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Law of conservation of energy problems

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1. Problem 14-29

In Fig. 14-39, a spring of spring constant 3.00104 N/m is between

a rigid beam and the output piston of a hydraulic lever. An empty

container with negligible mass sits on the input piston. The input

piston has area Ai and the output piston has area 18.0Ai. Initially, the

spring is at its rest length. How many kilograms of sand must be

(slowly) poured into the container to compress the spring by 5.00 cm?

<Solution> Eq. 14-13 combined with Eq. 5-8 and Eq. 7-21 (in absolute value) gives

mg = kx .

With A2 = 18A1 (and the other values given in the problem) we find m = 8.50 kg.

2. Problem 14-54

The water flowing through a 1.9 cm (inside diameter) pipe flows out through three 1.3 cm pipes.

(a) If the flow rates in the three smaller pipes are 26, 19, and 11 L/min, what is the flow rate in the

1.9 cm pipe? (b) What is the ratio of the speed in the 1.9 cm pipe to that in the pipe carrying

26 L/min?

<Solution> (a) The equation of continuity provides (26 + 19 + 11) L/min = 56 L/min for the flow

rate in the main (1.9 cm diameter) pipe.

(b) Using v = R/A and A = d 2/4, we set up ratios:

v56 56 / (1.9) 2 / 4

=

1.0.

v26 26 / (1.3) 2 / 4

3. Problem 14-73

A glass ball of radius 2.00 cm sits at the bottom of a container of milk that has a density of 1.03

g/cm3. The normal force on the ball from the containers lower surface has magnitude 9.48 10-2 N.

What is the mass of the ball?

F

<Solution> The normal force N exerted (upward) on the glass ball of mass m has magnitude

0.0948 N. The buoyant force exerted by the milk (upward) on the ball has magnitude

Fb = milk g V

where V = r3 is the volume of the ball. Its radius is r = 0.0200 m. The milk density is

milk = 1030 kg/m3. The (actual) weight of the ball is, of course, downward, and has

magnitude Fg = mglass g. Application of Newton's second law (in the case of zero

acceleration) yields

FN + milk g V mglass g = 0

which leads to mglass = 0.0442 kg. We note the above equation is equivalent to Eq.14-19

in the textbook.

4. Problem 14-77

Figure 14-58 shows a siphon, which is a device for removing liquid

from a container. Tube ABC must initially be filled, but once this has

been done, liquid will flow through the tube until the liquid surface in

the container is level with the tube opening at A. The liquid has

density 1000 kg/m3 and negligible viscosity. The distances shown are

h1 = 25 cm, d = 12 cm, and h2 = 40 cm. (a) With what speed does the

liquid emerge from the tube at C? (b) If the atmospheric pressure is

1.0105 Pa, what is the pressure in the liquid at the topmost point B?

(c) Theoretically, what is the greatest possible height h1 that a siphon

can lift water?

<Solution> (a) We consider a point D on the surface of the liquid in the container, in the same tube

of flow with points A, B and C. Applying Bernoullis equation to points D and C, we

obtain

pD +

1

1

vD2 + ghD = pC + vC2 + ghC

2

2

which leads to

vc =

2 p D pC

2 g h D hC v 2D = 2 g d h 2

where in the last step we set pD = pC = pair and vD/vC 0. Plugging in the values, we

obtain

vc =

pB +

1 2

1

vB + ghB = pC + vC2 + ghC .

2

2

p B = pC g hC h B = pair g h1 h2 d

= 1.0105 Pa 1.0103 kg 9.8 m/ s 20.25 m 0.04 m 0.12 m

4

= 9.210 Pa

h1 h1,max =

pair

p

d h2 air = 10.3 m .

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