write :
P. O. Box 740250 Atlanta, GA 30374
To report fraud, call (800) 680-7289 or write
to P. O. Box 6790 Fullerton, CA 92634
Direct Marketing Association: Telephone/ Di-
rect Mailing List Removal-Access web site and
follow removal instructions
To verify a charitable organization, contact:
National Fraud Information Center
National Charities Information Bureau
1-212-929-6300 (NY)
Philanthropic Advisory Service Council of Better
Business Bureaus
Form Number NATI-04-03
Warning Signs of Elder Fraud schemes
"Free" gifts that require you to pay shipping and
handling fees, redemption fees or gift taxes
before delivery
"High profit, no-risk" investments
"Act now" and other high pressure sales tactics
A request for a credit card number for identifica-
tion or to verify that you have won a prize
Refusal to provide written information or even
the most basic details about an organization
Organizations that are unfamiliar or have only a
post office box for an address

Telemarketing Fraud Facts:
The National Fraud Information Center states
that consumer telemarketing fraud loss in
2002 was $845. The three most common forms
of fraud were telephone offers for:
x credit cards (27%);
x work-at-home offers (18%);
x and prizes and sweepstakes (16 %).
Congress estimates that consumers lose $40+
billion annually to telemarketing fraud. As many
as one in ten callers may be fraudulent.
AARP finds that more than half of telemarketing
fraud victims were over the age of 50.
Internet Fraud Facts:
Average Internet Fraud Loss: $803
The National Fraud Information Center received reports of Internet fraud totaling $14,647,933 dur-
ing 2002. Ninety percent of the losses occurred at online auction sites. (National Fraud Information Center.)
Twenty-six percent of victims of telemarketing fraud overall in 2002 were age 60 or older and was
victim of prizes and sweepstakes fraud at a higher rate of 61 percent. (National Consumer League.)
Top 6 Internet Frauds Jan-Jun 2004
Online Auctions* 28%
General Merchandise 19%
Nigerian Money Offers 9%
Phishing 5%
Information/Adult Services 3%
Lotteries/lottery clubs 2%
How Telemarketing Scams Work
A fraudulent telemarketing operation is usually
a "boiler room," where seasoned operators try
to scam people.
Cold Calls. Scammers may get your number
from a telephone directory, a mailing list or a
list of those who have responded to previous
telemarketing solicitations.
Direct Mail. You may get mail saying you've
won a prize or a contest. The instructions tell
you to respond with certain information. If you
do, you'll be called by a fraudster.
Broadcast and Print Advertisements. You
may place a call in response to an advertise-
ment. The fact that you initiate the call doesn't
mean the business is legitimate.
Crowded Inbox
The flow of spam continues to rise, even
though a federal anti-spam law took effect on
January 1, 2004.
Spam as a
of all e-mail
Source: Symantec
‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04

To report fraud, call (888) EXPERIAN or
(888) 397-3742, fax to (800) 301-7196, or
write to P. O. Box 1017 Allen, TX 75013
To OPT OUT of pre-approved offers of credit
and marketing lists, call (800) 353-0809
or write to P. O. Box 919 Allen, TX 75013
To report fraud call (800) 525-6285 or write:
P. O. Box 740250 Atlanta, GA 30374
To OPT OUT of pre-approved offers of credit:
call (888) 567-8688 or write EQUIFAX
OPTIONS, P. O. Box 740123 Atlanta,
GA 30374-0123
To report fraud, call (800) 680-7289 or write:
P. O. Box 6790 Fullerton, CA 92634
To OPT OUT of pre-approved offers of credit
and marketing lists, call (800) 680-7293
or write to P. O. Box 97328 Jackson, MS
Better Business Bureau
Elder Fraud Hotline
Phone: (804) 780-2222
Internet Fraud Watch
(800) 876-7060
Consumer Response Center
Federal Trade Commission
600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20580
(877) FTC-HELP [382-4357]
TDD: (202) 326-2502
Direct Marketing Association (Sweepstakes)
National Fraud Information Center
Federal Bureau of Investigation
U.S. Department of Justice
Privacy Rights Clearinghouse
Identity Theft Prevention and Survival
Form Number NATI-04-05
1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
triad@sheriffs.org � www.nationaltriad.org
To Combat Telemarketing/Internet Theft:
Don’t be pressured to make a quick decision.
Don’t give your credit card, account, or Social
Security number.
Be cautious of statements that you’ve won a
prize-send no money to claim it.
Don’t agree to pay a registration or shipping fee
to receive a “prize.”
Check out a charity before you give. Ask how
much goes to the charity.
Beware of offers to “help” you recover money
you may have lost previously.
Check out unsolicited offers with the Better
Business Bureau, local consumer protection
agency, or state Attorney General’s office.

According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics of 2003, property crime declined through 2002 and stabilized in
2003. Violent crime rates have declined since 1994, reaching the lowest level ever recorded in 2003. How-
ever, personal victimization in 2002 of those over 65 were reported only 58.1% of the time.
Of crimes reported in 2002, only 6.5% of all property crimes affected those 65 and over. Of all reported
crimes of violence and assault, 11.6% were 50 and older. Statistically, seniors are the minority group af-
fected by violent and assault crimes.
Specifically, crimes of violence occurred during the day (6am-6pm) 52.7% of the time. Nighttime crimes of
violence occurred 45.6% of the time.
Specifically, property crimes occurred during the day (6am-6pm) 37.9% of the time. Nighttime property
crimes occurred 42.4% of the time.
Public Safety:
Crimes of violence happened at or near the
home in 31.7% of the cases reported.
Over 90% of all crime occurs after dark, states
the National Institute of Justice.
54.1% of robbery and assaults reported in-
volved strangers, and occurred on a street
other than near the home.
Seniors over 50 report being assaulted 3.8
times more than that of property crimes, such
as robbery or purse snatching.
Parking Facilities:
Robbery and assault happened in a parking lot
or garage in 43.2% of cases reported. In 30.8%
of these cases, the offender was a stranger.
According to the U.S. Department of Justice,
parking facilities are more likely settings for
crime—both violent and property—than all other
real estate except residential.
Parking facilities comprise a large area with low
levels of activity. Violent crime is more likely to
occur in a parking facility than in other commer-
cial facilities.
Public Transportation Safety:
Of incidents reported, only 5.5% of robbery or
assaults happened on public transportation.
Elevator Safety:
Stairs, lobbies, and elevators have been at
highest risk for personal crime incidents in park-
ing facilities, due to the constrained and iso-
lated nature of the space.
Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003

1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
Protecting Yourself While Out
On the Street: Watch for loiterers. Do not
carry large sums of money. Travel with
others. Travel on well traveled, well lit
streets. Be aware of your surroundings.
If followed, go into the nearest business
or to the nearest occupied house.
On Public Transportation: While waiting,
stand near others who are also waiting. If
the area is deserted, stand near an occu-
pied, well-lit building. Be aware of those
around you on public transport. If empty,
sit near the driver. At your destination, be
aware of those who exits with you. After
dark, attempt to get off the bus in well-
lighted areas. Have someone meet you.
On the Elevator: Observe elevator interior
before entering. Wait until the next eleva-
tor if you are uncertain of an occupant.
Stand near the control panel—if accosted,
press ALL buttons. If a suspicious person
enters the elevator, exit before the door
closes. Before exiting from the elevator,
observe the corridor for suspicious activ-
ity. Be aware of your surroundings.
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Crime Prevention Tips
Crime Prevention Through Environmental
Design in Parking Facilities
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
National Institute of Justice
Washington, DC 20531
Research in Brief, 1996, NCJ 157310
Smith, M.
Criminal Victimization in the United States
2002 Statistical Tables
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics
December 2003, NCJ 200561
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Physical Environment and Crime
Research Report, 1995, NCJ 157311
Taylor, Ralph B., and Adele V. Harrell
Form Number NATI-04-09
Guarding Against Purse/Wallet Snatchers
Remove the opportunity. Do not carry a
purse/wallet, but opt for a belt-pack, fanny
pack or other means.
Shop with a friend.
If you carry a purse/wallet, never allow anyone
to see how much money you are carrying.
Do not sit purse or wallet on a counter while ex-
amining merchandise.
Walk confidently with your head up and show a
sense of purpose.
Carry only items that are essential. Photocopy
identification, credit cards, and medical cards
for replacement purposes, and keep in a
safe place.
If a criminal who wants your money, purse or
valuables confronts you, cooperate and give
them up.

Vandalism is the willful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of any public
or private property, without the consent of the owner—costing schools, homeowners, businesses,
youth, and others more than $15 billion a year. (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1998)
When compared with other age groups, persons age 65 or older were disproportionately affected by
property crimes. More than nine in ten crimes against the elderly were property crimes, such as
vandalism. (U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics 1998).
Annually on average, 2.5 million property crimes—home, vehicle, and property crimes, including
vandalism—against persons ages 65 or older occurred (U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics 1998).
Juveniles and Vandalism:
Law enforcement made approximately
136,500 arrests of juveniles for vandal-
ism. This represents 44% of all vandal-
ism arrests. Most vandals are young
people (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Pre-
vention, 2000).
Female proportions of all juvenile arrests for
vandalism increased to 12% in 1997 (Office
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2000).
In 1997, 49% of vandalism cases referred to
juvenile courts were handled outside of
the courtroom—meaning the juvenile
served in probation, community service
or similar social program (Office of Juvenile Jus-
tice and Delinquency Prevention, September 2004).
About half of all cases referred to juvenile
court intake are handled informally, or
without charges. Most informally proc-
essed cases are dismissed (Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention, June 2003).
Juveniles are more likely to commit crimes
in groups and are more likely to be ar-
rested than are adults (Crime in the United States,
Vandalism accounted for 105,900, or 43% of
all juvenile arrests in 2002 (Crime in the United
States, 2002)
In 2002, juveniles were involved in approxi-
mately 4 of 10 vandalism arrests (Crime in
the United States, 2002).
Seniors and Vandalism:
According to the National Institute of Justice,
neighborhood physical conditions, such
as vandalism and graffiti, contribute to
resident concerns for personal safety
and their desire to leave their neighbor-
hood (Impacts of Specific Incivilities on Responses to
Crime and Local Commitment, 1979-1994).
A study by the Consortium for Political and
Social Research draws a strong correla-
tion between social disorder (teen va-
grancy and vandalism) and residential
fear of crime, victimization, and negative
neighborhood perceptions (Evaluation of the
Impact of Innovative Policing Programs on Social Disorder in
Seven Cities in the United States, 1983-1990).
A Fall, 2000 Gallup Poll stated that 12% of
all US households had had one’s home,
car, or property vandalized. In addition,
more than one fourth of these crimes
were not reported to police (The Gallup Poll,
Vandalism results in local governments
spending tax dollars for clean up ef-
forts—money that could better serve
other social services (Bureau of Justice Assis-
tance, Office of Justice Programs, 2004)
In 2000, it is estimated that 6.1 million
households in the United States were van-
dalized-most unreported (Crime and Victimization in
America Statistical Overview, The National Center for Victims of
Crime, 2002).

1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
triad@sheriffs.org � www.nationaltriad.org
To Counter Vandalism:
x Stay active in your community to feel safer
and to make your neighborhood safer.
x Train citizens to recognize/report suspicious
and criminal activities in their neighborhood.
x Join a Neighborhood/Apartment/Window
Watch, a Triad, or a Citizen Patrol.
x Report broken street lights, clean up parks
and vacant lots and lobby local government
for better public lighting.
x Start a clean-up crew. Ask local businesses
to donate supplies for covering graffiti, or
tools and equipment for repairing vandalized
x Write articles on the cost of vandalism and
graffiti, their impact on neighborhoods and
school/other budgets for activities, and how
the courts—juvenile and adult—treat van-
x Start a vandalism hotline in cooperation with
law enforcement and school officials that
lets callers anonymously report incidents of
vandalism and gives tips about vandals.
x Work with your community to adopt a street
or park monthly. Clean up, plant trees,
bushes, and flowers. Repair equipment and
install trash containers.
National Crime Prevention Council
1000 Connecticut Avenue, NW, 13th Floor
Washington, DC 20036
(202)296-1356 (fax)
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Juvenile Justice / Delinquency Prevention
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Boys & Girls Clubs of America
1230 West Peachtree Street NW
Atlanta, GA 30309
(404)815-5789 (fax)
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
PO Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
(301)519-5212 (fax)
Keep America Beautiful, Inc.
1010 Washington Boulevard
Stamford, CT 06901
(203)325-9199 (fax)
Form Number NATI-04-06
Reasons for Vandalism:
x Feeling a need to fit in
x Please a friend
x Parent retribution/Defiance
x Backlash to pressures at home
x Peer pressure/acceptance
x For fun
x Counter low self esteem
x Identify turf or territory (gang related)
x Anger/Revenge
x Boredom

A single senior victimization can frighten a community of seniors. They abandon patterns of
visiting friends, going to worship, shopping, and other social interaction. According to the
American Nurses Association, "Secondary Victimization" can lead to a condition of hyper
vigilance, suspicion and paranoia. This becomes more acute with violent crimes.
The U.S. Department of Justice states that among victims of non-lethal violence, persons 65
or older were about 6 times more likely than younger persons to never go out at night.
For the isolated or incapacitated senior, perception of the outside world is based on, and often
skewed by, media reports, who often sensationalize senior crime.
What are targeted Crimes?
Frauds and scams, purse snatching, pick
pocketing, theft of checks from the mail and
crimes in long-term care settings –more often
happen to, or target, older victims according
to AARP studies. Elder abuse always hap-
pens to seniors, of course.
The elderly fear the possibility of crime,
even if they have not been victims. Often,
seniors take precautions and continue with
their lives. Others acutely alter their life-
style or withdraw, debilitating the senior.
Elder victimization has far-reaching conse-
quences, such as slower injury recuperation-
Physical and emotional trauma can lead to
According to the Department of Justice, rob-
bery accounted for a quarter of the violent
crimes against persons age 65 or older. Fi-
nancial losscan do irreparable damage to a
limited budget as well as emotional well be-
Victimization may destabilize an older per-
son’s sense of security. It can compromise
the will to cope with future problems.
Combating Vulnerability
Address seniors often unwarranted fear of
crime. Develop programs helping seniors to
realistically assess/reduce victimization risk.
Implement or expand senior sensitive
crime prevention programs with the fol-
lowing factors in mind:
x Prepare crime statistics for elderly vic-
timization. Explain to seniors what, when
and where crimes are occurring.
x Dispel unwarranted or exaggerated fears.
Surveys can indicate whether statistics
and actual criminal activity are consistent.
x Plan a crime prevention education cam-
paign to reach seniors – briefly, clearly,
and frequently.
x Where other agencies sponsor crime pre-
vention programs for elderly citizens, ex-
pand those efforts.

1450 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314
703-836-7837 phone � 703-519-8567 fax
triad@sheriffs.org � www.nationaltriad.org
Home Safety Tips
x Lock your doors and windows, use deadbolt
locks, install a good security system, get a
noisy dog, pin your windows.
x Join a Neighborhood/Apartment/Window
Watch, a Triad, or a Citizen Patrol.
x Never hide a key outside your home. Make
sure your keys are readily available as you
approach your house.
x Use a timer to turn on lights, radio or TV
while you are away to give the impression
that someone is home.
x Keep the outside of your home well illumi-
nated at night.
x Install a panoramic peephole and use it
when answering the door.
x Ask for ID from workmen. If you remain sus-
picious, call the company.
x Never let people know that you live alone.
Record answering machine messages in the
plural, use initials on your mailbox and in
phonebook listings.
x If you arrive at home and suspect a break-in,
DO NOT go into the house. Call police from
a cell phone or neighbors home.
x Trim plants away from windows and doors.
Plant prickly bushes under windows and
never leave a ladder or chairs outside the
home that can be used to gain entry.
x If you live in an apartment building, avoid
going into the laundry room or garage alone.
National Crime Prevention Council
1000 Connecticut Avenue, NW, 13th Floor
Washington, DC 20036
(202)296-1356 (fax)
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Juvenile Justice / Delinquency Prevention
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Boys & Girls Clubs of America
1230 West Peachtree Street NW
Atlanta, GA 30309
(404)815-5789 (fax)
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
PO Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
(301)519-5212 (fax)
Keep America Beautiful, Inc.
1010 Washington Boulevard
Stamford, CT 06901
(203)325-9199 (fax)
Form Number NATI-04-06
Senior Safety Tips
Three reasons seniors are targets of violence :
Lack of Awareness—Know where you are and
what is going on around you. Look alert.
Body Language—Keep your head up, swing
your arms, stand straight.
Wrong Place, Wrong Time—Don’t walk alone
or in unfamiliar neighborhoods. If you sense
something is wrong, get away quickly.
This project was supported by Grant No. 97-
DD-BX-0003 awarded by the Bureau of Justice
Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S.
Department of Justice. The Assistant Attorney
General, Office of Justice Programs, coordinates
the activities of the following offices and
bureaus: Bureau of Justice Assistance, Bureau
of Justice Statistics, National Institute of Justice,
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention and the Offices of Victims of Crime.
Points of view or opinions contained within this
document are those of the author and do not
necessarily represent the official position or
policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine
Buckeye State Sherifs’ Association
Ohio Association of Chiefs of Police
Ohio Crime Prevention Association
Ohio Department of Aging
The Ohio Attorney General’s
Crime Victims Assistance and Prevention
150 E. Gay St., 25th Fl.
Columbus, OH 43215
614-466-5610 • 800-582-2877

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