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Accurate Real Time Altitude Estimation.pdf

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Paola Pierleoni, Alberto Belli, Lorenzo Palma, Luca Pernini and Simone Valenti

Department of Information Engineering

Marche Polytechnic University

Ancona, Italy

Email: s.valenti@univpm.it

AbstractThis paper presents an accurate system to estimate

the altitude of a rigid body by fusing data from four low-cost

sensors such as an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer

and an altimeter. Usually a MEMS altimeter barometric sensor

allows to obtain the altitude signal from measures of atmospheric

pressure and temperature but these measures are affected by

noise that causes a significant error in the calculated altitude

values. In order to get an accurate estimation of the altitude,

in this work a complementary filter is used to fuse the raw

signal of the altitude obtained from barometer sensor and vertical

displacement signal calculated through a data fusion algorithm

applied to the signals of the other three sensors. In order to

evaluate the performance in human activity monitoring applications, the proposed device has been tested and compared with

the system that currently presents the better performance for

the same technology according to its experimental protocols. The

results show that our device exceeds the performance provided

by the currently systems reported in literature.

fused with vertical displacement measurements obtained by

double-integration of dynamic acceleration component perpendicular to the terrestrial surface. In order to derive this

useful acceleration component we have used the estimation

of orientation computed by AHRS algorithm implemented

into the device. Our implementation of the complementary

filter together with AHRS algorithm is particularly suitable

for real-time applications into low cost microcontrollers and it

significantly reduces the computational effort associated with

the conventional Kalman-based approaches. Essentially, the

proposed system performs data fusion algorithms with low

computational load and has the benefit of being low cost and

easy to wear.

I. I NTRODUCTION

The device includes an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer and an altimeter that communicates with the MCU

via I2C bus. A RF Bluetooth module interfaces the board with

external devices as personal computer, smartphone and tablet.

SD card memory allows data storing. The block diagram

of the system is shown in Fig. 1 and the main features of

each component of the device are described in the following

subsubsections.

1) MCU Module: ATmega328 (ATMEL, USA) is a lowpower single chip 8-bit microcontroller belongs to the

megaAVR series. This module combines 32-kb ISP flash

memory with read-while-write capabilities, 1-kb EEPROM, 2kb SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose

working registers, internal and external interrupts, serial programmable USART, byte-oriented a 2-wire serial interface, a

SPI serial port, 6-channel 10-bit A/D converter, programmable

watchdog timer with internal oscillator, and five software

selectable power saving modes. The device operates in the

range 1.8-5.5 V.

2) Accelerometer and Gyroscope: MPU-6050 (InvenSense

Inc., USA) combines a MEMS 3-axis gyroscope and a MEMS

3-axis accelerometer on the same silicon die together. The

gyroscope is a tri-axis angular rate sensor with a sensitivity

up to 131 LSBs/dps and a full-scale ranges of 250, 500,

1000, and 2000dps. The accelerometer is a tri-axis sensor

with a programmable full scale range of 2g, 4g, 8g and

16g. MPU-6050 communicates with MCU via I2C bus.

various applications such as in human activity monitoring systems [1], indoor navigation systems [2], fall detection systems

[3], smartphones applications [4], bike computers and others.

The MEMS altimeter barometric sensor allows to calculate

the altitude signal from measurements of atmospheric pressure

and temperature. These measures are affected by noise that

causes wide and rapid fluctuations of the altitude signal [5]. In

order to obtain an improved altitude estimation, measures from

altimeter sensor are fused with additional altitude information

derivated from the GPS [2] or accelerometer signals [6], [7]

using Kalman filter. However, Kalman filter is characterized

by a significant complexity and demands large computational

load for its implementation. Moreover in indoor applications,

information about the vertical position of a body can not use

the GPS signal because it might be too weak.

II. M ETHODS & M ATERIALS

Our work presents an accurate device for real-time altitude

estimation mainly composed of a triaxial MEMS accelerometer, a triaxial MEMS gyroscope, a triaxial magnetometer and

a MEMS altimeter sensor. The first three sensors implement

an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) and

are used to estimate the orientation of the device. Altimeter barometric sensor is used to calculate the raw altitude

from measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature.

978-1-4799-2280-2/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE

operation of the raw altitude signal.

C. AHRS to Estimate Vertical Displacement

3) Magnetometer: HMC5883L (Honeywell, USA) is a 3axis magnetoresistive sensor designed for low-field magnetic

sensing. It has an embedded 12-bit ADC achieving 4 mG

field resolution in 8 G fields. The module measures both

the direction and the magnitude of Earths magnetic field.

HMC5883L communicates with MCU via I2C bus.

4) Altimeter Sensor: MS5611-01BA (MEAS, Switzerland)

is a new generation of high resolution MEMS altimeter sensors

with SPI and I2C bus interface. It provides a precise digital

24 bit pressure and temperature values and different operation

modes that allow the user to optimize the conversion speed

and the current consumption.

5) Wireless Module: HC-05 module (Honeywell, USA) is

an easy to use Bluetooth SPP (Serial Port Protocol) module,

designed for transparent wireless serial connection setup. It is

a small low-power transceiver ideal for embedded applications.

6) Storage Module: MicroSD card is used to provide

the device with mass-storage capability. Communication with

microSD card is achieved over SPI interface.

The data from sensors are sampled at 50 Hz. A calibration

procedure of the device was performed offline to compensate

systematic errors in the AHRS.

B. Altimeter to Calculate Altitude

The altimeter sensor allows to calculate altutitude Hbaro ,

from temperature and pressure measurements [8]:

(T + 273.15)

(1 (P/P0 )(0.19) )

(1)

0.0065

where Hbaro is measured in meters, T is the temperature

measured in C, P is the pressure measured in Pa and P0

is the pressure at sea level. P0 is approximately 101.325

kPa in normal conditions, but varies according to the time.

The altitude measure is affected by high frequency noise that

causes a measurement error. For this reason, the raw values of

altitude calculated by the altimeter are unusable in all systems

that require great accuracy. In order to reduce the error about

Hbaro =

The vertical displacement signal is obtained by a double integration of the dynamic acceleration component perpendicular

to the terrestrial surface. This acceleration must be referred

to the terrestrial reference system, called earth f rame, in

which the Z-axis is the vertical component of the Earths

surface while X-axis and Y-axis are the parallel components.

Therefore, to estimate vertical displacement we use the Z

component of the vector of acceleration referred to earth

f rame Eaz . A 3-axis accelerometer measures the acceleration

in three dimensions in space expressed in the coordinate system aligned with the sensor board and called sensor f rame.

It is necessary to obtain the acceleration components in the

earth f rame from the acceleration components measured in

the sensor f rame. This is possible rotating the acceleration

components Sa to the earth f rame by means of the rotation

matrix ESR [9]. In general, the rotation matrix of a rigid body

may be represented by Yaw, Pitch and Roll angles. Yaw is

a rotation around the Z-axis of the earth f rame, Pitch is a

rotation around the Y-axis of the earth f rame and Roll is a

rotation around the X-axis of the earth f rame. The sensor

fusion algorithm was implemented to compute the rotation

matrix to obtain an absolute measurement of orientation.

The AHRS filtering procedure combines information acquired

from a 3-axis accelerometer, a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis

magnetometer in order to obtain an unique estimate of a rigid

body orientation.

Madgwick et al. [9] proposed an efficient algorithm applicable to AHRS which employs a three-dimension representation of orientation referring to earth f rame. In this algorithm

the rotation matrix ESR is described directly from quaternion

E

data

q [9]. Madgwicks algorithm uses a quaternion

S

representation to prevent problems such as gimbal lock that

may occur when using Euler angles. A quaternion q, is a

four-element vector constituted of one real part, q0 , and three

complex parts, q1 q2 and q3 . The representation of the Euler

angles starting from the components of a quaternion q can be

expressed by the following equations:

Y aw = atan2(2(q2 q3

P itch =

arctan( p

Roll = atan2(2(q1 q2

q0 q1 ), 2qo2

2(q1 q3

1

1 + 2q32 )

q0 q2 )

(q2 q3

q0 q3 ), 2qo2

q0 q2 ) 2

1 + 2q12 )

(2)

(3)

(4)

fusion algorithm in order to obtain the quaternions representation of the device orientation. The quaternions are used to

derive acceleration components in the earth f rame Ea from

the acceleration components measured in the sensor f rame

Sa as decribed in the following equation:

Ean =

S

q

E est,n

San

S

q

E est,n

E

q

S est,n

San

E

q

S est,n

(5)

S

rule,

q

is the estimated orientation of the earth

E est,n 1

f rame relative to the sensor f rame at the (n-1)-th sample

and San is the vector of sensor readings at n-th instant.

Ea is subject to static (gravity) and dynamic (movements)

accelerations when the system is moves with non-constant

speed. Therefore:

Ea = Ed + Eg

(6)

where Ea is the vector of accelerometer, Eg and Ed are

the vectors of the static and dynamic accelerations expressed

in the earth f rame. We only use dynamic acceleration Ed

and specifically the component perpendicular to the terrestrial surface Edz . Therefore, we compute the estimate of

vertical displacement through double integration of dynamic

acceleration perpendicular to the terrestrial surface Edz . This

measure of vertical displacement is mainly influenced by the

low frequency noise.

D. Complementary Filter to Estimate Altitude

In order to achieve a good estimate of a single state

variable, a complementary filter is applied to fuse similar or

redundant data from different types of measurements of the

same signal [10]. This filter acts only on the several kinds of

noise associated with different fequency contents. In a twoinput system (shown in Fig. 2), an input provides information

with high frequency noise which will be low-pass filtered [11].

The other input provides information with low frequency noise

which will be high-pass filtered. If the low-pass and highpass filters are mathematical complements, then the output

of the filter is the complete reconstruction of the variable to

estimate, minus the noise associated to the sensors. Assume

that x1 = z + n1 and x2 = z + n2 are two measurements

of the same signal z, where n1 and n2 are respectively the

noise measurements and z is the estimated signal. Assume

also that n1 is a predominantly low frequency noise and n2 is

a predominantly high frequency noise. The output z is given

by:

b

Z(s)

= G1 (s)X1 (s) + G2 (s)X2 (s) =

= Z(s) + G1 (s)n1 (s) + G2 (s)n2 (s)

(7)

from dynamic acceleration component perpendicular to the terrestrial surface

and altitude calculated from altimeter sensor.

G2 (s) = 1 G1 (s) of a low-pass filter. The output signal

is not distorted while the two noises n1 and n2 are filtered

according to the characteristics of the filters. In the estimation of the altitude the complementary filter is used to fuse

altitude computed from altimeter sensor Hbaro , and vertical

displacement computed from AHRS Edz . The basic scheme

of complementary filter for the estimation of the altitude is

shown in Fig. 3. The term n1 is the noise of the dinamic

acceleration component perpendicular to the terrestrial surface,

then n1 is the noise of vertical displacement estimated that

is predominantly low-frequency. The term n2 is the noise of

the altimeter measurements which is predominantly at highfrequency. The high pass filter G1 (s) is a second order filter

with transfer function equal to:

s2

(8)

s2 + as + b

Consequently G2 (s) is represented by a low pass filter with

transfer function complementary to G1 (s):

G1 =

as + b

(9)

s2 + as + b

The altitude estimated output by complementary filter is:

1

b

H(s)

= 2 G1 (s)Edz (s) + G2 (s)Hbaro (s) =

s

1

= 2 G1 (s)(ha (s) + n1 (s)) + G2 (s)(hb (s) + n2 (s)) =

s

= G1 (s)(ha (s) + n1 (s)) + G2 (s)(hb (s) + n2 (s)) =

G2 =

s2

as + b

n1 (s) + 2

n2 (s)

(10)

s2 + as + b

s + as + b

where a and b are the natural frequency and damping ratio,

respectively. The proposed complementary filter is shown in

b is obtained as follows:

Fig. 4 where the altitude estimated H

b = {(Hbaro H)k

b 1 + 1 [(Hbaro H)k

b 2 + ha + n1 ]} 1 (11)

H

s

s

b

Since Hbaro = hb + n2 and solving for H(s):

= h(s) +

b

b

b + H k1 + H k2 = hb k1 + n2 k1 + hb k2 + n2 k2 + ha + n1

H

2

2

2

s

s

s

s

s

s

s2 s2

Fig. 4. Diagram of the complementary filter used for the altitude estimation.

therefore:

s2

k1 s + k2

n1 (s) + 2

n2 (s)

+ k1 s + k2

s + k1 s + k2

(12)

that is equal to (10). The dinamic acceleration component

perpendicular to the terrestrial surface is doubly integrated

to produce a vertical displacement estimate. The altitude

b is differenced with the altitude measurement

estimated H

Hbaro , to produce an error signal which is fed back to produce

corrections in the estimates.

b

H(s)

= h(s) +

s2

The goal of the presented work is the development of a

system for an accurate for real-time estimation of the altitude.

The performance of our device have been compared with

the system proposed by Y.K. Kim et al. [6] according to

their experimental protocol. As shown in Fig. 5 the prototype

of the device was placed on the waist of subjects which

performed the trial. Each subject starts from initial altitude

corresponding to f loor 0 and walks up the stairs up to

f loor 2. From f loor 2 the subject walks down the stairs up

to f loor 0. Therefore, the experimental trial is as follows:

Fig. 6. (a) Comparison of altitude estimation using raw altitude (grey line)

and complementary filter (black line) data in an experimental trial. (b) Zoom

of altitude estimation showing in greater detail the difference between the two

measures.

In detail, the height difference between two consecutive floors

is 4 m. The subject has to stand still 15 s in each floor before

proceeding to the next floor. The study involved 15 volunteer

subjects aged between 24 and 29. Every subject repeats the

experimental trial five times. Altogether a total of 75 trials

were carried out. The result of a performed trial is shown

in Fig. 6. For each floor it was compared the average of the

standard deviation of raw altitude from the altimeter and the

altitude data estimated from complementary filter, calculated

over 75 trials. Table I shows the results of this comparison.

The data clearly points out that the average of the standard

deviation of the altitude obtained by filtering is considerably

lower than the one obtained by altimetric sensor alone. In

fact it goes from the maximum value of standard deviation

equal to 0.138m in the event of use the only altimeter, to a

maximum value equal to 0.049m in the event of use the filter.

Table II compares the results obtained between our device

and the system proposed by Y.K. Kim [6]. In particular, it

is noted that in our device the average standard deviation is

TABLE I

C OMPARISON OF THE ALTITUDE STANDARD DEVIATION AVERAGE VALUES

BETWEEN ALTIMETER RAW SIGNAL AND FILTERED SIGNAL , CALCULATED

OVER 75 TRIALS

Floor

1

2

3

2

1

STD [m]

using Altimeter

using Filter

0.138

0.043

0.123

0.039

0.125

0.049

0.122

0.029

0.127

0.049

TABLE II

C OMPARISON OF THE STANDARD DEVIATION AVERAGE VALUES BETWEEN

OUR DEVICE AND Y.K. K IM S PROPOSED DEVICE .

Floor

1

2

3

2

1

STD [m]

Our device

Kims device

0.043

0.120

0.039

0.130

0.049

0.140

0.029

0.100

0.049

0.150

is between 0.100 and 0.150m. Table II shows that the proposed

device performs better than one introduced by Y.K. Kim for

the experimental protocol carried out.

IV. C ONCLUSIONS

This paper presents an accurate system to estimate the

altitude of a rigid body on which it is applied, by fusing data

from four low-cost sensors. In particular, raw altitude signals

from an altimeter sensor and data of vertical displacement

computed through AHRS algorithm applied to the signals

coming from accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer

sensors, were fused using a complementary filter implemented

in our system. In order to evaluate the performance of the

proposed device, it has been compared with the currently existing system that presents the better performance for the same

technology according to its experimental protocols. During the

trials the protocol requires that each subject walks up and

down two planes of stairs. For each floor it was compared the

average of the standard deviation, calculated over 75 trials,

of altitude signal measured from our device with the altitude

data measured from the others systems present in literature.

The results show that our device performs better than currently

reported in the literature. In conclusion the proposed device

implements data fusion algorithms with low computational

load, and it can be used for all low cost applications that

require accurate real-time information about orientation and

altitude of a rigid body, such as human activity monitoring

systems, motion tracking systems and others. Particularly, the

device is useful in fall detection inertial systems in which the

vertical falls such as syncope are not easily detectable.

R EFERENCES

[1] K. Sagawa, T. Ishihara, A. Ina, and H. Inooka, Classification of

human moving patterns using air pressure and acceleration, in Industrial

Electronics Society, 1998. IECON98. Proceedings of the 24th Annual

Conference of the IEEE, vol. 2. IEEE, 1998, pp. 12141219.

[2] H. Sternberg, M. Fessele, and C. Honniger, Indoor navigation without

infrastructure-based local positioning system, in Proceedings of the 6th

International Symposium on Mobile Mapping Technology MMT, vol. 9,

2009.

[3] F. Bianchi, S. J. Redmond, M. R. Narayanan, S. Cerutti, and N. H.

Lovell, Barometric pressure and triaxial accelerometry-based falls

event detection, Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE

Transactions on, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 619627, 2010.

[4] A. Pande, Y. Zeng, A. K. Das, P. Mohapatra, S. Miyamoto, E. Seto,

E. K. Henricson, and J. J. Han, Energy expenditure estimation with

smartphone body sensors, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Body Area Networks. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences,

Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), 2013, pp. 8

14.

[5] A. M. Sabatini and V. Genovese, A stochastic approach to noise

modeling for barometric altimeters, Sensors, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 15 692

15 707, 2013.

[6] Y.-K. Kim, S.-H. Choi, H.-W. Kim, and J.-M. Lee, Performance

improvement and height estimation of pedestrian dead-reckoning system

using a low cost mems sensor, in Control, Automation and Systems

(ICCAS), 2012 12th International Conference on. IEEE, 2012, pp.

16551660.

[7] M. Tanigawa, H. Luinge, L. Schipper, and P. Slycke, Drift-free dynamic

height sensor using mems imu aided by mems pressure sensor, in

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[8] J. Parviainen, J. Kantola, and J. Collin, Differential barometry in

personal navigation, in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium,

2008 IEEE/ION. IEEE, 2008, pp. 148152.

[9] S. O. Madgwick, A. J. Harrison, and R. Vaidyanathan, Estimation

of imu and marg orientation using a gradient descent algorithm, in

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on. IEEE, 2011, pp. 17.

[10] W. T. Higgins, A comparison of complementary and kalman filtering,

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 11, no. 3,

pp. 321325, 1975.

[11] R. Mahony, T. Hamel, and J.-M. Pflimlin, Nonlinear complementary

filters on the special orthogonal group, Automatic Control, IEEE

Transactions on, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 12031218, 2008.

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