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Session12 IECProtectionTechniques

ExProtectionConcepts
Electrical
Electrical

Symbol Typical TypicalZones


IECEPL
Increasedsafety
e
Gb
1,2
Typen(nonsparking)
nA
Gc
2
Flameproof
d
Gb
1,2
Typen(enclosedbreak) nC
Gc
2
Quartz/sandfilled
q
Gb
1,2
Intrinsicsafety
ia
Ga
0,1,2
Intrinsicsafety
ib
Gb
1,2
Intrinsicsafety
ic
Gc
2
Typen(energy
nL
Gc
2
limitation)
Pressurised(upto2007)
p
Gb
1,2
Pressurised
px
Gb
1,2
Pressurised
py
Gb
1,2
Pressurised
pz
Gc
2
Typen(sealing&
nC
Gc
2
hermeticsealing)
Typen(restricted
nR
Gc
2
breathing)
nZ
Gc
2
Typen(simple
pressurised)
Encapsulation
ma
Ga
0,1,2
Encapsulation
mb
Gb
1,2
Oilimmersion
o
Gb
1,2

IECStandard

Basicconceptofprotection

IEC600797
IEC6007915
IEC600791
IEC6007915
IEC600795
IEC6007911
IEC6007911
IEC6007911
IEC6007915

Noarcs,sparksorhotsurfaces.
EnclosureIP54orbetter
Containtheexplosion,quench
theflame
Quenchtheflame
Limittheenergyofsparksand
surfacetemperatures

IEC600792
IEC600792
IEC600792
IEC600792
IEC6007915
IEC6007915
IEC6007915
IEC6007918
IEC6007918
IEC600796

Keeptheflammablegasout

ExProtectionConcepts
NonElectrical
Nonelectrical

Symbol Typical
IECEPL
Flowrestrictedenclosure
fr

Flameproofenclosure
d

Possible
Zone(s)
2
1,2

ENStandard

Basicconceptofprotection

EN134632
EN134633

Reliesontightseals,closely
matchedjointsandtough
enclosurestorestrictthe
breathingoftheenclosure
Lowpotentialenergy(draft
standard)
Ignitionhazardseliminatedby
goodengineeringmethods
Controlequipmentfittedto
detectmalfunctions
Enclosureispurgedand
pressurisedtopreventignition
sourcesfromarising
Enclosureusesliquidtoprevent
contactwithexplosive
atmospheres

Inherentsafety

0,1,2

prEN134634

Constructionalsafety

0,1,2

EN134635

Controlofignition
sources
Pressurisation

0,1,2

EN134636

1,2

EN134637

Liquidimmersion

0,1,2

EN134638

ExProtectionConcepts
DustProtectionElectrical
DustProtection
(Electrical)

Symbol Typical
IECEPL
Da,Db,
Dc

Typical
Zone(s)

IECStandard

Basicconceptofprotection

20

IEC6007931

Standardprotectionfordusts,
ruggedtightenclosure
Similartot,butwithsome
relaxationsifcircuitinsideis
intrinsicallysafe
Protectionbyencapsulationof
incendiveparts
Protectionbypressurisation of
enclosure

Enclosure

Intrinsicsafety

21

IEC6007911

Encapsulation

22

IEC6007918

Pressurised

21,22

IEC600792

Db,Dc

Exd Flameproof
AS/NZS/EN/IEC600791
Zone1&2Suitable

Exd FlameproofConcept

Lamps,circuitsandsparkingdevicesare
containedwithinflameproofenclosure.
Wiringentersenclosureviaflameproof
cableglandorflameproofbarrier.
Jointsoncoversoropeningsareprotected
bytheflamepath.
Doesnotpreventexplosionoccurringbut
containstheexplosionandprevents
ignitionofsurroundingatmosphere.

Exd FlameproofBarrier

Cable

GlandBody
PouredSeal/Compound
EnclosureWall

Exd FlamePath
FlangedDesign
Flamepath
Flamepath

Enclosurewall

Flameproofvs.ExplosionProof

DifferencebetweenFlameproof&Explosion
proofboxes

Enclosuremusthaverecessedscrewsor
boltsforaccess

1.5safetyfactorvs.4times

Typicallymustbemachinedand
fabricatedatthefactoryvs.thefield

MostExdenclosuresindividuallytested

FlameproofTesting

Exd Flameproof
3typesofjoints

FlangedJoint

ThreadedJoint

SpigotJoint

FieldModificationofExdEquipment
Flameproofenclosuresarenormallysuppliedcompletewithall
internalcomponentsfittedandcertifiedasasingleentitybya
recognizedtestauthority.Thetestingprocedurewilltakeinto
considerationthefreeinternalvolumeafterallthecomponents
havebeenfitted,thetemperaturerise,creepage andclearance
distancesandtheriseinpressureasaresultofaninternal
explosionusingagas/airmixtureinitsmostexplosiveproportions.
Replacementcomponentsshouldbethesameastheoriginal
components.Forexample,acomponentlargerorsmallerthanthe
originalwillaffecttheinternalgeometryoftheenclosure.Pressure
pilingisapossibilityifalargercomponentisfittedandincreased
volumewillresultifasmallercomponentisfitted.
Drillingandtappingoftheentriesshouldonlybecarriedoutby
themanufactureroftheenclosureorhisapprovedagent.The
threadsoftheentriesarerequiredtobecompatiblewiththoseof
thecableglandsorconduitintermsoftypeofthread,threadpitch
andclearancetolerancesinceflamepaths existatthesepoints.
Gasketscanonlybereplaced,theymustnotbeadded
retrospectivelyifnotincludedaspartoftheoriginaldesign.

ObstructionofFlamepath
Asolidobstructionsuchasawall,steelwork,conduit,bracketsor
weatherguards orotherelectricalequipmentincloseproximityto
theopeningofthejointcan,intheeventofaninternalexplosion,
reducetheefficiencyoftheflamepath totheextentthatignitionof
theexternalgasorvaporcouldoccur.Minimumdistancesbetween
theflamepath openingandanobstructionasspecifiedinIEC60079
14

Group

Distance

IIA

10mm

IIB

30mm

IIC

40mm

ExdIIBvs.ExdIICConstruction
Canyouspotthedifferenceinconstruction?...

Flangeddesignedenclosuresarenotdesigned
forIICapplications.However,youcanfind
certainflangedenclosuressuitableforIIB+H2

ExdFlameproofConduitSystems
Although,conduitisnotwidelyusedinNorthernEurope,thistechniqueisincludedintheCENELEC
standardandtheIECstandardsasoneoftheentrymethodsintoflameproofenclosures.Thedesign
andtestingrequirementsarecontainedintheCENELECandIECStandardIEC600791.Either
tapered(NPT)orparallel(straightormetric)threadsareacceptable.Theconditionsare:
TheExdenclosuremustbecertified.
OnlythemanufacturercanmakethedrilledandtappedentriesintotheExdenclosure.
Allconduitsorcableglandsenteringtheenclosuremustbesealedbyanapprovedmethod.
Fromtheareabeyondtheenclosureseal,allofthewiringmethodsandfittingsareconsidered
installationmaterialsandnotsubjecttoanycertificateorapproval.Thus,gettingfittingscertifiedto
theATEXdirectivewouldnotbeacommonpractice.Thecorrectuseofconduitinstallationis
spelledoutintheinstallationstandardsEN6007914andIEC6007914.

WeatherproofingExdEquipment
Ingeneral,theuseofExdflameproofequipmentwithouttheuseofgasketsorseals
willonlyprovideprotectionuptoIP54.ForapplicationsrequiringhigherlevelsofIP
protection,theuseofgasketsintegratedwithintheflamepath isacommonoptionto
consider.Otherweatherproofingmaterialsconsideredandcommonlyusedarenon
hardeninggreasebearingtextiletapeintheUKandnonsettinggreaseorcompounds.
Theuseofnonsettinggreaseonmachinedsurfacesofflamepaths hastwoadvantages
sinceinadditiontoprovidinganadditionallevelofingressprotection,italsoinhibits
theformationofrustonthesesurfaces.Siliconebasedgreasesrequirecareful
considerationinordertoavoidpossibledamagetotheelementsofgasdetectors.
Ingeneral,consultwiththemanufacturerofExdequipmentforrecommendations
involvinglubricantsandtapestobesure.

FlameproofExdQuiz
Componentswhicharcorsparkinnormaloperationarepermitted
withExdenclosures
Gapsatflamepaths arenotnecessary

True

True

AnenclosuremarkedExdIIAissuitableforallsubgroups

False

Itisacceptableforonefixingscrewtobeleftourofaflameproof
enclosurecover

Itisnotacceptabletoremoveanunusedcomponentfromwithina
flameproofenclosure

False

True

Exe IncreasedSafety
(AS/NZS/EN/IEC600797)
Junctionboxesandterminalenclosuresforuse
inhazardousareasmainlycontainnonincendive
devicesi.e.terminals.ForExecertified
apparatustherearetwomaincriteriawhen
specifyingtheapparatus.
1.Arethecomponentsacceptableforuseinthe
enclosurei.e.nonsparking,and
2.Willanycomponentsorwiringbehotterthan
thetemperatureclassificationoftheapparatus
allows.
Byknowingthetotalcurrentthroughthe
enclosureandthetotalresistanceofthe
terminalsandwiring,usingOhmsLawitis
possibletocalculatethedissipation
powerofthecircuit
Zone1&2Suitable

Exe IncreasedSafety
(AS/NZS/EN/IEC600797)
CageType
PostType
ScrewType
Allaresuitableandhavevarious
advantagesanddisadvantages
Postterminalsareeasytousebut
provideasafetyhazardastheyare
potentiallyexposedduring
maintenance.
Wireterminalshavebeenwidely
usedandarethemostcommon
formofterminalratedEEx e

Exe IncreasedSafety
theprinciple..
Generalrequirementsforincreasedsafety,Exe,
enclosuresare:ingressprotectiontoatleastIP54and
additionaltestsfornonmetallicpartsincludingthermal
endurance,resistancetosolvents,ultravioletlight,
surfaceconductivityandmechanicalresistanceto
impactofeither4or7joulesdependingonthesizeof
theenclosure.

Generalrequirementsforterminalsare:
Theymustbedesignedtoallowtheconductortobeeasily
insertedandclamped,sothatcontactpressureismaintained
withoutreducingthecrosssectionalareaoftheconductor
andshallincorporateapositivelockingdevicetoprevent
conductorsworkingloosebyvibration.
Specifiedcreepage distancesasdetailedEN/IEC600797for
thegradeofinsulationmaterial(CTI)andsubsequent
maximumvoltagerating.
Temperaturelimitation
Currentderatingoftheterminals(andconductors)of50%

Excertifiedelectrical
components
(withelectricalconnections
thatcannotloosen
bythemselves)

Exe IncreasedSafety
Howthecalculationofnumber/size
terminalsisdone..
TheequipmentofExterminalboxeswithterminalsandcablescrewconnectionsis
subjecttodefinedlimits.Itdependsontheminimumgapsbetweenthecurrent
carryingmetalcomponentsoftheterminalsandtheenclosurewalls,and,inaddition,
ontheheatgeneratedattheterminalpoints.Themaximumequipmentforthe
individualenclosuresizecanbetakenfromthemanufacturerdocumentation.
Green:Themaximumnumber,
asphysicallyindicated,canbe
used;risingtemperaturedoesnot
leadtothelimittemperatureor
themaximumpermissiblesurface
temperatureinthetemperature
classbeingexceeded.
Red:Excessiveheatgeneration;thelimit
temperatureorthemaximumpermitted
surfacetemperaturewillbeexceeded.
Remedy:
Reductionofcurrent,or
Selectionofalargerconductor
Selectionofalargerenclosure

Exe IncreasedSafety
Howthecalculationofnumber/size
terminalsisdone..
Whitefieldwithnumbers:Herethelimitvaluesareshown.Thenumbersinthefieldsresult
inthemaximumnumberofterminalpointstobeused!Astandardterminalblock,e.g.
UK5N,has2connections;i.e.thevalueshavetobedividedby2.Astandarddoublestack,
e.g.DK4,has4connections;i.e.thevalueshavetobedividedby4.

Exe IncreasedSafety
Examplebasedupondesignlimits..
Example#1
EnclosurewithQty.24 10mmterminals:
Themax.numberofterminalsfortheequipment(physicaldimensions)resultsfromthe
maximumequipmentlengthof252mm.Thewidthoftheterminalblocksfor10mm is
10.2mm.Thisallowstheequipmentwith24terminals(252:10.2=24terminals)
Equipmentaccordingtoheatcomputation:
1)Fulluseofall10mm conductorswith16A:
max.equipmentispossible,asthevaluesarewithinthegreenfields
2)Fulluseoftheconductorswith50A:
9conductorsarepermissible(10mm)

Exe IncreasedSafety
Examplebasedupondesignlimits..
Example#2
Enclosurewith
Qty.8 2.5mmterminalswith10A
Qty.3 4mm terminalswith20A
Qty.3 16mm terminalswith50A
Crosssection/mm Current/amps
Number /utilisation
2.5
10A
8/(of31)=25%
4
20A
3/(of12)=25%
16
50A
3/(of9)=33%
Sum=83%<100%,therefore,thismeans,thatontechnicalheatgroundsthis
equipmentispermitted.

Exe IncreasedSafety
InstallationDetails
CertifiedExeterminalboxesmustbeprovidedwithaninternalorexternalground
connectionofanadequatesizeforthewiringconfiguration.(Exeterminalboxesarenot
designedtocarryearthfaultcurrents.)Themaininternal/externalgroundconnection
mustbeconnectedtothemainsystemearthwiththecorrectcodedwireofadequatesize
butnotlessthan4mm.Allexposedmetalpartsmustbegroundedtogetherandtothe
maingroundterminal.
IEC6007914(Installations),subclause9.1.2statesInhazardousareaseachunusedcorein
multicorecablesshalleitherbeconnectedtoearthorbeadequatelyinsulatedbymeansof
suitableterminations.Insulationbytapealoneisnotrecommended.Terminatingthespare
conductorontoanExeterminalisrecommendedsincetheconductorcouldbeusedlateras
anactiveterminal.

Exe IncreasedSafety
InstallationDetails
ImportantconsiderationsforuseofEXTerminals
Useconductorsoftheappropriatesizeasdesignatedbytheterminal.E.g.fora2.5mm
terminal,themaximumconductorsizeis2.5mm.Normally,themanufacturersalsoadvisethe
AWGsizeoftheconductorthatis2812AWGfor2.5mm.Ifalargerconductorisused,the
creepage&clearancedistancescouldbereduced.
Theconductorinsulationmustbecarriedrightuptotheterminalthroatwithin1mmofthe
clamp.
Normalindustrialratingsoftheterminalandconductorarederated.
Unlessotherwisespecified,onlyoneconductorperterminalclampispermitted.
Ifflexible,finestrandedconductorsaresued,caremustbetakentoavoidwhiskeringofthe
strandsthatcanreducethecreepageandclearancedistances.Theuseofferrulesisrecommended
toavoidthisproblem.

IncreasedSafetyExeQuiz
ExedesignedapparatusissuitableforuseinZone0

False

Increasedsafetyenclosuresmustalwayswithstandthepressure
causedbyaninternalexplosion

False

Exeequipmentismechanicallystrongtowithstanddamagefrom True
impact
Exeterminalsarederatedfromtheirstandardindustrialrating

ExeterminalboxescanbeusedinconjunctionwithExd
equipment

True

True

Exia,ib IntrinsicSafety
(AS/NZS/EN/IEC6007911)
Zone0,1&2Suitable

Circuitiscontrolledtoreducepotentialsparkenergytobelowthat
whichwouldigniteanyflammablegaspresent.
I.S.barriersareusedtoprotectthefieldcircuitfromnonprotected
circuits
Thisincludestheoccurrenceof:
ia
2faultconditions(EqualtoNADivision1barrier
(Zone0)
ib
1faultcondition

Exia,ib IntrinsicSafety
(EN/IEC6007911)
WheretheproblemcomesfromDuringapotentialfault,excess
energycouldbetransmittedtothehazardousareaandifaspark
occurscouldcreateanexplosion.ISzener barriersdriveexcess
energytogroundorbyothermeansprotectthedeviceinthe
hazardousareafromevercreatinganexplosion.Limitedtoabout1
wattorlessinmostinstances.

TypicalIgnitionCurvesforI.S.

Exia,ib IntrinsicSafety
LoopConcept

Zener Barriers Concept


Zener
Protecting
Fuse

Enclosure
Hazardous
Location

I.S.
Circuit

Currentlimitingresistor

Voltage
limiting
Zeners

Fault
VoltageSource
+

FaultCurrent

NonHazardousLocation
Good
Isolation
fromGround
required
(500Vmin.)

GoodGround
Connection
1Max.

GalvanicIsolatedBarriers Concept

Currentlimitingresistor

Hazardous
Location

I.S.
Circuit

Voltage
limiting
Zeners

FaultVoltage
Source
Transformer
ProtectingFuse
+

Fault
Current

Isolation
not
needed

NonHazardousLocation

SafetyTransformer

Noneedof
SafetyGround

ProtectionUnderFaultCondition Zener
Barriers
Enclosure
Hazardous
Location

I.S.
Circuit

NonHazardousLocation
Currentlimitingresistor

Voltage
limiting
Zeners

Zener
Protecting
Fuse

FaultVoltage
Source
+

FaultCurrent

Poor
Isolation
orshort
toGround

FaultCurrent
togroundin
Hazardous
Location!
250V 250A

FaultCurrent
togroundin
Non
Hazardous
Location!

GoodGround
Connection
1Max.

ProtectionUnderFaultCondition
IsolatedBarriers
Enclosure
Hazardous
Location

Currentlimitingresistor

FaultVoltage
Source
Transformer
ProtectingFuse
+

I.S.
Circuit

Voltage
limiting
Zeners

Isolation
not
needed

NonHazardousLocation

SafetyTransformer

Fault
Current
remains
in
Non
Hazardou
sLocation

Noneedof
SafetyGround

ZenerBarriers
Disadvantages

Advantages

Lowerpartscost
Elementarythreecomponentsdevice

DedicatedSafetyGroundCost
SafetyDependson
GoodSafetyGround
GoodLinesIsolation
VoltageDropacrossResistor
Zeners leakageInfl.accuracy
IsolationoflinesInfl.Accuracy
RequiresroutineChecks.
Groundednonlinearsemiconductor
(Zener)reducesimmunityto
interferences(commonmode
rejection)
Applicableonlywithsensorsthatare
wellisolatedfromground(500V)

Galvanically IsolatedBarriers
Disadvantages

Advantages
NoSafetyGroundrequirement(Nocost/No
maintenance)
Safetynotimpairedbyafaulttoground.
Fullvoltageavailability.
Betteroverallaccuracy
ZenerLeakagedoesnotaffectaccuracy
Isolationoflinesdoesnotaffectaccuracy
Highercommonmoderejectionandimmunity
tointerferences
Allowstheuseofgroundedorpoorlyisolated
sensors

Higherpartcost

Exia,ib IntrinsicSafety
WiringMethods
Intrinsicallysafecircuitsmaybewiredinthesame
mannerascomparablecircuitsinstalledfor
unclassifiedlocationswithtwoexceptionssummarized
asseparationandidentification.Thesewiringpractices
aresimpleandclear;however,theyoftenare
overlookedandarethesourceofpotentialproblems.
Theintrinsicallysafeconductorsmustbeseparated
fromallotherwiringbyplacingtheminseparate
conduitsorbyaseparationof2inchesofairspace.
Withinanenclosuretheconductorscanbeseparated
byagroundedmetalorinsulatedpartition.

Exia,ib IntrinsicSafety
WiringMethods

CombiningwiringforISand
nonIScircuitscanalsobe
combinedinsingleenclosures
aslongaspropersegregation
andidentificationmethodsare
employed.

Remember..

Therequirementsfor50mm
segregationappliesnotjusttothe
terminalsbutalsoalloftheinterior
wiring.
Keepthisinmindwheninstallationof
I.S.andnonI.S.circuitswithinthe
sameenclosure.

IntrinsicSafetyExiQuiz
Theminimumrequiredprotectionforintrinsicallysafeequipment
isIP55

False

Terminalsforintrinsicallysafecircuitsmustbeatleast50mm
fromterminalsoruninsulatedconductorsofanynonintrinsically
safecircuits

True

ExncannotbedesignedforapparatusgasgroupingIIC

False

Intrinsicallysafeequipmentmarked(Exia)IICisdesignedtobe
installedinahazardousarea

False

EquipmentmarkedExibIICT4issuitableforinstallationinaZone0 False
area

IntrinsicSafetyExiQuiz

Itispermissibletoworkonanintrinsicallysafecircuitwithoutagas True
freecertificate
Theinsulationresistancebetweenanintrinsicallysafeandnon
intrinsicallysafecircuitmustbecapableofwithstandinga
minimumof500VDC

True

Intrinsicallysafeandnonintrinsicallysafecablesmayberuninthe True
samecabletrayifthecablesarearmoured
Youcannotuseanyterminalcolorbutblueforterminalscontaining False
onlyintrinsicallysafecircuits

ExnA NonSparking
(AS/NZS/EN/IEC6007915)
ExnA NonSparkingisalesserdegreeof
protectionthanEEx e,whereasstandard
industrialequipmentthatundernormal
operationwillnotproducearcs,sparksor
surfacetemperaturehighenoughtocause
ignitionofthesurroundinggasvapormixture.
TypicalproductsincludeZone2lighting
fixturesandcertainenclosures

Electricmotors(Squirrel
cagemotors),terminal
boxes,fuses,LEDs,
transformers,apparatus
requiringlowenergy,
plugconnectors,cells,
batteries,etc.

Zone2Suitable

ExnR RestrictedBreathing(AS/NZS/EN/IEC
6007915)
Zone2Suitable

Thisprovidesthecustomertheabilitytouse
arcingcomponentsinaZone2environment
w/otheneedforflameproofequipment
Enclosures,Glands&Cablemustbesuitable.In
this,theproductissubjecttotemperaturerise
testsandingressteststodeterminetheamount
ofbreathingcantakeplace.Ifduringthe
operation,theproductthroughtightgasketing
orsealinghasbeenfoundtorestricttheairflow
bothinandoutoftheproduct,itisdetermined
toberestrictivebreathing.

ExnR RestrictedBreathing(EN/IEC
6007915)
RestrictedBreathing
Bettergasketing restrictsfixture'sbreathing
Cableentriesmustbesealed
maintainsIntegrityoffixture
OnlyExteriorTemperaturesConsidered
BigdifferenceInTCodes
PermitsUseofHigherWattages
AllowsFlexibilityinLightingDesign

Temperaturebased
uponexternalhotspot
Enclosedandgasketed fixtures
baseduponlampsurface
temperature,significant
difference

EXnR vs.Division2Lighting
Example(NEC)
HighPressureSodium(SON)
Wattage

Div.2UnitTCode

ExnRUnitT
Code

Change

400Watt
250Watt
150Watt
100Watt
70Watt

T2A
T2A
T2B
T3
T3

T3C
T3C
T3C
T4A
T4A

120oC
120oC
100oC
80oC
80oC

Implicationforlightingdesignistheuseofhigherwattagefixturesandusingfewerof
themforparticularareasmostnotablyforfloodlightsandwellglass applications
IntheIECworld,itmeansthatmoreZone2HIDcanbeusedsince
theTRatingsarecomparabletoZone1lights,i.e.withno
intermediateTIdentificationnumbers,HIDforZone2almost
alwaysneededaZone1typeconstruction.

ExnR RestrictedBreathing(EN/IEC
6007915)
CableGlandIssues.PerSIRA,aNotifiedBodyintheUK
"ExnR glandsarearecentcreationandnosuchthingexisteduntilrecently.Ifthe
glandshavebeentestedandcertifiedasExcableglandsthentheyareequipment
anddont,intheirownright,needtobereassessedinordertofit.However,the
interfacedoesneedreassessing,justlikeExeglands.Thisisbecausetheglandto
enclosureinterfaceneedstomaintainthesealingfortherestrictedbreathing.Whilst
wecouldtestthesealing,sayanOringorflatsealonanexampleenclosure,wecant
besurethattheactualenclosuretowhichitisfittedwillaffectthesamesealing.For
exampleitmaybearoundenclosureandthereforewouldntseal. Forthisreason,a
conditionofcertificationisimposedrelatedtotheinterfacehavingtobereassessed,
butthisisreallytheonlyassessmentrequired(otherthantemperaturelimits
perhaps).
Per900790,allglandstobeusedinconjunctionwithExnR equipmentmustbe
suitableandcertifiedrestrictedbreathing

ExnL EnergyLimitation(AS/NZS/EN/IEC
6007915)
Zone2Suitable

ExnL isalowerformofprotectionthanI.S.andistypicalusedincircuitsin
individualcomponentsbaseduponspacingofcircuitsandotherprotection
concepts.

ExnP Pressurized(AS/NZS/IEC6007915)
Zone2Suitable

Pressurizedenclosure,notsubjecttopurging,inwhichfaultsareindicated
byadropinthepressure.However,thesystemneednotbeswitchedoff
immediately.AgoodexampleofthisisaZone2purgeindicatorthatdoes
notcontroltheequipmentbeingprotected,butmerelyprovidesindication
thattheequipmentisbeingprotected.ExPrequiresdeengergization of
thepanelbeingprotected.

ExnC EnclosedBreak
(AS/NZS/EN/IEC6007915)
Basic"Encapsulation"
encloseddevice
nonignitablecomponentContactmechanismorhousing
designedsuchthat
ignitionisavoided.
hermeticallysealeddeviceSealingbymeansofafusingprocess
suchassoftsoldering
orbrazing,weldingorfusingofglassinmetal
sealeddevicesoconstructed,thatitcannotbeopenedduring
normaloperation.
encapsulateddevicecompletelyenclosedinan
encapsulatingcompound.

NonIncendive ExnQuiz
AcertifiedglandmustalwaysbeusedforanExnapplication

True

ForExnstandards,hermeticsealingofenclosurecanbe
satifactory achievedbytheuseofOringsand/orgaskets

True

ExncannotbedesignedforapparatusgasgroupingIIC

False

TheTemperatureclassificationforanExnstandardmustalwaystake True
intoconsiderationtheexternalandinternalsurfacetemperature

LiveworkingisnotpermittedonExntypeequipment

True

Exp Pressurized(AS/NZS/EN/IEC60079
2)
Entireroomsorbuildingscanbepressurizedas
Zone1&2Suitable
wellasenclosures.
TherequirementsofIEC6007913mustmeetthe
following:
Positivepressuremusthavesufficientcapacityto
maintainpressureofatleast25Pa(2.5mmwater
gauge)intheroomandtheroommusthaveeither
airlocksforthedoorsortheoutwardvelocitymust
beatleast0.305m/swithalldoorsandany
openingssimultaneouslyopened.
Pressurizinggasmustbeair(containingatleast
19.5%Oxygenbyvolume
Whenthepressurizingsystemfails,any
equipmentsuchaslightsthatcannotbeswitched
offmustbeprotectedbyothermeanssuitablefor
thelocation.
Onenote:theNFPArequires25Painternal
pressureforenclosures,whiletheIECrequires50Pa
forenclosuresinZone1and25Paforpressurized
rooms.

Exq PowderFilled
(AS/NZS/EN/IEC600795)
PowderfillingoriginatedinFrancewhereithasbeenusedformany
years.IECStandard795introducedin1967establishedthisconcept
asaninternationalmethodofprotection.
ThisprotectionconceptisnormallysuitableuptoandincludingGroup
IICgasesandTheoriginalIECstandardreferredtosandfilledbuthas
beenchangedtopowderfilled.theT6temperatureclassification,in
Zone1or2hazardousarealocations.Theenclosureconstruction
requirementsareapressuretestof0.5bar(1bar=14.5psi)
overpressurefor1minuteand,ifnotprotectedbyanotherenclosure,
aminimumIngressProtectionofIP54,thesamerequirementforExe
enclosures.Ifthecomponentisprotectedbyanotherenclosure(e.g.a
capacitorinthetypeofprotectionqbuiltintoalightenclosure)then
nospecificrequirementsforthetypeofIPprotectionisrequired.
Whentheenclosureisfilledwiththeqmedium(quartzsand,
powderorglassbeads)theremustbenovoidsintheenclosure.The
maximumdistancefromlivepartsofelectricalcomponentstoearth
fittedinsidethemetalenclosureormetalscreenisspecifiedand,
dependingontheappliedvoltage,canvaryfrom10mmat250volts
to50mmat6,600volts.Iftheenclosureispermanentlyfactorysealed
andthevoltagedoesnotexceed500volts,theminimumdistance
betweenlivepartsorlivepartstoearthcanbereducedby5mm.

Zone1&2Suitable

Exm Encapsulation(AS/NZS/EN/IEC
6007918)
Zone1&2Suitable

Encapsulationisatypeofprotectionwherebypartsthatarecapableofigniting
anexplosiveatmosphere,byeithersparkingorheating,areenclosedina
compoundissuchawaythattheexplosiveatmospherecannotbeignitedunder
operatingorinstallationconditions.Theselectedcompoundmustbeinline
withtherequirementsgiveninIEC6007918andmaybeanythermosetting,
thermoplastic,epoxy,resin(coldcuring)orelastomericmaterialwithorwithout
fillersand/oradditives,intheirsolidstate.Thetemperatureprangemustsatisfy
therequirementsofanappropriatestandardforthistypeofprotection.
(Thermalstabilityatmaximumoperatingtemperature.)Whenconsideringthe
safetyaspectsofExmencapsulation,thedesignmustaccountfor:
Resistors,capacitors,optoisolators,diodesetc.,mustnotoperateat
morethan2/3oftheirratedvoltage.
Thetemperatureriseofcomponentsandwiringmustbelimited.
Voidsandairpocketsotherthanthoseforrelaysorotherdevicesmustbe
avoided.
Theeffectofacomponentsshortcircuitduringfaultconditions.
TheExmencapsulationprotectselectroniccircuitrelays,timers,lamptest
devicesandcomponentsinZones1or2hazardousareas.Encapsulationis
findingincreasedusageforprintedcircuitboardsthatareassembledinsmall
railmountedhousingssimilartoterminals.

Exo OilImmersion(AS/NZS/EN/IEC
600796)
Zone1&2Suitable
In1968,IECsubcommittee31EwroteIECStandard796whichwasrecognized
bymanycountriesforuseinZone1locations. TheOilImmersionExoconcept
hashistoricallybeenusedforheavydutyswitchgear,motorstartersand
transformers.
Thebasicprincipleasshownaboveistoimmersetheelectricalpartsinmineral
oil,whichwillpreventanyexposureofthearcingorsparkingtothean
explosiveatmosphere.Itwillalsoquencharcsandlimitthetemperatureriseon
electricalqpparts.Standardsforoilimmersionprotection,Exo,requirethatall
partscapableofproducingarcsorsparksmustbeimmersedintheoilata
depthnotbethan25mm.Amethodtochecktheoillevelmustbeprovided,
e.g.,byasightglassorbysomeotherreliablemethod.
Somemineraloilsusedinswitchgearapparatusproduceacetyleneand
hydrogengaswhenarcingoccurs.Becauseoftheriskoffireoranexplosion
withoilimmersion,thisapplicationforapparatusinhazardousareashasbeen
generallyrestricted.InthePetroChemicalindustriesthereareveryfew
examplesofExocertifiedproductsinstalledinhazardousareaseventhough
thestandardspermititsuseinZones1and2.

HybridExProtectionTechniques
Itisverycommontouseavarietyofprotectionconceptsina
singleproductShownbelowaretwoexamples.
ThelightfittingisratedExdem usingExeIncreasedsafetyfor
thehousing&terminal,Exdflameproofforthedisconnect
switchandlampholdersandExmforencapsulationofthe
ballast..FinalproductratedExedm
ThecontrolpanelbelowisusingExeincreasedsafetyforthe
housingandterminalsandExdforflameproofoperatorsFinal
productratedExde

HybridExProtectionTechniques

316SSExd&ExeEnclosures

ExamplesofExcomponents
potentiallyinsideExeenclosures

Question:ATEXUorXdesignation.
Assembly,ComponentCertification

HybridProtectionTechniques
Theseproductsalsousehybridtechnologiestoreachthesameeffectbutindifferent
ways
TheenclosuresbelowareratedeitherExdflameprooforExeincreasedsafetywiththe
arcingcomponentshousedinthedchamber,whiletheeterminalsareintheattached
eenclosureseparatedwiththeuseoflinebushingsthatprovideanflameproofbarrier
betweenthetwoenclosures.
Whilepreviously,theorderoftheprotectionletterswasdeemedtoindicatetheprimary
meansofprotectionfirstwithsecondaryprotectionsecondandsoon,thelatestversion
of60079statesthattheprotectionconceptsshouldbeinalphabeticalorder.
Arcing/Sparking

NonArcing/Sparking

HybridExProtectionTechniques
Howmanyprotectiontechniquescanyoufindinthispicture?
Hint:Totaloffivemethods

Exm

Exia

Exe

Exd
WhatZoneisthisenclosuresuitablefor???

ExnR
Zone2

HybridExd&eProtection
Exeenclosure
e&delectricalcomponents:
thecontactsmakeandbreak
inaflameproofdchamber

Exdecomponent

dswitchorcontacts
eenclosure
dswitch
eenclosure

Ingeneral,manyofthelatestdevelopmentsofproductsfor
hazardouslocationsinvolvethecombiningofvarious
protectiontechniques.Aslongascombinationofprotection
techniquesareallsuitableforthesameZoneorCategoryof
hazard,theproductissuitableforthathazard.Example,both
e&dprotectiontechniquesaresuitableforCategory2(22)
orZone1hazardousareas.

WhichEXprotectionmethodisthemost
costeffectivesolution?
Generalities IfZone1locations
ExeIncreasedSafetyistypicallythewaytogoifatallpossibleduetoweight,costandeaseof
maintenance
Exdusedwheneprotectionisnotpractical,i.e.MotorStarters,CircuitBreakers,etc.
Hybride&dusuallythebestconceptwhereyoutakethebestofbothandcombinethetwo.
Lighting Zone1HIDlightingisgoingtoalwaysbeExdconstruction,wherefluorescentsare
morelikelytobeExeplastics.LEDshavehave beendesignedusingbothprotectionconcepts.For
lowmountingapplications,fluorescentsareusuallyamostcosteffectivesolution.Tominimize
fixturecount,higherwattageHIDsinZone2ornonhazardouslocationswithintermixed
Fluorescentshasbeenthetrend.
InstrumentationcircuitsforZone1aretypicallyI.S.
Generalities IfZone2locations.
MoreprotectionconceptsareavailablesuchasExnR lighting,ExnA lighting,ExnC nonsparking,
etc.ThemajorareaofpotentialsavingsisZone2lightingHID,restrictedbreathingvs.Flameproof
Exdconstruction.Thecomponentissueswithglandsandenclosuresforthemostpartwillnot
changefromZone1construction,i.e.brassglands,fiberglassenclosures,etc.
Ingeneral,lookatExeconstructionwhereverpossible,minimizetheExdwhereverpossible