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OM Part B (HS-125)

Chapter 2 Normal Procedures


2.1.1 The procedures make full use of aircraft technology, whilst ensuring
that both flight crew members are aware of the duties and workload of all
other crew members. This is especially important in two pilot crew
2.1.2 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are established to provide
guidelines for the crew to operate together as a coordinated team. They
have been developed using information and experience from various
sources, including aircraft manufacturers, other operators, and
recommendations from flight crew, the CAA and other competent
2.1.3 The procedures set out a sequence of activities designate the crew
member to accomplish them, and furnish brief explanations where these
are considered necessary.
2.1.4 These procedures should be read in conjunction with the detailed
checklists and normal procedures, which follow later in this section and
emergency, and abnormal procedures. It is important that company
procedures are followed to ensure a well
coordinated, safe and efficient flight operation.
2.1.5 A Commander has the authority to vary the procedures, but only
when circumstances so necessitate. If circumstances necessitate deviation
from an SOP, both pilots should be briefed accordingly stating that it is
Non Standard item.
2.1.6 Any crew member wishing to propose a new procedure or a change
to an existing procedure, should submit that proposal in writing to the
director flight operation, whilst continuing with existing SOPs. If the
proposal is assessed as an improvement to present procedures it will be
incorporated in the SOPs.
In this manual the following terms and abbreviations are used to define the
operating status of the pilots.

Legal commander of the aircraft who must be
a Captain. Where two Captains are flying
together, it is the captain designated as

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
First Officer
Pilot flying (PF)
Pilot monitoring (PM)
CM1 (crew member 1)
CM2 (crew member 2)

A pilot who is acting as captain through the

A pilot who is acting as a first officer through
the flight.
The pilot handling the aircraft at the time
i.e. controlling the flight path either manually
or through the autopilot
The pilot not handling the aircraft at the time.
The pilot occupying the left hand seat.
The pilot occupying the right hand seat.


2.3.1 CRM is the effective utilization of all available resources, such as
crew members, aircraft systems and supporting facilities, to achieve safe
and efficient flight operations. All members of organizations involved in
aeroplane operations, flight crew and cabin crewmembers, engineers,
handling agents, etc., must work as a team to ensure safe and efficient
operations. The aeroplane Commander must provide the direction for the
2.3.2 Flight crew have, like other professions, developed their own unique
culture. Although pilots come from mixed and varied backgrounds, by
creating an environment of cooperation and constructive dialogue, the
Commander and the First Officer can establish and accomplish the
common objectives.
2.3.3 As flight deck manager the Commander provides the leadership
essential to coordinate all the actions necessary for a safe and efficient
operation. He is responsible for keeping crew members informed at all
times in order for them to carry out their duties effectively. Other crew
members are responsible for the manner in which they interact with the
Commander and with each other, so that decisions are made correctly and
2.3.4 Each pilot must be able to function with his flight deck colleague in a
closely coordinated manner. This is achieved through the following:

Cross Checks

2.3.5 The importance of SOPs cannot be over emphasized, and it should

be the aim of all Baltic Jet pilots to demonstrate a professional approach in

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
both memorising and following the company SOPs. Periodic
standardisation checks will be carried out.
2.4.1 All important tasks carried out by one pilot must be checked for
error/mistake by the other pilot. To achieve this, the pilot making a change
must inform the other pilot so he is aware of that change and a cross
check can be made.
2.4.2 In many instances cross checks are achieved by the use of SOPs and
Normal Checklists. Important items include:

Airspeed, altitude and altimeter settings.

Aircraft configuration changes.
Navigation aid selections.
Headings and HDG bug selections.
Flight Management System selections.
Autopilot/Flight Director selections.

2.5.1 Standardised callouts and phraseology in accordance with SOPs are
essential to facilitate clear communications between crew members.
2.5.2 Using SOPs with standard callouts and phraseology reduces
workloads, improves communications and makes for a more relaxed and
professional interaction between crew members.
2.5.3 Good communication means listening to as well as speaking to the
other crew member.
2.5.4 If no response to a standard (or deviation) callout is heard, the
callout should be made (louder) a second time. If there is still no
satisfactory response, the PM should suspect pilot incapacitation and be
prepared to take control of the aircraft, announcing My Controls. During
critical flight phases, e.g. take off & landing, if aircraft flight path is
diverging from that desired, taking control before the second call may be
2.5.5 Communication with ATC should conform to ICAO standards.
2.6.1 Checklists are separated into two types Challenge & Response and
Read & Do checklists.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Read and Do Checklists.
Cockpit Preparation (when accomplished by one pilot).
The pilot reads the item from the checklist, accomplishes or verifies its
status, and calls out the verified status of the item.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Challenge and Response Checklists.
Challenge & response checklists fall into two categories:
1. Challenge & Response without a Flow:
Cockpit Preparation (when accomplished by two pilots).
2. Challenge & Response with a Flow:
Engine Start and Shutdown.
All checklists between After Start and After Landing inclusive.
In this context a flow is considered to be the items of the Baltic Jet Normal
PF will call for the checklist both pilots will complete the appropriate
items of the flow silently and when the flow is complete, PM reads the
PF, PM, LP and/or RP verifies the item is correctly completed and makes
the correct response.
The flow and all responses for these checklists must be memorised by the
flight crew.
2.6.2 Normal checklist responses are to be memorized by flight crew.
2.6.3 PF will request a checklist by announcing its title e.g. After Start
Checklist, Descent Checklist, etc. The request for a Checklist initiates
accomplishment of all associated procedure items.
2.6.4 The Checklists are read (including the title) by PM. Pilots will respond
as indicated. The reader must confirm that the correct response to each
challenge or action is achieved before proceeding to the next item. It is the
readers responsibility that all recall and response items and actions are
accomplished before advising CHECKLIST COMPLETED.
2.6.5 Items in a checklist may be deferred. If the actual configuration of
an item is not in accordance with the checklist, corrective action shall be
initiated before moving to the next checklist.
2.6.6 Pilots must not annotate or personalize a company checklist.
2.6.7 Checklist items may be annotated with LP, RP, PF, PM or B (Both),
indicating which pilot responds to the item. Where an item is marked B,
PF normally answers first.
2.6.8 Abnormal checklists are Read and Do checklists. Accomplishing
Abnormal and Emergency checklists differs from accomplishing normal

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
procedure checklists in that the pilot reading the checklists states both the
challenge and response when challenging each item.
In case of an emergency situation accomplish the Emergency Checklist
first, then the Normal Checklist and then the Abnormal Checklist
unless otherwise directed by the QRH.
In case of an abnormal situation finish the normal checklist first, and then
accomplish the Abnormal Checklist.
Configuration changes should be made in accordance with the following
Pilot Flying (PF)
Calls item to be changed. Then
what it has to be changed to,

Pilot monitoring (PM)

Verifies speed within limits, repeats
the instruction then makes selection
and calls, e.g.:



Flaps 15.
Gear Down
3 Greens Confirmed

Speed checked, Flaps 15

Flaps 15 set.
Speed checked, Gear Down.
3 Greens

Crew will then check that the selected status is achieved.

PF should advise PM whenever air brakes are in use (e.g. Airbrakes
extended). PF should also keep his hand on the airbrake lever whenever
practical when they are in use.
Both pilots must at all times be aware of the engaged and/or armed
pitch/roll mode and autopilot engaged/disengaged status.
To facilitate this, all PFD annunciation changes must be called out by both
pilots (except in the specific case of resetting ASEL refer Section 2.10.2).

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Mode selections should be made as follows:
Autopilot engaged
Pilot Flying (PF)
Selects and calls the name of
the button when he pushes the
Calls PFD Annunciation change
e.g.: Presses the button and

Pilot monitoring (PM)

Checks PFD and calls change as seen.
2. Verifies the button pressed calls
4. Verifies the localizer is armed and
confirms by calling checked
6. Verifies the localizer is captured
and confirms by calling checked

1. NAV (the name of the

3. Checks the localizer armed
the PFD and calls Localizer
5. As soon as the localizer is
captured on the PFD he calls
Localizer Captured
Autopilot not engaged
Pilot Flying (PF)
Calls for new mode.
1. LNAV Mode.
3. Verifies PFD calls Localizer
5. As soon as the localizer is
captured on the PFD he calls
Localizer Captured

Pilot monitoring (PM)

Selects and calls the name of the
button when he pushes the button:
2. Selects LNAV button, calls LNAV
when pressing the button
4. Verifies the localizer is armed and
confirms by calling checked and
aligns the heading bug.

Note 1: Unexpected or undesired mode changes must be called.

Note 2: If the selected mode fails to engage and there is no associated
PFD Annunciation change, it should be called by either pilot e.g. NO
Note 3: Automatic mode changes, e.g. when capturing an altitude/FL will
normally be called by PF first, then verified by PM or undesired FMA
changes will normally called by PF first, then verified by PM.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
When aircraft control (PF duties) is transferred between pilots, the callout
You have control should be made by the pilot who is handing over
control. The callout I have control should be made by the pilot taking
control. The Captain may, at any time, assume control of the aircraft from
the other pilot by calling I have control.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.8.1 QNH will be set on all 3 Altimeters for take\off and landing.
Exceptionally, in some Countries (Russia, China) and at some Military
Airfields (UK) QFE is used procedurally, in which case QFE should be set on
the PF and PM Altimeters with the QNH on the standby altimeter.
2.8.2 Whenever the subscale of either the Captains or the First Officers
Altimeter is changed, the PF should call Altimeter Check. PM responds in
the manner set out below.
2.8.3 During climb, all 3 Altimeter sub\scale should be changed to
standard when instructed to climb to a Flight Level, or when passing
Transition Altitude, except the SBY altimeter, which should remain set to
QNH until above MSA.
During Descent both main Altimeters should be changed to QNH when
instructed to descend to an Altitude (or when passing Transition Level in
North America).
Note: The Standby Altimeter may be changed to QNH when destination
weather is received, normally before top of descent.
2.8.4 Both pilots should verify that both main Altimeters are set to the
same subscale setting and are indicating the same altitude.
PM should confirm the verification using the following format:
Pilot Flying (PF)
1. Set QNH, Altimeter Check.

Pilot monitoring (PM)

2. PM QNH XXXX set, passing XXXX
feet (current altitude) climbing (or
descending) XXXX feet (assigned

Pilot Flying (PF)
1. Set Standard, Altimeter

Pilot monitoring (PM)

2. PM Standard set, passing Flight
Level XXX (current FL) climbing (or
descending) Flight Level XXX
(assigned FL)

Note: In the event of a discrepancy between the main Altimeters, the

standby Altimeter should be used to determine which main Altimeter is

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.8.5 1,000 ft from assigned altitude/FL, PM will call Approaching XXX FT /
FL XXX. PM responds Checked.
Two or one finger(s) as appropriate may be substituted when radio traffic
prevents the calls. The PF responds with Check or thumbs up.
On capturing selected altitude/FL, PF calls ASEL green and ALTS
green. PM responds to both with Checked.
2.8.6 An additional Altimeter check will be carried out during an
instrument approach.
Passing a specified position, which is briefed during the approach briefing
on the final approach (Outer Marker Check) the PF will call Outer Marker.
PM checks silently the fix altitude on the approach, ILS/VOR frequency and
inbound course.
If all of these are satisfactory, PM will confirm by calling Minimum XXXX ft,
Outer marker Check Completed. If one of the parameters is not set
accordingly PM will call e.g. 100 ft high
PF must monitor closely and respond with CHECK. If the discrepancy
cannot be resolved, initiate a Go\Around.
2.8.7 Before entering RVSM airspace, crew should ensure that the main
altimeters indicate within 200 ft. of each other. The first RVSM check
should be performed passing FL 150.
2.8.8 Set the Missed Approach Altitude on commencing final approach to
DA (ILS or CDA NPA) or at altitude hold mode (circling approach).
When the ATC departure clearance has not been received or the initial
cleared altitude/FL for departure is not contained within that clearance, the
ASEL should be set to 9999.
As soon as the initial cleared altitude/FL for departure is received, either
with the departure clearance or subsequently, that altitude/FL should be
set and cross\checked.
The ASEL should be changed immediately upon receipt of an ATC
instruction to climb/descend to a new altitude/FL:

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
A/P not engaged:
The PM will set the assigned altitude/FL and leave his finger in the area
of the ASEL knob until:
The PF verifies and calls FL XXX checked or XXXX ft checked.
A/P engaged:
The PF will set the assigned altitude/FL and leave his finger in the area of
the ASEL knob until:
The PM verifies and calls FL XXX checked or XXXX ft checked.
To prevent unwanted TCAS Resolution Advisories during climb and descent,
rate of climb/descent should be restricted as follows:
Within 2,000 ft. of assigned Altitude/FL:
Maximum Rate of Climb or Descent 2,000 ft/min.
Within 1,000 ft. of assigned Altitude/FL:
Maximum Rate of Climb or Descent 1,000 ft/min.
2.9.4 Where a Vertical Speed (VS) or Pitch (PIT) mode is used to achieve
the above, it is of utmost importance that both crew members closely
monitor IAS throughout and be prepared to intervene immediately should
an undesired reduction or increase of airspeed occur. In the event of any
situation requiring a QRH action or Emergency/Abnormal Checklist, FLC
mode should be used to guard against low or high speed events while
distracted from normal operations.
2.9.5 Rate of descent (in 000s of feet per minute) should not exceed
height above terrain in 000s of feet. e.g. at 2,000 ft AGL maximum rate of
descent should be 2,000 ft/min, at 1,000 ft AGL maximum rate of descent
should be 1,000 ft/min etc.
2.9.6 It is of vital importance that both crew members are aware of the
current Minimum Safe Altitude (MORA, SSA or Min Radar Altitude as
appropriate) at all times.
During climb and descent, on passing each relevant MSA, PF will call
Passing MSA. PM should respond Check.
The relevant MSA in this context is:
The MSA within 25 nm circle of departure/destination aerodrome (from
the Jeppesen chart), and (if higher).
The highest MSA from the OFP between the aerodrome and TOC/TOD.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.10.1 The autopilot reduces crew workload and therefore enhances the
crews ability to closely monitor the aircraft flight path. Maximum use of
the Autopilot is therefore encouraged particularly in IMC and/or busy
2.10.2 Pilots are also required to maintain hand flying skills and preserve
their athletic instrument scan. Clearly then, occasional hand flying with the
autopilot disengaged at appropriate times is also to be encouraged.
2.10.3 Pilots are therefore expected to exercise good judgment in
determining when it is appropriate to disengage the Autopilot and hand fly.
2.10.4 Similarly, Flight Director Commands should be closely followed. If
the PF does not choose to follow FD commands then a more appropriate
mode should be selected or the FD should be switched off.
2.10.5 If PF is not happy with the level of automation or there is a loss of
situational awareness, he should revert to a lower level of automation.
2.10.6 Whenever the autopilot is engaged and the RA is alive, PF should
have his hands on the control column and thrust levers.
2.11.1 To keep both pilots situationally aware and to promote good CRM,
the PF should call for PM to make any FMS/CDU changes during climb and
descent. The PM should make the changes as instructed and execute (if
appropriate to FMS type) after confirmation by the PF.
2.11.2 FMS/CDU inputs should be kept to a minimum below 10,000 ft. or
2.12.1 Pilots should, whenever possible, schedule head down tasks to
low workload periods.
2.12.2 During taxi, emphasis should be on minimum head in cockpit
2.12.3 On short flights, particularly when the aircraft does not climb above
FL100/ 10,000 ft., no entries are required in the OFP.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
During critical phases of flight (e.g. during level off) and whenever below
10,000 ft., below MSA or climbing above optimum Flight Level, flight crew
should not participate in activities or conversations, other than those
required for the safe conduct of flight.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.14.1 Interior During the hours of darkness, Cockpit & Instrument lighting
should be set to achieve maximum visibility outside the cockpit, except
during cruise, when lighting may be set as desired for comfort.
2.14.2 Exterior lightning during different period of operation:

When required
APU and/or
Engines Are
Engines are


Aircraft in motion
on ground. (1)


On a Runway and
in flight. (1)


Take\off and


Take\off, climb,
landing (1).
Conflicting traffic

Comes on
Starting APU. (3)

Comes of
APU Shutdown.

Before starting
Parking Brake
OFF. Cleared to
When instructed
to cross a
Runway or Line
Cleared for
Takeoff. Cleared
to Land.
Cleared to
line\up. 10,000 ft

After engine
10.000 ft
climbing. Parking
Brake On
Runway vacated.

After GEAR UP.

Runway vacated.
10,000 ft
Runway vacated.
Clear of
conflicting traffic.

1. When in fog or cloud the situation may require the operation of these
lights to be postponed or cancelled.
2. A/C not equipped with PULSE, use LANDING/TAXI lights instead for
collision avoidance.
3. A/C with unserviceable APU comes on before starting engine, goes off
after engine shut\down.
2.15.1 Operations are not authorised when the following conditions are
present during: TAKE OFF

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Thunderstorm over the airport.
Hail falling at the airport.
Severe windshear reported on the T/O path.
Snow, ice or frost deposits adhering to the wings, control surfaces or
Heavy fall of wet snow with ambient temperature around freezing point.
Freezing rain reported (heavier than LIGHT).
The runway braking action is reported as Medium\Poor, with any reported
braking action of 0.30 or less. LANDING

Thunderstorm over the airport.

Hail falling at the airport.
Severe windshear reported on the approach path.
Freezing rain reported (heavier than LIGHT).
Reported Braking Action is Poor, with braking coefficient of 0.30 or less.


All flights must be fully configured and stabilised by 1,000 ft HAT in IMC
and by 500 ft HAT in VMC, with the exception of circling approaches. An
approach that becomes not stabilized below these altitudes requires an
immediate go around.
An approach is stabilised when the following criteria are met:
The aircraft is on the correct flight path.
Only small changes in heading/pitch are required to maintain the correct
flight path.
The aircraft is in the landing configuration.
IAS is between VREF and VREF + 20.
Sink rate does not exceed 1,000 fpm. If an approach requires a descent
rate greater than
1,000 fpm, it must be briefed.
Thrust setting is appropriate for the aircraft configuration and ambient
All briefings and checklists (with the exception of autopilot
disengagement in the landing checks, which may be deferred to the
minimum height approved in the AFM) have been completed.
After glide path intercept, or after the FAF, the PF requires no more than
bracketing corrections (see Note below) to maintain the correct track and
desired profile to landing within the touchdown zone. Maximum deviation
is one dot on the glideslope or localizer. Level\off below 1,000 ft. HAT is
strongly not recommended.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Note: Normal bracketing corrections relate to bank angle, rate of descent
and thrust management. Recommended ranges are as follows:
Operating limitations in the approved AFM may be more restrictive and
must be observed.)
Bank angle: Maximum bank angle permissible during approach may be
specified in the approved operating manual and is generally not more than
30. The maximum bank angle permissible during landing may also be
specified in that manual and may be considerably less than 30.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Rate of descent 300 fpm deviation from target.
Thrust setting is appropriate for the aircraft configuration and ambient
Overshoots: Normal bracketing corrections occasionally involve
momentary overshoots made necessary by atmospheric conditions. Such
overshoots are acceptable but frequent or sustained overshoots caused by
poor pilot technique are not normal bracketing corrections.
Special approach procedures or abnormal conditions requiring a deviation
from the above criteria must be briefed accordingly.
2.17.1 If either pilot is unsure of an ATC instruction, it must be queried
immediately for verification.
2.17.2 Headsets must be worn:
When receiving ATC departure clearance via voice communication.
From engine start to engine shutdown except during cruise.
When listening to the VOLMET or ATIS and when communicating with the
handling agent
during flight.
For HF communications.
At any other time at the Commanders discretion.
2.17.3 When the headset is not used during cruise, the speaker volume
should not be so loud that it disturbs the passengers.
2.17.4 The PM will usually request the ATC clearance and write it down on
the company flight plan. Whenever possible, both pilots should be present
when ATC delivers the clearance. After the clearance has been received,
both pilots will review it, recheck the FMS and Flight Guidance Controller
and amend the T/O briefing as necessary.
2.17.5 The PM will normally handle ATC communications.
2.17.6 121.5 MHZ should be monitored on the second VHF box during
flight whenever possible.
2.17.7 If an air to air frequency is published for a region, e.g. the North
Atlantic or Africa, it should be monitored whenever possible.
2.17.8 The ATC VHF frequency must be monitored at all times, except
when ATC communications is via HF radio, when a SELCAL facility may be
used, provided it has been checked as operating on the ATC frequency in
use. If a Pilot wishes to go to Box 2, for example to call the handling agent

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
or to write down the weather, the other Pilot should be informed

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.18.1 In the event that the pitch angle of the aeroplane seems to be
inappropriate the call PITCH is to be made by PM. This is particularly
important on over rotation during take\ off, and during the flare on landing.
2.18.2 If the bank angle exceeds 30 degrees or is more than 10 degrees
from the desired bank angle, PM should call BANK.
2.18.3 In the event of an airspeed discrepancy, PM should call SPEED.
The limits beyond which the discrepancy should be called are:
Within 5 KIAS of the maximum allowable airspeed (VMO).
Outside \5 to +10 KIAS of a briefed or target airspeed.
During the final stages of an instrument approach, any speed outside
VREF to VREF +20.
During an approach in turbulent conditions, deviation from VREF may be
used as an alternative method for calling an airspeed discrepancy, e.g.
2.18.4 If the heading deviates by more than 10 degrees from the required
heading, PM should call HEADING.
2.18.5 If, in level flight, the altitude deviates by more than 100 feet, PM
should call ALTITUDE.
2.18.6 During the final approach after passing 1,000 ft. AAL, should the
aeroplane descent rate exceed 1,000 fpm the PM should call SINK RATE.
2.18.7 When established for an ILS approach in IMC, should the LOC
indications exceed a half dot left or right, or G/S indications exceed a half
dot high or low, a call by PM of LOCALIZER or GLIDESLOPE should be
2.18.8 When established for a non\precision approach
TRACK should be made by PM if the QDM divergence is approaching the
maximum error limit of 5 degrees on RMI needles.
2.18.9 PF actions on hearing a deviation callout will be to immediately
make a correction, then respond CORRECTING.
2.18.10 It is a vital part of PM monitoring duties to bring a serious and
continuing divergence to the notice of PF in the conditions and manner
indicated above.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.18.11 Nonetheless, a realistic application of these calls, particularly
those, which are concerned with track or glide slope divergence, must be
implemented to take account of whether PF has already commenced
appropriate corrective action.
2.18.12 In the event that PF receives a warning he should immediately
take action to return the aircraft to an acceptable condition. In the event
that PF cannot see a reason for airspeed or attitude calls on his flight
instruments, he must check the standby instruments. Only when it is
confirmed that a safe airspeed or attitude is being maintained should the
ASIs or ADIs be compared for discrepancy.
Its Baltic Jet policy that approaches should be flown so as to maintain a
continuous descent whenever it is safe to do so, in order to reduce ground
noise and to minimise the environmental impact of aircraft operations.
2.20.1 TAKE OFF BRIEFING A take off briefing must be given by the PF prior to each take off.
This briefing should be brief (suggested maximum of 2 minutes) and must
be given at a time when both pilots can participate without distraction. At
the Commanders discretion, the items of a normal take off and a standard
RTO may be omitted from this brief and be replaced by the term Standard
Company Take\off. The items which should be specifically briefed on
every take off are those items which are different, e.g. the flaps setting,
SID, EFFRA, emergency turn and specific threats (windshear, terrain, etc.). The SID must be read completely by both pilots together and the
FMS, NAV source, modes and altitude selector settings must be verified. Briefing should be conducted before engine start. If the ATC
clearance has not been received, the expected clearance can be briefed
and confirmed later. If the actual ATC clearance is not the expected one, a
re-briefing is necessary. Both pilots are responsible for ensuring that the aircraft can
safely follow the SID or departure route assigned by ATC. The full briefing should include at least the following:
Normal Departure:
1. Weather conditions for T/O: use of anti-ice, WX-radar.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2. V-speeds & Single Engine Pitch Attitude from Performance Data.
3. Expected taxi routing.
4. Take off Fuel, take off Mass, take off flap setting, TODA vs. TODR
5. SID: cross-check with FMS, nav. aid settings, initial altitude or
flight\level: verify altitude selector.
6. Any non\standard procedures e.g. MEL items, NOTAMs, etc.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Emergency Briefing:
1. Emergency on ground actions.
2. Rejected take-off:
Before 80 kts: for any significant malfunction and/or activation of the
Master Warning/Caution System.
Between 80 kts and V1: only for any fire warning, engine failure
(confirmed by 2 parameters), thrust reverser deployment, predicted wind
shear warning (as installed) or if the aircraft is unsafe or unfit to fly.
Tasks of both pilots in case of RTO.
3. Engine failure procedure after V1:
No action below 400 feet and normally not below EFFRA (except: gear
retraction, silencing warnings (after verification) and actions necessary in
the event of thrust reverser deployment).
Emergency Turn Procedure if required.
Return options or diversion to take\off alternate as appropriate.
Consideration should be given to the possibility of an over\weight landing.
4. Any comments, questions or suggestions.
The approach briefing should be delivered prior to descent, ideally with
ATIS received. The PF gives the approach briefing As a general guideline, follow the flow pattern given on the
approach chart, which should cover the following items:
Landing fuel, Landing mass and Landing configuration, Landing Distance
available vs. Landing Distance required.
VREF & VAPP speeds.
TOD point.
STAR and/or expected ATC instructions.
Type of approach and primary approach aid.
Transition level.
MSA and significant terrain or obstacle
Approach profiles and speed restrictions.
FAF and OM or substitute crossing altitude and/or DME distance.
Go\around procedure.
Missed approach procedure.
Airport environment: approach lights, runway condition and slope, length
and lighting, touchdown elevation.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Weather conditions and intended technique: anti\ice, crosswind,
braking\action, Thrust\reversers.
Low visibility procedures, if applicable.
Expected taxi routing.
Crosscheck FMS arrival, waypoints and radio NAV setup.
Relevant NOTAMs.
If diversion to alternate becomes likely: check latest weather and runway
in use, FMS routing and fuel required.
2.21.1 The following allocation of duties is specified for the workload
associated with normal operation. However, the Commander must assess
any exceptional workload associated with non standart conditions and
assign revised duties as necessary.
2.21.2 When the aircraft is stationary, switch selections on the Lower
Instrument Panel in response to checklist items are normally made by the
pilot on whose side of the cockpit the particular switch is located. The PF
makes switch selections on the Pedestal. When the aircraft is moving, the
PM should make all switch selections on the lower Instrument panel and
2.21.3 It will be appreciated that some items associated with basic
airmanship may be relevant to any phase of operation and therefore may
not be included in a checklist.
1. Seat adjustment, safety belts and shoulder harnesses:
Seats and rudder pedals should be properly adjusted by both pilots in
order to allow full control of the aircraft at all times that the aircraft is
moving. Particular attention should be given to rudder pedals and the
movement required for full rudder deflection. Shoulder harnesses may be
removed in the cruise, but must be refitted prior to the top of descent.
Shoulder harnesses may be removed in the cruise, but must be refitted
prior to the top of descent.
2. Cockpit Lighting:
Set as desired in accordance with Section 4.14.1.
3. Weather Radar:
Should be on and correctly adjusted when in cloud or poor visibility, at
night and in VMC if convective weather is observed or forecast in the area.
Forced standby mode should be overridden and the departure route

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
examined before take\off if there is any suspicion that hazardous weather
may exist on departure.
Ensure that the weather radar is turned off (or to standby) after landing
to avoid injury to personnel or damage to equipment.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
4. Anti-ice systems:
Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to operating in icing
conditions. Icing conditions exist when the temperature is between a
+10C and a SAT of -40C and visible moisture in any form is present (e.g.
cloud, rain, snow, sleet, ice crystals, or fog with visibility of 1 mile (1500
metres) or less). Additionally, pilots should be aware that, particularly in
the vicinity of thunderstorms, icing may also occur within high level clouds
at temperatures well below -40C. The use of anti-ice systems should be
considered in these conditions.
If using Wing & Stabiliser Anti-Ice for take-off, the WING/TAIL rotary
switch should be selected to 10 minutes, at least 2 minutes prior to
selecting takeoff thrust, to ensure full ice protection. At very low
temperatures (-28C or less), ice crystals can exist in the atmosphere but
do not present a hazard. If the airframe ice protection system is used at
these low temperatures, the water/alcohol content of the fluid will
evaporate, leaving solidified glycol which, together with the impinging ice
crystals, can give the appearance of ice. Use of the airframe ice protection
system under these conditions is not advisable. Therefore, operation of the
WING/TAIL ANTICE timer switch should be limited to the priming
procedures with additional use in flight only when weather condition
Minimise the duration of icing encounters as much as practical.
Do not hold in icing conditions with flaps extended.
Be aware that the increased engine idle schedule with anti\ice systems
on will
increase descent distances. The use of spoilers may be required to make
it fit.
1.Coordinate flight with Baltic Jet
operations & Handling Agent.
2.Confirm Flight Plan, Over Flight
Clearances and expected
number of passengers.
3. Check weather & NOTAMS
with F/O. Decide Fuel load.

First officer
1. Obtain and check weather,
NOTAMS for route including any
possible diversion airfields.

All allocation of pre-flight duties is entirely at the discretion of the


OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Arrival at aircraft.
Pilot flying (PF)
1. Co-ordinate duties with PM to
prepare aircraft for service.
2. Prepare Aircraft interior for
flight including a check of
cockpit Emergency Equipment.
3. When ready to power up
aircraft, complete checklists
appropriate to circumstances.
4. Initialize & enter route into
5. Set up radio aids & Flight
6. Controller for expected
5. Calculate Take-off Mass and
Performance Data prepare a
manual loadsheet as required.
6. Check Take-off speeds in the
7. Check validity of NAV
database and
Electronic Jeppesen charts.

Doors closed.

Pilot Monitoring (PM)

1. Carry out external inspection.
2. Supervise refueling operation and
other services.
3. Liaise with handling agent
regarding passenger arrival at
4. Assist with the Pre Flight Checks.
Meet and greet the Passengers.
5. Prior to closing the main aircraft
door, carry out a final 360
walkround to ensure:
Aircraft is clear of all ground
All gear pins and blanks are
All chocks are removed.
Aircraft is visibly in a flyable
6. Close doors, check latch pin sight
7. If flight accomplished without FA,
brief passengers:
Emergency exits, cabin signs and
emergency lights.
Seat belts, life jackets and dropout
oxygen. Smoking restrictions.
Armchairs locked fore/aft
(headrests raised on aft\facing
seats), seat backs upright and
armrests raised. Folding tables
Telephones and portable electronic
8. Crosscheck Take-off Mass,
Performance Data or Manual

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Pilot flying (PF)
1. Check and set flight
2. Monitor ATC clearance.
3. Brief PM for departure.
4. Call for, action & respond to
appropriate items of ENGINE
START checklist as appropriate.
5. Complete the flow and call for
the AFTER START Checklist.

Pilot Monitoring (PM)

1. Monitor ATC clearance and obtain
ATC clearance.
2. Display Airport chart on DU2 and
Departure chart on DU3.
3. Read & check for response to
appropriate items of ENGINE START

Pre Departure:
Allocation of duties is entirely at the discretion of the Commander.
Do not operate electrical equipment especially HF radio and weather
radar whilst
Landing gear pins should not be removed until the aircraft is parked in its
departure position on the ramp. The pins must all be removed by one pilot,
shown to the other pilot and acknowledgement received that the
appropriate number of pins have been removed.
Before starting engines immediately prior to departure, both pilots must
be in their respective seats, with all doors closed.
During engine starting, callouts should be restricted to those necessary
for confirmation that the engine is performing normally. Closely monitor all
engine parameters during engine start. Place thrust lever to CUT OFF if
any parameter rapidly approaches or exceeds its limit. If PM sees a
problem with an engine while it's being started, he should call STOP.
Check speeds V1, VR, V2 on the FMS. Speeds can be extracted from
Flight Manual or, if not runway or obstacle limited, from the QRH.
Flight Director modes for take off are pre-selected NAV with HDG
(Heading Select mode with heading bug set to runway heading). Ensure
the AP/FD transfer white arrow is selected to the PF side. When the ATC
cleared SID is in the active FMS Flight Plan (FPL), FMS NAV mode may be
armed prior to takeoff.
2.24. TAXI
1. Confirm cleared taxi routing
on Airfield Layout chart.
2. Turn on taxi lights.
3. Taxi forward & gently check

1. Obtain taxi clearance. (Switch on
transponder if required at particular
2. Check cleared routing on airfield

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
brakes and steering.
4. When well clear of hazards
check thrust reversers and flight
instruments including source
selections, RMI needle
selections, FD modes and AP/ FD
L/R arrow.
5. Call for the TAXI Checklist
and respond to appropriate
items of the checklist.
6. Review take-off briefing.

layout chart.
3.Gently check brakes when
instructed by CM1.
4.When well clear of hazards check
flight instruments including source
selections, RMI needle selections,
FD modes, AP/FD L/R arrow and
5. Complete the flow, Read &
Respond to appropriate items of
TAXI checklist.

When instructed to line up on departure runway:

1. Call for the LINE UP
1. Complete the flow and read &
respond to appropriate items of the
2. Complete the flow and
LINE UP Checklist.
respond to
3. Line A/C up on centerline.
Taxi instructions:
Taxiing is a critical phase of operation and must be treated as such. Both
pilots must keep a good lookout at all times. Non-essential activities must
be avoided. If any doubt whatsoever exists as to the clearance or present
position the aircraft must be stopped immediately and verification sought.
When maneuvering in a confined space, bear in mind that with maximum
nose wheel deflection, the wingtip describes an arc significantly greater
than the nose wheel.
Never cross red stop bars unless specifically instructed to do so by ATC.
Taxiing on one engine is not permitted.
Running of checklists must not be carried out within the ramp area and
must be suspended, with total attention given to lookout, when crossing an
active runway.
When the flight instruments are checked during taxi, the instruments on
both sides should be checked by the PM, with a final quick confirmation by
the PF.
Maximum taxi speed is 30 kts. in a straight line, 15kts. in a turn of up to
90 and 10kts. in a turn of 90 or more.
Enter turns slowly for passenger comfort and to avoid tire scrubbing.
Use brakes and steering gently anticipate braking requirements in good
If Weather Radar is required on the ground, ensure that no personnel are
within 2 ft radially from the nose of the aircraft and that no large metallic
objects (including aircraft) are within 100 ft. (30 metres) of the nose.
The take off briefing review during taxi is not intended to be an extended
repeat of the original briefing.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Great care must be exercised whilst taxiing in low visibility conditions.
Checklists and briefings should only be completed when the aircraft is
stationary. The taxi checks should be completed, as far as possible, before
commencing taxi from the ramp. Do not hesitate to stop and call for a
follow me if there is any uncertainty about your position. ATC will usually
be unable to see the aircraft so keep them updated of your position
especially when entering and vacating active runways.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.25. TAKE OFF
Refer to Annex 2.A.1 for take off profile.
The normal flap settings for take off are 0 or 15. The second segment
climb requirements may require take off with flaps 15.
Use of reduced take off (assumed temperature/flex) thrust is prohibited
on HS125.
When take off is planned from a runway where ATOM is close to RTOM or
other special performance considerations exist, the aircraft Commander
may elect to be PF.
2.25.1 CREW COORDINATION TAKE OFF performed by CM1

off received from ATC
1. Switch on L and R LDG LTS. Start
elapsed time clock.
2. Set and check take off thrust
3. Respond with callout THRUST
Note: After take off thrust is set, the CM1 hand must be on the thrust
levers until V1.
2. Maintain directional control by 4. Monitor directional control and
tiller until 80 kts.
engine instruments. Call SPEED
3. Respond CHECK and
continue control airplane using
Clearance for take
1. Advance thrust levers
smoothly towards take off thrust

2.25.2 CREW COORDINATION TAKE OFF performed by CM2


Clearance for take off received from ATC
1. Switch on L and R LDG LTS.
1. Call I HAVE CONTROL. Eyes out.
Start time clock.
2. Advance thrust levers
smoothly towards take off thrust
Note: After take off thrust is set, the CM1 hand must be on the thrust
levers until V1.
3. Maintain directional control
2. Take over rudder in present
with NWS up to 80 kts. Eyes out.
position after 80 kts.
Position rudder appropriately for
3. Respond CHECK and continue

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
directional control.
4. Call SPEED ALIVE and
5. Slowly relax pressure on NWS
to the neutral position after 80
kts. Eyes in.

control airplane using rudders.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Pilot flying (PF)

Pilot monitoring (PM)

Call V1 and ROTATE.

Monitor airspeed noting V1,

Remove hand from thrust levers
at V1.
At VR rotate smoothly to approx.


Adjust pitch attitude to maintain
V2 + 10\20. Call FLC MODE, SET
V2 + 20 or "VS".
Climb at V2 + 20 KIAS (or as
limited by body angle or ROC).
Call all PFD mode changes.
Min 600 ft AAL call for autopilot
and/or yaw damper ON, (as
Min 800 ft AAL:
Set MCT (or MCR as desired for
body angle).
Continue climb at V2 + 20 KIAS
or selected ROC. Follow
departure route using HDG or
NAV mode.
At 1,500 ft AAL:
Call for or select (depending on
autopilot engagement) SPEED
At not less than 3,000 ft,
accelerate to 250 KIAS.
When instructed to climb to a
Flight Level, set main altimeter
to Standard, call SET

Monitor airspeed noting V1, Remove

hand from thrust levers at V1.
At VR rotate smoothly to approx.
Respond GEAR UP, Select landing
gear lever UP L & R LANDING LTS
to OFF (if no PULSE).
Respond FLC MODE, Select mode
as requested.

Select autopilot or yaw damper as

called for by PF. Monitor flightpath &
departure tracking.

Set main altimeter to Standard,

(assigned FL).

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Passing MSA Call PASSING
Set standby altimeter to
standard after passing MSA.
Call for the AFTER TAKE OFF
Checklist, complete the flow and
respond to appropriate items of
the checklist.
At FL100/10,000 ft resume
normal climb speeds.

Respond CHECK.
Complete the flow and read &
to appropriate items of AFTER
TAKE\OFF Checklist.

Take of general notes

The call of SPEED ALIVE is intended as confirmation that both PFD air
speed indicators are responding normally during acceleration. If they are
not, the take off should be rejected.
The call of 80 KNOTS is intended as a pilot incapacitation check.
Where a departure SID is predicated on ground based NAV aids,
consideration should be given to
PM displaying raw data on his HSI, with VOR/DME/NDB/ course displayed.
If the take off is carried out with this selected, the PMs display must be
returned to FMS/NAV/LNAV, as appropriate, when established en route.
Before entering any active runway, both pilots must visually check the
approaches and runway to ensure they are clear.
Before commencing the take off roll, both pilots must visually check the
take off and climb out paths.
Just prior to commencing the take off, the crew should mentally rehearse
the rejected take off procedure.
If take off performance is critical, hold AC on brakes as long as
If Take off Run Available exceeds TORR by at least 300 ft. (100 m.) and
obstacle clearance is not a factor, a rolling take off may be accomplished.
Rotation rate should be smooth and at approximately 3/sec.
PM should verify at least two indications of climb (from Baro Alt, VSI or
RADALT) before calling POSITIVE CLIMB. This is especially important after
an engine failure.
After lift off, SYNC can be used to synchronize the FD bars to the A/C
pitch attitude.
When desired, call for or select, (as appropriate to autopilot engagement
status), FLC mode. When using FLC mode, exercise caution when
increasing speed. If too large an increase is selected quickly, the A/C may
descend. Increase IAS in increments to avoid this
On initial climb out, limit pitch attitude to 20 maximum.
Maximum demonstrated crosswind for take off 30 kts.
Minimum height for autopilot engagement 600 ft AGL.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
On first contact with departure/radar frequency, call SID, passing
altitude/FL and cleared altitude/FL.
It is Baltic Jet policy to alleviate noise close to the aerodrome by using
ICAO Noise Abatement Climb (NADP 2) whenever it is safe to do so.
This procedure involves a thrust reduction at or above the prescribed
minimum altitude and flap retraction between the prescribed minimum
and the prescribed maximum altitude.
The noise abatement procedure should normally not be initiated at less
than 1,500 ft AAL. However, if thrust reduction is required below 1,500 ft
AAL, the minimum is 800 ft AAL.
The initial climbing speed to the noise abatement initiation point shall be
not less than
V2 + 10 kts.
On reaching an altitude at or above 800 ft above aerodrome elevation,
adjust and maintain engine thrust to MCT. Maintain a climb speed of V2 +
10 to 20 kts. with flaps in the take off configuration.
At 1,500 ft. AAL, while maintaining a positive rate of climb, accelerate and
retract flaps on schedule.
Figure Noise abatement take-off climb Example of a
procedure alleviating noise distant from the aerodrome (NADP 2)

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures


For general information refer to OM A Section Baltic Jet LVTO
section description.
LVTO conditions are defined as being an RVR below 400 m. Take off is
permitted with an RVR below 400 m provided both pilots have completed
specific training.
The following limitations apply to LVTOs:
Absolute minimum RVR for take off is 125 m. for HS-125 aircraft.
Take off is carried out by the CM1 who will normally act as commander.
When an LTC acting as CM2 is in the right seat, it would normally be
carried out by the CM1.
Aerodrome LVP must be in force.
Take off from a contaminated runway is prohibited.
The take off briefing, which should be completed whilst the aircraft is
stationary, must include LVTO requirements (e.g. LVPs, take off alternate,
airfield lighting, remote Cat II/III holding points and take off flap setting)
and actions in the event of failure.
Take off should normally be carried out with the highest permissible flap
setting, to minimize the take off run.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
During line up, confirm that the aircraft is lined up on the centerline lights
and check the compass heading and RAAS indications. ATC will usually be
unable to see the aircraft so they should be updated with the aircraft
position, particularly in the event of a rejected take off.
Refer to abnormal procedures Section 3.2.3
2.26. CLIMB
Pilot flying (PF)
On passing 10,000 ft./FL100. Call
for the CLIMB Checklist,
complete the flow and respond
to appropriate items of the

Pilot monitoring (PM)

Complete the flow and read &
respond to appropriate items of
CLIMB Checklist.

Climb Notes
Check for normal pressurization every 10,000 ft. during climb.
Set standby altimeter to Standard when above MSA.
Approaching assigned altitudes/FLs, restrict vertical speed as set out in
Section 4.9.3
Particular care must be exercised when using Vertical Speed (VS) mode.
Airspeed must be closely monitored and any undesired increase or
decrease must be corrected promptly by adjusting VS. If the divergence is
rapid and/or significant, be prepared to disengage the Autopilot and
manually adjust Pitch Attitude.
All PFD Autopilot/Flight Director mode changes must be called by PF and
acknowledged my PM as set out in Section 4.7.3
Turbulent/Rough air penetration speed is 230 KIAS (0.70 M).

2.27. CRUISE
Pilot flying (PF)
Call for the CRUISE Checklist,
complete the flow and respond
to appropriate items of the

Pilot monitoring (PM)

Complete the flow and read &
respond to appropriate items of the
CRUISE Checklist.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
checklist. Monitor A/C systems &
fuel state at regular intervals
during flight.
Perform routine panel sweeps.

Prior to top of descent, ensure

expected arrival runway, STAR
and transition is entered into
FMS. Ensure radio aids are set
for expected approach. Calculate
landing mass, enter VREF and
Carry out approach briefing,
ideally before TOD. Set BARO
MIN for approach on PFD.
Call for the DESCENT
Checklist, complete the flow and
respond to appropriate items of
the checklist.

Maintain ATC communication.

Work out the OFP. On reaching
cruise FL and at least once every
hour check fuel remaining against
flight plan fuel.
Carry out and record altimeter cross
checks at least every hour. Inform
PF at any time that MSA exceeds
10,000 ft.
Obtain weather reports for
destination and alternate airports as
requested by PF.

Set standby altimeter to destination

Check landing mass, check VREF
and VAPP in FMS.
Complete the flow and read &
respond to appropriate items of the
DESCENT Checklist.

Cruise notes:
Maintain fuel balance using the WING FUEL, XFEED, and TRANSFER lever.
Throughout flight, all manually tuned radio aids must be identified before
See Annex 2.A.2, Annex 2.A.3 and Annex 2.A.4 for approach profiles.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Pilot flying (PF)
Pilot monitoring (PM)
Descend using the VS or VNAV
Passing 10,000 ft. / FL100 turn on
mode appropriate to the
TAXI Lights.
circumstances. Plan to be at
10,000 ft/250 KIAS/30 nm from
When passing MSA call Passing
Respond Check. Set QNH on main
altimeter, respond QNH XXX set,
On being cleared to an altitude,
passing XXXX ft. (current passing
set QNH on main altimeter. Call
Altitude) descending XXXX ft. (ATC
assigned altitude).
altimeter check.
At appropriate time after QNH
Complete the flow and read &
has been set, call for the
respond to appropriate items of the
APPROACH checklist, complete
APPROACH Checklist.
the flow and respond to
appropriate items of the
PF should mentally rehearse the
go-around procedure.
When desired, call for
Respond to PF calls for configuration
configuration changes as set out
changes as set out in Section 4.7.1.
in Section 4.7.1.
When radio altimeter comes
alive, call RADALT ALIVE.
On ILS approach the wording
2. CHECKED verifies APPR button
should be e.g. with Autopilot
4. CHECKED verifies LOC and GS
1. Approach Mode presses
white on PFD
APPR button
6. CHECKED verifies Localizer
green on PFD
5. LOCALIZER Captured when
8. CHECKED verifies GS green on
LOC green.
PFD and MAP ALT set correct.
7. G/S Captured, MAP ALT set
when GS green and sets missed
approach altitude on ALT
On an ILS approach passing the Outer Marker/OM substitute (previously
briefed final fix) the wording should be as follows e.g.
Checks silently:
OM Altitude
Inbound course

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
ILS Frequency
DH(A) and if all correct calls:
2. OM check completed
Respond CHECKED.
Commence Go Around if any
discrepancy cannot immediately
be resolved.
When landing flap is set, call
Complete LANDING checks,
complete the flow and respond
to appropriate items of the
Ensure that the stabilized
approach criteria set out in
paragraph 4.16 are met by
1,000 ft. AAL in IMC, or 500 ft.
AAL in VMC. If not, commence a
Go Around.
Confirms landing runway visual
contact is established and calls
1) 100 ft. above DA/MDA call
If GO-AROUND perform goaround procedure and follow the
missed approach procedure
If CONTINUE, continue
approach and complete landing.
Smoothly return the Thrust
Reversers to REVERSE

Complete the flow and read &

respond to appropriate items of the
LANDING checklist below the line.
As soon as landing runway visual
contact is established call

2) Respond Checked.
Continue to monitor instruments
and visual reference calling
attention to any deviations from the
desired approach path.
Looking out and call CONTACT / NO
On Landing verify Spoilers and
Thrust Reversers deployed.

2.28.2 Notes Descent, Approach & Landing

Cabin Safety:
On passenger carrying flights, the Commander must ensure that the
passengers are briefed on the need for all armchairs to be locked in the
fore aft direction (with headrests raised on aft facing seats), seat backs
upright, armrests raised and all folding tables stowed.
Descent Speeds:

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Normally Mach 0.78/300 KIAS then 250 KIAS at 10,000 ft./FL100 and below.
Turbulent air penetration speed is Mach 0.70 or 230 KIAS
Approach Speeds:
180 kts clean is a comfortable holding speed at all weights however
optimum holding speed for the aircraft mass is available from the POM.
Avoid holding in icing conditions wherever possible. If short holds in icing
conditions are unavoidable, 230 KIAS is recommended speed.
Do not hold in icing conditions with the flaps extended.
As a rule of thumb, 20 lb./minute is a conservative estimate of fuel burn
whilst holding.
More accurate tabulated figures are provided in the Holding section of the
Pilot Operating Manual.
Approach speeds:
Typically, ATC request a speed of approximately 210 KIAS during initial
approach vectors. This phase can therefore be flown clean. On base leg/
closing heading as instructed by ATC (or prior to the intermediate approach
phase during a procedural approach) slow to 180 KIAS. Prior to
intercepting the glideslope or descent point extend landing gear, flap 15
and reduce to 160 kts. On glideslope intercept, extend flap 15 and reduce
speed to
V2 +25 KIAS. Landing flap must be selected and a stabilised approach
speed must be established by 1,000 ft. AAL at the latest in IMC or by 500
ft. AAL at the latest in VMC.
When ATC request a speed of (typically) 160 KIAS to 4 nm this may be
flown with flap 15 or with gear down & flap 25 as dictated by weather
conditions, particularly the headwind component on the day. Bear in mind
that the A/C can be reluctant to slow down.
NPA based on VOR/NDB:
Approaches which are based on a VOR or an NDB beacon (with or without
DME) can be flown in one of 2 ways:
FMS Overlay This is the preferred method. If the approach is in the FMS
NAV Database, the approach can be flown in FMS mode (green needles),
provided the beacon needle is displayed on the PFD. The approach in the
FMS must be checked carefully against the approach plate for waypoint
sequence, tracks, distances, altitudes and missed approach. Pilots are not
permitted to change or add to the waypoints and if any of these are not
correct, the approach cannot be flown. Final approach course tracking
must remain within 5 of the centerline, as shown by the needle, or a
missed approach executed. The vertical mode to be used is VS or VPATH

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
and the altitudes against range checks must still be made. If an FMS
navigation failure/error message occurs, the continued use of FMS mode
should be considered. A reduction in navigational performance (e.g. no
TERM or APP caption) does not necessarily render the approach unflyable.
In some cases, the approach may be continued in raw data. If the beacon
fails, the approach must be discontinued and go-around procedure
Raw Data this is flown without using the FMS. The final approach course
must be set on the PFD and flown in NAV/HDG mode (VOR approach) or
HDG (NDB approach) with the green needle displayed on both PFD and
MFD. Final approach course tracking must remain within 5 of the
centerline or a missed approach executed. The vertical mode must be VS
as above. If the beacon fails, the approach must be discontinued.
Particular care must be taken when flying in countries, which are not
WGS\84 mapped. In these countries, the FMS and NDB/VOR courses may
not coincide. Tracking within 5 of the centerline, as shown by the
needle, remains the ultimate criterion of correct tracking.
Approach Speeds & Bugs:
Bugs are set on the PFD as follows:

VAPP (approach climb speed).

VREF (for landing flap setting).
Airspeed on approach should be stabilized at VREF + 10 for the
landing flap setting by 1,000 ft. AAL in IMC or by 500 ft. AAL in

The standard 500 FEET STABILIZED / NOT STABILIZED in VMC or "1,000
FEET STABILIZED / NOT STABILIZED" in IMC call must be made on all
The standard calls of APPROACHING MDA 100 ft. before the MDA and
MDA must be made on all briefed instrument approaches. The callout
APPROACHING MDA may be skipped if both pilots confirm the landing
runway insight confirming this by calling CONTACT.
VFR/Visual Approaches:
The minima for VFR and on circling approaches are given in OM A
The configuration and speeds to be flown on a circling approach are
shown at Annex 2.A.4.
In strong and/or gusty winds, airspeed slightly higher than VREF is
warranted. Unless otherwise specified in the Manufacturer's

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
documentation, the following corrections to approach speeds should be
Steady state wind speed 10 kts or less:
No adjustment is necessary.
Steady state wind speed greater than 10 kts:
Add half the steady wind speed plus all the gust, up to a maximum of 20
Maximum demonstrated crosswind for landing is 30 kts.
Crosswind landings are similar to those in other aircraft. Adequate aircraft
control during take off and landing in a crosswind velocity of 30 kts. was
demonstrated during certification tests of HS-125. Use the crab approach,
then transition to a wing low, slipped drift correction prior to touchdown.
Hold the upwind aileron into the wind through touchdown and track the
centerline on the rollout. During the landing roll, keep the wings level by
using aileron as required. The spoilers, when deployed, destroy lift and
make the brakes more effective. In extreme crosswind conditions, airspeed
slightly higher than VREF is warranted. As a general rule, an increase of
1/2 the gust factor up to 15 kts. over VREF may be appropriate on final
approach. Do not allow the aircraft to float with power off prior to
touchdown. Fly the aircraft touchdown with little to no flare. Upon
touchdown, keep the aircraft on the surface. As the spoilers deploy
automatically, follow through the landing roll with roll control into the wind.
Landing on a contaminated or slippery runway should be avoided
wherever possible. Landing on a slippery surface requires careful
consideration of many factors, such as type of runway surface, approach
hazards, temperature, ice, water, snow and other crosswind scenarios.
Normally thrust reverser operation helps achieve the computed stopping
distance with a greater margin of safety. Contaminated runway data is
available in the AFM.
CAT.POL.A.235 stipulates that on a Contaminated Runway, the LDA must
be the greater of:
I. 115% of the CONTAMINATED Actual Landing Distance (ALD) where this is
determined in accordance with the approved data accepted by the

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
II. The WET Landing Distance, which is 192% (= 115% of 167%) of the DRY
When calculating MLM, compare between I and II above and takes the
more limiting. Extreme care should be exercised when assessing available
runway length when there is no alternative to landing on a contaminated
With one engine inoperative, TRs may not be as effective on a
contaminated runway as on a dry runway. Full single-engine reverse is fine
on a dry runway from a directional control standpoint. However, do not
attempt high power single-engine reverse on slippery runways. Differential
reversing on a slippery runway may not yield satisfactory performance. Be
prepared to stow thrust reversers immediately if the aircraft begins to slide
Extreme care should be exercised when assessing available runway length
when there is no alternative to landing on a contaminated runway.
If there is a possibility of hydroplaning, use aerodynamic braking to slow
below hydroplaning speed. Hydroplaning speed is approximately 106 kts.
for accelerating aircraft (nine times the square root of the tyre pressure)
and 95 kts. for a decelerating aircraft (eight times the square root of tyre
pressure). The main gear tyre pressure should be serviced to 135 (+10, \0)
psi. If brakes are applied while the tyres are hydroplaning, the
hydroplaning can continue to a much lower speed.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
See Annex 2.A.5 for Go-around profile.
Pilot flying (PF)
1.Press go-around button on
either control column.
2.Increase thrust towards T/O
setting & initiate a climb.
3.Call GO-AROUND, FLAP 15.
6.Call GEAR UP.


12. At 800 ft. AAL minimum
select MCT. Climb at VAPP min as
limited by body angle.
14. At 1,500 ft. AAL increase
speed to 200 kts. at VREF + 25
16.Follow missed approach
procedure using HDG or NAV
mode as appropriate. Call for the

Pilot monitoring (PM)

4.Check speed above VREF, respond
5.Select FLAP 15.
7.Check positive rate of climb.
9.Call GEAR UP. Respond GEAR
UP, select gear up.
11. Select FLC mode & set FLC to
13. When A/C stabilised in climb call
15. Check speed, respond SPEED
CHECKS, FLAPS ZERO, select flaps
17. Monitor flight path and
compliance with missed approach
procedure. Advise PF of any

Go-around notes:
Pressing either go-around button repositions FD command bars to 12,
commands heading at the time of engagement and disengages the
Flaps may be retracted below 1,500 ft. AAL if published missed approach
procedure requires a lower level off altitude.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Confirm route with RP and taxi to
parking position.
Call for the AFTER LANDING
Checklist, complete the flow and
respond to appropriate items of
the checklist.
When correctly parked, apply the
Call for & respond to appropriate
items of the SHUTDOWN

Obtain ATC taxi instructions, check
route on chart.
Monitor correct routing, avoid all
nonessential activities.
Complete the flow and read &
respond to the AFTER LANDING

Read & respond to appropriate

items of the SHUTDOWN

Taxi in & shutdown notes:

Before engine shutdown, the assigned squawk should be changed to
A2000 before selecting the transponder to STBY or OFF. This is an ATC
requirement to ensure the release of the assigned squawk.
Gear pins should be installed as soon as convenient after engine
shutdown before the crew leave the aircraft so the aircraft can be safely
moved by ground personnel.
The crew must be trained, qualified and current for the intended P-RNAV
operations. For an aircraft with P-RNAV approval, a P shall be inserted in
the FPL at Item 10, in addition to the R for BRNAV approval. NOTAMs
must be checked for lack of availability of a navigation aid that might
affect the navigation infrastructure required for the intended operation,
including any non-RNAV contingencies and must be confirmed for the
period of intended operation.
2.31.2 MEL
MEL must be consulted for relevant system deficiencies prior to dispatch.
Baltic Jet Hawker 800/850XP RNAV checklist must be consulted prior to any
P-RNAV operations (Refer to Annex 2.E).

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Availability of the on board navigation equipment necessary for the route
to be flown must be confirmed. In certain areas, this may include the
availability of an autopilot and/or a flight director to maintain track keeping
accuracy. Where the responsible airspace authority has specified in the AIP
that dual P-RNAV systems are required for a specific terminal area P-RNAV
procedure, the availability of dual P-RNAV systems must be confirmed.
In this case 2 independent FMGCs, an AP or FD and 2 sensors (either 2 GPS
and/or 2 DME and/or 2 VOR) must be available. This typically will apply
where procedures are effective below the applicable minimum obstacle
clearance altitude or where radar coverage is inadequate for the purposes
of supporting P-RNAV. This will also take into account the particular
hazards of a terminal area and the feasibility of contingency procedures
following loss of P-RNAV capability.
For terminal procedures requiring P-RNAV capability, radio navaid coverage
will support RNP 1 accuracy, unless promulgated in NOTAMs. Otherwise,
the procedure may specify that GPS equipment is required (refer to the
published procedure chart). The minimum equipment required to fly a PRNAV procedure is: One RNAV system, which means:

One FMS and LNAV available (flight director coupled).

One VOR or one GPS receiver for FMS navigation update.
One DME or one GPS receiver for FMS navigation update
Flight Plan Data on two Navigation Displays.
One autopilot.

*Dual P-RNAV systems or GPS may be required by certain airport

Authorities check on Jeppesen charts if Dual P-RNAV systems are
required, FMS must be in synchronize mode.
At system initialization, the flight crew must confirm that the navigation
database is current (check database status on system power up) and
verify that the aircraft position has been entered correctly. The active flight
plan should be checked by comparing the charts, SID or other applicable
documents, with the LEGS page of the CDU. This includes:
Confirmation of the correct waypoint sequence.
Reasonableness of track angles and distances.
Any altitude or speed constraints.
Correct identification, where possible, of waypoints as fly-by or fly-over
Check GPS available for procedures where GPS is stipulated

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Pilots must particularly focus on any segment of the P-RNAV procedure,
which is below MSA. If required by a procedure, a check must be made to
confirm that position updating will use a specific navigation aid, or to
confirm exclusion of a specific navigation aid (via FMS NOTAM navaid
page). A procedure must not be used if doubt exists as to the validity of
the procedure in the navigation database.
The flight crew must not modify the procedure that is loaded from the
navigation database, although speed and altitude constraints that are
missing in the database but are shown on the chart may be entered. This
will not affect P-RNAV accuracy requirements. Waypoints and routing must
not be altered as this may change the leg type and subsequent FMS
Permissible route modifications in the terminal area may take the form of
radar headings or direct to clearances and the flight crew must be ready
to react promptly. This may include accepting an ATC clearance direct to
a waypoint which is in the database: in this case the aircraft must be
above MSA to ensure obstacle clearance.
RNP should be set to 1.0 in the FMS (PROG page 2). This will inform the
flight crew when navigation accuracy is insufficient for a P-RNAV SID. The
indication will be a message (MSG) in the PFD which flashes for a short
while before going steady. This message is accompanied by a message in
the FMS scratchpad LOW POS ACCURACY.
The RNP and EPU display on the PFD indicates required navigation
performance and estimate of position uncertainty for the current
conditions. For RNP 1 operations, system integrity is monitored
automatically and RNP 1.0 will be displayed.
If GPS position is not available at take off and RNP operations are required,
the FMS position must be updated prior to take off for improved navigation
accuracy. The FMS position must only be updated to the runway
coordinates when the aircraft is located on the runway threshold. If
departing from an intersection, perform a manual position update to the
current GPS position. If GPS is unavailable, depart using conventional
navigation until DME/DME updating is attained and FMS position is
updated. A transition to P-RNAV is then permitted.
Use NAV (HDG if required) and FLC or VS as required. If the first P-RNAV
waypoint is predicated on ILS DME, use HDG until past the waypoint, then
re-engage NAV. Set the initial procedure altitude/level. Check the relevant
altitude constraint on the PFD.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
After take-off and where feasible, monitor flight progress with reference to
conventional navigation aids using the PFD and map display in conjunction
with the MCDU.
Prior to the arrival phase, the flight crew should consult the Baltic Jet
Hawker 800/850XP P-RNAV Checklist. Verify that the correct terminal
procedure has been loaded. Comparing the charts with the map display
and LEGS page of the CDU should check the active flight plan. This
Confirmation of the correct route and waypoint sequence.
Any altitude or speed constraints.
Identification of fly\by or fly\over waypoints. Absence of discontinuities.
GPS selection and RAIM check. Departure/Arrival RNP settings (1.00
FMS is not be in Dead Reckoning FMS DR displayed on the PFD, MFD or
Some P-RNAV procedures, called open procedures, are terminated by
means of a heading segment to assist sequencing and to prevent
automatic turns onto final approach. Pilots must particularly focus on any
segment of P-RNAV procedures, which is below MSA. If required, a check
must be made to confirm that updating will include or exclude a particular
navigation aid as appropriate. A procedure shall not be used if doubt exists
as to the validity of the procedure in the navigation database.
The crew briefing must include reversion to a conventional procedure and
the go around procedure.
As for departure, the creation, alteration or deletion of waypoints, by
manual entry into the FMS Flight Plan by the flight crew, is not permitted,
as it would invalidate the P-RNAV procedure.
RNP should be set to 1.0 in the FMS. This will inform the flight crew when
navigation accuracy is insufficient for a P-RNAV STAR. The indication will be
a message (MSG) in the PFD, which flashes for a short while before going
steady. This message is accompanied by a message in the FMS scratchpad

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
The lateral path must be flown using LNAV and pilots must monitor cross
track error on the PFD carefully.
The recommended vertical modes are VNAV, VS or FLC (if VS or FLC are
used then advisory VNAV should be selected on). The preselected altitude
should be set to the next altitude constraint or cleared level/altitude until
that constraint is passed and eventually to the platform altitude. The crew
must monitor intermediate altitudes carefully. Note, that once the aircraft
has leveled at the platform altitude suitable modes must be selected to
complete ILS, non-precision or visual approach.
Observe altimeter-setting requirements.
Please note:
ATC may provide QNH when giving the transition clearance but not in all
cases. If applicable, the change from STD to QNH is initiated on passing a
designated fix and not on ATC instruction. QNH setting must be included in
the approach brief. On passing the fix, PF will initiate the change to QNH.
The crew must monitor speed constraints carefully. Configuration changes
or Airbrake may be required to remain on or regain the profile or control
airspeed. If VNAV is active, a Check Speed message on the CDU or SPD on
the PFD warns the crew of non-compliance with a speed constraint. It is
the PFs responsibility to ensure that the speed constraints are adhered to.
In case of deviation from the published procedure, e.g. due to weather,
observe MSA and reset selected altitude.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
2.31.8 GO-AROUND
Use standart procedures as described in this section 4.29.1
At any stage before entry into, or whilst in the P-RNAV SID or STAR
environment, if any of the following messages are displayed:

FMS DR in yellow on the PFD, MFD, or CDU.

The crew must inform ATC of the loss of P-RNAV/RNP-1 capability and
follow ATC instructions. An immediate assessment of MSA should be made
and a climb initiated if required. COMMUNICATION FAILURES
In the event of communications failure, the flight crew should continue
with the P-RNAV procedure in accordance with the published lost
communication procedure. INCIDENT REPORTING
Significant incidents associated with the operation of the aircraft, which
affect or could affect the safety of P-RNAV operations, need to be reported
by SOR in accordance with OM Chapter 11.
Specific examples may include:
Aircraft system malfunctions during P-RNAV operations, which lead to:
Navigation errors (e.g. map shifts) not associated with transition from an
inertial navigation mode to radio navigation mode.
Significant navigation errors attributed to incorrect data or a navigation
database coding error.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Unexpected deviations in lateral or vertical flight path not caused by pilot
Significant misleading information without a failure warning.
Total loss or multiple navigation equipment failure.
Problems with ground navigational facilities leading to significant
navigation errors not associated with transitions from an inertial navigation
mode to radio navigation mode.
The electronic chart (EChart) format provides the ability to display an
electronic version of the Jeppesen terminal charts on the MFD. E-Charts are
permitted to be used as the primary source for briefings and monitoring,
subject to:
All 4 Display Units (DUs) being serviceable.
The aircraft Jeppesen database is verified current.
The own ship aircraft symbol on the chart display is not to be used for
navigation of the aircraft. However, it can assist with situational awareness
during all phases of flight including taxi.
Use of electronic Jeppesen chart data does not exempt the operating
crew from the checking of NOTAMs.
Access to en-route Jeppesen charts (High/Low as appropriate) and
Jeppesen text volumes.
A current source of Jeppesen information is readily available to the crew
at all times in flight.
As with paper chart reference material, the overall ownership of electronic
chart is with the PF.
The PF will set up, or ask to be set up by the PM, the appropriate chart(s)
in accordance with the procedures outlined above.
The PF may then use the MFD controls to select the required chart for
display, to pan around the charts, to zoom in or out on the chart, and also
to change the orientation of the chart.
Note: In flight, the use of zoom should not be used if any part of the chart
is no longer visible as a result.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
For instrument approaches, the appropriate instrument approach chart will
be displayed on the MFD. All aspects of the briefing must be covered und
fully understood by both crew members.

OM Part B (HS-125)
Chapter 2 Normal Procedures
Management with Display Unit(s) Unavailable
If one or more DU(s) becomes unserviceable, due to failure or electrical
condition, the use of Electronic Chart presentation is prohibited.
Jeppesen chart reference material should be used for the departure and
approach briefings with chart ownership and monitoring as outlined in