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Battle of Karbala

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For the battles in the Iraq War, see Battle of Karbala (2003) and Battle of Karbala (2007).
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Battle of Karbala

Abbas Al-Musavi's Battle of Karbala, Brooklyn Museum

10 Muharram 61, October 10, 680 AD
Umayyad military victory

Incident is mourned
by Shia Muslims to date


The Umayyads

Hussain of Banu Hashim

Commanders and leaders

Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad

Hussein ibn Ali †

Umar ibn Sa'ad

Al-Abbas ibn Ali †

Shimr ibn Thil-Jawshan

Habib ibn Muzahir †

Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al

Zuhayr ibn Qayn †

Tamimi (left his army and
joined Hussein during the
battle) †A


4,000[1] or 5,000[2] (at least) -

70-150 (general consensus

30,000[2] or 100,000[3][4] (at

110; including six-month-old


baby).[5][6]The common number
'72' comes from the number of
heads severed.

Casualties and losses

88 killed, plus some wounded. 72 casualties of Hussain's army

^A Hurr was originally one of the commanders of Ibn Ziyad's army
but changed allegiance to Hussein along with his son, slave and
brother on 10 Muharram 61 AH, October 10, 680 AD





Second Islamic Civil War

The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic
calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, situated in present day Iraq. The battle was between a
small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Hussein ibn Ali, and a much larger
military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, theUmayyad caliph, to whom Hussein had refused to
give an oath of allegiance. Hussein and all his supporters were killed, including Hussein's six-monthold infant son, Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn, with the women and children taken as prisoners. The dead
are regarded as martyrs by both Sunni and Shia Muslims, and the battle has a central place in
Shia history and tradition, and has frequently been recounted in Shia Islamic literature.



The Battle of Karbala is commemorated during an annual 10-day period held every Muharram by
Shia, andAlevi culminating on its tenth day, known as the Day of Ashura. Shia Muslims
commemorate these events bymourning, holding public processions, organizing majlis, striking the
chest and in some cases self-flagellation.


1 Political background

2 Muhammad's prophecy

3 Events before the battle

4 The events of the battle

4.1 The day of the battle


4.2 Husayn's Sermon on this Day


4.3 The battle begins


4.4 Death of Al-Abbas ibn Ali


4.5 Death of Hussein ibn Ali

5 Aftermath

6 Sermons during the journey from Karbala to Damascus

6.1 Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in Kufa


6.2 Sermon of Ali ibn Hossein in Kufa


6.3 Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in Yazid's Court


6.4 Sermon of Ali ibn Hussein in Yazid's Court

7 Historiography of the battle of Karbala

7.1 Primary sources


7.2 Secondary sources


7.3 Shia writings


7.4 History distortion

8 Impact on literature

8.1 Persian literature


8.2 Azeri and Turkish literature


8.3 Sindhi literature


8.4 Urdu literature


8.5 Bengali literature

9 Shia observances

10 See also

marwan said. Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr's sister Asmā' bint Abu Bakr also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk and was opposed to Yazid. Under the overwhelming pressure of the Ummah. Then 'Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr told him something whereupon marwan ordered that he be arrested. According to Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 6. the Muslim world became divided. [12] Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr and Abdullah ibn Umar were mid level Muslim commanders at the Battle of Yarmouk that took Syria. Practically. At the death of Ali ibn Abu Talib. Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr had been [13] . Uthman ibn Affan. This uprising ended with the assassination of Uthman and for many days rebels seized and occupied the city of Medina.1 Sunni links o 14. Ali (Ali ibn Abu Talib) was elected as the fourth caliph with massive numbers of people swearing their allegiance to him. [11] One of Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor. 11 Footnotes  12 References  13 Bibliography  14 External links o 14. His immediate steps were to ensure the unity of Muslims. 'Aisha said from behind a screen. his elder son Hasan ibn Ali succeeded him but soon signed a treaty with Muawiyah to avoid further bloodshed. kinsman to the murdered caliph Uthman. with the exception of Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr (the son of Abu Bakr)." Ibn Katheer wrote in his book the Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah that "in the year 56 AH Muawiyah called on the people including those within the outlying territories to pledge allegiance to his son.2 Shia links Political background[edit] See also: Succession to Muhammad The rule of the third Caliph. to be his heir to the Caliphate after him. Yazeed.. Almost all the subjects offered their allegiance. al-Husain bin Ali (the son of Ali). using his cousin's unpunished murder as a pretext. Because of this Muawiyah passed through al-Madinah on his way back from Makkah upon completion of his Umrah Pilgrimage where he summoned each one of the five aforementioned individuals and threatened them. Book 60. while Abdullah bin Umar bin was the most soft spoken amongst them. concluded with a violent uprising. He issued the orders of not attacking the rebels until order was restored. The appointment of Yazid was unpopular in Medina. He delivered a sermon and mentioned Yazid bin Muawiya so that the people might take the oath of allegiance to him as the successor of his father (Muawiya). Muawiyah. narrated by Yusuf bin Mahak: Marwan had been appointed as the governor of Hijaz by Muawiya. This resulted in armed confrontations between the Islamic Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib and Muawiyah. "Allah did not reveal anything from the Qur'an about us except what was connected with the declaration of my innocence (of the slander). The speaker who addressed Muawiyah sharply with the greatest firmness amongst them was Abdurrahman bin Abu Bakr. "It is he ('AbdurRahman) about whom Allah revealed this Verse: 'And the one who says to his parents: 'Fie on you! Do you hold out the promise to me. refused allegiance to Ali and revolted against him. Number 352. But 'Abdur-Rahman entered 'Aisha's house and they could not arrest him. The governor of Syria. Abdullah bin Az-Zubair (The grandson of Abu Bakr) and Abdullah ibn Abbas (Ali's cousin).?'" On that. Abdullah ibn Umar (the son of Umar).

Were 100 of you to come out against one of us we would not be worried. [8] Events before the battle[edit] . His wife complained to the Roman general and he ignored of the first to duel in that battle. he resolved to confront Yazid. I asked him. having stood these five men below the pulpit in full view of the people after which the people pledged allegiance to Yazeed as they stood in silence without displaying their disagreement or opposition for fear of being humiliated. Two more Roman horsemen then came forward saying "We see no justice when two of you come against one of us. what is wrong with you. while in a duel with the Roman Army's best horseman. Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr challenged them and went to Mecca with Hussein. You are now three men. She asked her what made her weep. Saeed bin Uthman bin Affan. [12] In his written instructions to Yazid. after taking a sword to hand over to a Qays bin Hubayrah who had lost his sword. you will have no chance"." Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr replied: "I only came to give my companion a sword and then return. He said: I have just witnessed Husain murder. the son of Uthman also criticized Muawiyah for putting forward Yazeed. raped his wife and killed his son. The Romans chased them and in the dark tens of thousands of them fell down a cliff at the an-Naqusah Creek into a river. since he was the only blood relative of Muhammad.". There was dust on his head and beard. [14] [15] [15] [16] Muawiyah then delivered a sermon. After seeing this. Therefore." After which he took down the Roman horsemen on his own. They tolerated Muawiyah but did not like Yazeed. I am enough to take on all three of you. Muawiyah suggested specific strategies for each one of them. O Messenger of Allah?. Some Roman soldiers went to the house of Abu al-Jaid a local Christian in az-Zura ah and after eating all the food. [19] Another version similar to the above hadith reported by Salmaa: She went to Umm Salama and found her weeping. Abdullah ibn Umar had also been a mid level commander in the Battle of Yarmouk. Abu al-Jaid then went to the Muslims and told them that he knows the local area and if the Muslims exempt him and his descendants from taxes for ever he will help them defeat the Roman army. Abdullah bin Az-Zubair had also been a commander in various battles including in North Africa and was also involved in the siege of Constantinople. `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas and Abdullah ibn Umar did not want to start another civil war and wanted to wait. Muhammad told his wife Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya: Gabriel informed me that my grandson Hussain-ibne-Ali will be killed after me in the land of al-Taff and brought me this Turbah (mud/soil) and informed me that this is the soil of the place he will be martyred. He then took horsemen led by Abdullah ibn Umar to the Roman camp at night and attacked them and then ran away. If you do not attack them with great numbers. [17] [18] Muhammad's prophecy[edit] According to the hadith book complied by the Sunni scholar Al-Tabarani. I now know that a difficult situation is to come on you. Some people claim that Hussein ibn Ali rejected the appointment of Yazid as the heir of the Caliphateas he was a tyrant and would destroy Islam. Muawiyah warned Yazid specifically about Hussein ibn Ali. She said: I saw Allah's Messenger in my dream. Bannes the Roman general said "Caesar really knew these people best.

that he didn't want the sanctity of the Kaaba to be violated. When Hussein ibn Ali was making up his mind to leave for Kufa. his cousin. the scenario changed. as well as Dhu al-Qi'dah. Ottoman miniature Muawiyah I died on Rajab 22. just a day before Hajj and was contented with Umrah. to Kufa as his representative in an attempt to consider the exact situation and public opinion. 60 AH (680 AD). `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas and Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr held a meeting with him and advised him not to move to Iraq. in favor of Yazid and against Hussein ibn Ali. converting the caliphate into a dynasty. This shifted the loyalties of the people of Kufa. Few notables of the Islamic community were crucial to lending some legitimacy to this conversion of the caliphate into a dynasty.Before the battle near Karbala. Hussein's representative to Kufa. Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad. Yazid instructed his Governor Walid in Medina to force Hussein ibn Ali to pledge allegiance to Yazid. 60 AH (680 AD). Hussein refused it and said that "Anyone akin to me will never accept anyone akin to Yazid as a ruler. 680 AD) without any real resistance of the people. He stayed in Mecca from the beginnings of the month of Sha'aban and all of the months of Ramadan. 60 AH (September 10. [22] [23][24] [25][26] He delivered a sermon at the Kaaba highlighting his reasons to leave. However. due to his concern about potential violation of the sanctity of the Kaaba. since he was the only living grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Hussein ibn Ali was the most significant threat to this dynastic rule. Muslim ibn Aqeel was welcomed by the people of Kufa. if he was determined . He answered their calls and sent Muslim ibn Aqeel. after the arrival of the new Governor of Kufa. and hence decided to leave Mecca on 8th Dhu al-Hijjah 60 AH (9 September 680 AD). two days after Walid's attempt to force him to submit to Yazid I's rule. since his opponents had crossed any norm of decency and were willing to violate all tenets of Islam. or." Hussein departed Medina on Rajab 28. were executed on Dhu al-Hijjah 9. Hani ibn Urwa. Hussein ibn Ali also discovered that Yazid had appointed `Amr ibn Sa`ad ibn al Aas as the head of an army. and most of them swore allegiance to him. [citation needed] [20][21] [20] [21] [17] It is mainly during his stay in Mecca that he received many letters from Kufa assuring him their support and asking him to come over there and guide them. After this initial observation. Shawwal. Muslim ibn Aqeel and his host. Muslim ibn Aqeel wrote to Hussein ibn Ali that the situation in Kufa was favorable. ordering him to take charge of the pilgrimage caravans and to kill al Hussein ibn Ali wherever he could find him during Hajj. even people like Said ibn Uthman and Ahnaf ibn Qais denounced his caliphate. In violation of Islamic tradition and his own written agreement with Hasan ibn Ali. Muawiyah I appointed his son Yazid as his successor.

Everyone. Umar ibn Sa'ad moved towards the battlefield with an army and arrived at Karbala on Muharram 3. under cover of darkness. 680 AD). so that he and his men could spend the night praying. [37] ." [27] On their way to Kufa. Ibn Ziyad also urged Umar ibn Sa'ad to initiate the battle on the sixth day of Muharram. 19th century from theTropenmuseum Amsterdam Hussein and his followers were two days away from Kufa when they were intercepted by the vanguard of Yazid's army. At this point Hussein sent Al-Abbas ibn Ali to ask Ibn Sa'ad to wait until the next morning. not to take women and children with him in this dangerous move.. None of Hussein's men defected and they all remained with him. 61 AH (October 3. however.000 horsemen blockaded the Euphrates. Just like Muslim ibn Aqeel. Qays ibn Musahir Al Saidawi was executed. [34] Umar ibn Sa'ad received an order from Ibn Ziyad to start the battle immediately and not to postpone it further. Hussein ibn Ali. rather than face certain death if they stayed with him. At first Umar ibn Sa'ad rejected the leadership of the army but accepted after Ibn Ziyad threatened to take away the governorship of Rey city and put Shimr ibn Thil-Jawshan in his place. the small caravan received the news of the execution of Muslim ibn Aqeel and the indifference of the people of Kufa. [31] Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad appointed Umar ibn Sa'ad to command the battle against Hussein ibn Ali.. 680 AD). [32][35][36] On the night before the battle. The army started advancing toward Hussein's camp on the afternoon of Muharram 9th. Hussein and his followers held a vigil and prayed all night.. Hussein asked the army. and 5. must depart with us. One of Hussein's followers met Umar ibn Sa'ad and tried to negotiate some sort of access to water.. Ibn Sa'ad agreed to the respite. [28][29][30] The events of the battle[edit] Battle of Karbala. oh Aba Abd Allah!" Husain ibn Ali said: "If you are different from what I received from your letters and from your messengers then I will return to where I came from. Ibn Sa'ad followed the orders. Hurr. had resolved to go ahead with his plan. oil on canvas..000 men led by Hurr ibn Riahy." Their leader. The caravan of Muhammad's family arrived at Karbala on Muharram 2.. 680 AD). They were forced to pitch a camp on the dry. The death is a certainty for mankind. "With us or against us?" They replied: "Of course against you. And I am enamored of my ancestors like eagerness ofJacob to Joseph . just like the trace of necklace on the neck of young girls. Hussein gathered his men and told them that they were all free to leave the camp in the middle of the night. refused Hussein's request to let him return to Medina. The messenger was captured in the vicinity of Kufa but managed to tear the letter to pieces to hide names of its recipients. Iranian painting. The water blockade continued up to the end of the battle on Muharram 10th (October 10. "Prevent Husain and his followers from accessing water and do not allow them to drink a drop [of water]. 61 AH (October 2. He gave a speech to people the day before his departure and said: ". bare land and Hurr stationed his army nearby. about 1. but was denied. [32] [33] Ibn Ziyad sent a brief letter to Umar ibn Sa'd that commanded. Hussein decided to continue the journey and sent Qays ibn Musahir Al Saidawi as messenger to talk to the nobles of Kufa. who is going to devote his blood for our sake and is prepared to meet Allah. Instead of turning back.

[39][40][41] There is controversy regarding the date for the day of Ashura in the Christian calendar. What hindered him from being ruled by the rest of his relations. and.e. So away with the oppressive people! He next reminded them of his excellency. I have recourse to God from every tyrant that doth not believe in the day of account." Ibn Sa'ad's army started showering Hussein's army with arrows. may God bless him and his family. If you do not believe me. The day of the week may be miscalculated. Husayn mounted his horse. His speech affected Hurr. According to the book Maqtal al-Husayn. saying: "Give evidence before the governor that I was the first thrower. The dates in this article are all Julian. so he has made you forget the remembrance of Allah. So let not this world delude you because it cuts off the hope of him who has confidence in it and despairs the greediness of him who desires for it. the first of the believers in Allah? Was not Hamza. ask the companions of the apostle of God [here he named them]. He answered. Husayn's Sermon on this Day[edit] Before the fire of the battle broke out. which is not necessarily the date if the month begins with the first visibility of the crescent. also called Ashura. and they will tell you the same… They asked. [39] On the other side. So woe to you and to what you want! To Allah we belong and to Him is our return. He appointed Zuhayr ibn Qayn to command the right flank of his army. the lord of the martyrs. concerning myself and my brother: ‘These are the two lords of the youths of the inhabitants of heaven’? If you will believe me. and my hope in all adversity!… He continued People. 680). 680 AD. thou are my confidence in every trouble. the nobility of his birth. I see that you have unanimously agreed on an affair through which you have made Allah angry with you.The day of the battle[edit] On Muharram 10th. for by God. Such discrepancies may arise because a source may be using a date in the tabular Islamic calendar.. Yazid had sent Shimr ibn Thil-Jawshan (his chief commander) to replace Umar ibn Sa'ad as the commander. created this world and made it the abode of annihilation and vanishing. God forbid that I should set my hand to the resignation of my right after a slavish manner. O God. my uncle? Was not Ja‘far. the one who flies in Heaven. coming up to the people. what I say is true. Satan has wholly engaged you. invited them to the performances of their duty adding. He abandoned Umar ibn Sa'ad and joined Hussein's small band of followers. the Almighty. so the conceited one is he whom it deludes. saying Am I not the son of the daughter of your Prophet. [44][45] [45] . [42][43] The battle begins[edit] The Battle of Karbala Umar ibn Sa'ad advanced and fired an arrow at Hussein ibn Ali's army. another the Gregorian calendar. indeed Allah. October 11. Hardly any men from Hussein ibn Ali's army escaped from being shot by an arrow. These are people who have disbelieved after their belief. the Most High. Habib ibn Muzahir to command the left flank and his half-brother Al-Abbas ibn Ali as the standard bearer. Hussein rode on his horse Zuljanah. for God hates a lie. Muharram 9th was a Thursday (i.. Hussein ibn Ali's companions numbered 32 horsemen and 40 infantrymen. the commander of theTamim and Hamdan tribes who had stopped Hussein from his journey. and the miserable one is he whom it charms. of his testamentary trustee and his cousin. Hussein ibn Ali completed the morning prayers with his companions. and took the Quran and laid it before him. It changes its inhabitants from state to state. my uncle? Have you not heard the words of the Apostle of God. I never told a lie in earnest since I had my understanding. One source may be using the Julian calendar. [38] Hussein ibn Ali called the people around him to join him for the sake of God and to defend Muhammad's family. if that source is correct Muharram 10th was Friday October 12.

[54][56][57] Casualties from Banu Hashim were sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib. Every casualty had a considerable effect on their military strength since they were vastly outnumbered by Yazid I's army. [48][49] `Amr ibn al-Hajjaj attacked Hussein ibn Ali's right wing. a son of Abdullah ibn Ja'far ibn Abi-Talib and Zaynab bint Ali. "Fight those who abandoned their creed and who deserted the jam`a!" Hearing him say so. as well as a son of Muslim ibn Aqeel. Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn. Al-Abbas ibn Ali continued his advance into the heart of ibn Sa'ad's army. one by one. went out one by one. He was under a heavy shower of arrows but was able to penetrate them and get to the branch leaving heavy casualties from the enemy. even in the midst of battle. the clan of Muhammad and Ali. `Amr ibn al-Hajjaj kept saying the following to his men. killing some of them and wounding others. In a remarkable and immortal gesture of loyalty to his brother and Muhammad's grandson he did not drink any water despite being extremely thirsty. sons of Hasan ibn Ali. Successive assaults resulted in the death of a group of Hussein ibn Ali's companions. He immediately started filling the water skin. but the men were able to maintain their ground. [46] [45][47] The first skirmish was between the right flank of Hussein's army and the left of the Syrian army. his relatives asked his permission to fight. When the horsemen came back to charge at them again. "Woe unto you. There were seventy-two Hashemites dead in all (including Hussein ibn Ali). The Syrian army retreated and broke the pre-war verbal agreement of not using arrows and lances. They were attempting to save Hussein's life by shielding him. Hussein's followers went out to single combats. O `Amr! Are you really instigating people to fight me?! Are we really the ones who abandoned their creed while you yourself uphold it?! As soon as our souls part from our bodies. [52] [48][53] [54][55] After almost all of Hussein's companions were killed. The men of Banu Hashim. [58] Death of Al-Abbas ibn Ali[edit] The Al Abbas Mosque in Karbala Al-Abbas ibn Ali advanced towards a branch of the Euphrates along a dyke. the middle son of Hussein ibn Ali. A couple of dozen men under the command of Zuhayr ibn Qayn repulsed the initial infantry attack and destroyed the left flank of the Syrian army which in disarray collided with the middle of the army. Hussein's men met them with their arrows. Umar ibn Sa'ad on advice of 'Amr ibn al Hajjaj ordered his army not to come out for any duel and to attack Hussein ibn Ali's army together. Men like Burayr ibn Khudhayr. you will find out who is most worthy of entering the fire! [49][50] [49][51] In order to prevent random and indiscriminate showering of arrows on Hussein ibn Ali's camp which had women and children in it. This agreement was made in view of the small number of Hussein ibn Ali's companions. Muslim ibn Awsaja and Habib ibn Muzahir were slain in the fighting.Both sides began fighting. Almost all of Hussein's companions were killed by the onslaught of arrows or lances. Hussein ibn Ali said to him. They were thus able to frighten the enemy's horses. sons of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib. was the first one of the Hashemite who received permission from his father. to say goodbye to him. Umar ibn Sa'ad [59] . Hussein's companions were coming. kneeling down as they planted their lances. a son of Hussein ibn Ali. He put the water skin on his right shoulder and started riding back toward their tents.

but the boy was already hit by an arrow. Then he called Hussein "brother" for the first time in his life. the daughter of Hussein ibn Ali. one arrow hit the water skin and water poured out of it. and they gave him his request." He then grasped and pulled the arrow out of his chest." Then he raised his head up and said: "Oh my God! You know that they are killing a man that there is son of daughter of a prophet on the earth except him. He killed everybody that fought him in single battles. Al-Abbas ibn Ali put the water skin on his left shoulder and continued on his way but his left arm was also cut off. He was ambushed from behind a bush and his right arm was cut off. The soldiers approaching him gave up confrontation. Al-Abbas ibn Ali said not to take his body back to the camps because he had promised to bring back water but could not and so could not face Bibi Sakinah. now he turned his horse back towards the army and charged towards them but one arrow hit his eyes and someone hit a gurz on his head and he fell off the horse. When the enemies stood between him and the tents he shouted: "Woe betide you oh followers of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb's dynasty! If no religion has ever been accepted by you and you have not been fearing the resurrection day then be noble in your world. they would not be able to defeat them till the end of time. Hussein hugged Abd-Allah. He was cleaning blood from his face while he was hit on the heart with an arrow and he said: "In the name of Allah. Al-Abbas ibn Ali now held the water skin with his teeth. that's if you were Arabs as you claim. and on the religion of the messenger of Allah. [citation needed] [citation needed] Death of Hussein ibn Ali[edit] Shrine to those killed at the battle of Karbala Hussein ibn Ali told Yazid's army to offer him single battle. killing a great number of opponents. In his last moments when Al-Abbas ibn Ali was wiping the blood in his eyes to enable him to see Hussein's face. but they decided to surround him. Abdullah ibn Hasan defended his uncle with his arm. When a soldier intended to slay Hussein. [60] Hussein advanced very deep in the back ranks of the Syrian army. an underage boy. One soldier. Hussein ibn Ali said: "Abbas your death is like the breaking of my back". [64] . seeing his position. He frequently forced his enemy into retreat. Hussein and earlier his son Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn were the two warriors who penetrated and dispersed the core of ibn Sa'ad's army. a sign of extreme chaos in traditional warfare.ordered an outright assault on Al-Abbas ibn Ali saying that if Al-Abbas ibn Ali succeeded in taking water back to his camp. escaped from the tents and ran to Hussein. The enemies hesitated to fight Hussein. [62] [63] He became very weak and stopped fighting. A massive enemy army blocked his way and surrounded him. At this time he was hit on his forehead with a stone. until his numerous injuries caused him to stay a moment. which was cut off. They continuously attacked each other. At this time Abdullah ibn Hasan. walked up to Hussein and hit him on his head with his sword. which caused heavy bleeding." [61] Then his enemies invaded back toward him. Before the death of Abbas. and by Allah. The army of ibn Sa'ad started shooting arrows at him. however.

Khowali ibn Yazid al-Asbahiy preceded the man but became afraid and did not do it. the people of Kufa are the worst. Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr. and his cousin. [citation needed] [65] Umar ibn Sa'ad ordered a man to dismount and to finish the job. a voice came from the skies stating: "We are satisfied with your deeds and sacrifices. [69] . Abdullah.” [69] After his speech. they rallied around him and killed Imam Hussein who was pious. Hussein asked Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan. most notably Sukayna bint Husayn.Hussein got on his horse and tried to leave. who had been Hussein’s friend. but did not mark any of the graves. Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan betrayed and said: "I swear by God that I am cutting your head while I know that you are grandson of the messenger of Allah and the best of the people by father and mother. The people of Damascus began to frequent the prison. He then sat against a tree. and Zaynab and Ali ibn al-Husayn used that as an opportunity to further propagate the message of Hussein and explain to the people the reason for Hussein's uprising. Eventually Abdullah consolidated his power by sending a governor to Kufa. The prisoners were held in Damascus for a year. Abu Bakr's daughter. collected the people of Mecca and made the following speech: “O people! No other people are worse than Iraqis and among the Iraqis. The heads were distributed to various tribes enabling them to gain the favor of ibn Ziyad. "Have you done your prayers today?" and this shocked Shimr because he did not expect anyone in the position of Hussein to ask such a question. where they continued to tell the world of Hussein's cause. the greater part of Syria and parts of Egypt. Abdullah. Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr was the son of a al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam a cousin of Ali and Muhammad and the son of Asma bint Abu Bakr. Then ibn Sa'ad's men looted all the valuables from Hussein's body. observed the fast. During this year. some people from Banu Asad tribe came there and buried their dead. Ibn Sa'ad remained in Karbala until the next noon. [68] Following the Battle of Karbala. As public opinion against Yazid began to foment in Syria and parts of Iraq. Just before his throat was about to be cut. Yazid ordered their release and return to Medina. Asma’s son. some prisoners died of grief. and the people were willing to stand up for them. But when Ibn Zeyad arrived in Kufa. Soon Abdullah established his power in Iraq. with the exception of Hussain's which was marked with a simple plant. were both grandsons of Abu Bakr and nephews of Aisha. When Hussein ibn Ali was killed in Karbala. Hussein's second cousin Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr then confronted Yazid. Then Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan dismounted from his horse and cut Hussein's throat with his sword whilst Hussein was prostrating to God. read the Quran and deserved the caliphate in all respects. According to Shia tradition. Yazid had a silver chain made and sent to Mecca with the intention of having Walid ibn Utbah arrest Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr with it. but Yazid's army continued pursuit. In Mecca and Medina Hussein’s family had a strong support base. They repeatedly wrote letters and called Imam Hussein to them and took bay’at (allegiance) for his caliphate. [67] After ibn Sa'ad's army went out of Karbala. Shimir gave the permission to say the prayers and Imam Hussain started prayer and when he went into Sajda. Later Ali ibn Hussain returned to Karbala to identify the grave sites. When he heard about this. the people of Mecca also joined Abdullah to take on Yazid." He cut off the head of Hussein ibn Ali with his sword and raised the head. Then Imam Hussain asked for the permission to do Asr prayers (because it was the time of 3rd prayer). southern Arabia. [66] Aftermath[edit] Umar ibn Sa'ad sent Hussein's head to ibn Ziyad on Ashura afternoon and ordered the army to sever the heads of his comrades and to send them to Kufa. Hurr was buried by his tribe a distance away from the battlefield. Hussein’s remaining family moved back to Madina." Hussein then sheathed his sword and tried to get down from the horse but was tremendously injured and so the horse let him down.

A few years later the people of Kufa called Zayd ibn Ali. “I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing either of them. He beheaded him and crucified his body. nor did he wrong any Muslim or non-Muslim. She must come to me and ask my permission.” [72][73][74][75] . He said.” Then Abdullah said to his mother after she had told him to go forth and fight: “I am afraid I will be mutilated by the people of Sham. It was said to her.Yazid tried to end Abdullah’s rebellion by invading the Hejaz. and with that you have ruined your hereafter. Your son never drank wine. death is more beloved to me than this state you are on. Hajjaj’s army defeated Abdullah on the battlefield in 692. "If you don’t go. then what an evil son you are. with civil war eventually breaking out. nor was he unjust. he was also betrayed by the people of Kufa. who sent Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. I am a dead man.. “No one must take down his body except Asma. The Kharijite in Iraq weakened Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and after a battle with the Umayyads in Syria. his body will remain like that. In Syria Marwan ibn Hakim. and he took Medina after the bloody Battle of al-Harrah followed by the siege of Mecca. Look and pay attention to this day. nor was he fornicator. “Then let it be. Hajjaj was from Ta’if.. Abdullah asked his mother Asma what he should do. In his last hour. as were those who had killed Hussein. the grandson of Hussein.” She said. Abdullah lost Egypt and whatever he had of Syria to Marwan I.” She said: “After someone has died. and only then will his body be taken down. How long will you live in this world. coupled with the Kharijite rebellions in Iraq. But his sudden death ended the campaign and threw the Umayyads into disarray. Ibn al-Zubayr expelled Yazid's forces from most of Arabia. it won’t make any difference what they do to you if you have been killed. that you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others then you will not truly be free. Zaydis believe that in Zayd’s last hour. he was isolated in the Tihamah and the Hejaz regions the Kharijite rebels then established an independent state in central Arabia in 684.. for people more honourable than you were killed and have been killed. "What do you say about this matter?” She replied. I am not saying this to you to show off or show how pure I am but rather as an honour to you. After the Umayyad civil war ended.” Eventually Hajjaj came to her and asked. Following the sudden death of Yazid and his son Mu'awiya II took over and then abdicated and died in 683. for this is not the statement of someone who is free. “Verily.” Asma refused to go and ask permission to take down her son's body..” Abdullah said to his mother: “I did not come to you except to increase myself in knowledge. was then declared caliph. a cousin of Mu'awiya I. I am afraid that they will cut up my body after they have killed me. reduced his domain to only the Hejaz. Asma replied to her son: [71] “You know better in your own self that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth. Marwan had a short reign dying in 685 but he was succeeded by his able sonAbd al-Malik. This essentially split the Islamic empire into two spheres.” The defeat of Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr re-established Umayyad control over the Empire. nor saying anything but good about them. they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah. you have destroyed him and you have ruined his life. you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. this state of weakness. If you say what you say. for verily. who said to him: “May God have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab?” Zayd ibn Ali said. This. [70] Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr was finally defeated by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.” Abdullah then left by himself on his horse to take on Hajjaj. and if you are not upon the truth. over to Kufa. When they were entrusted with government.

Some women of Kufa gathered veils for them after learning that they were relatives of Muhammad. Do you weep and cry? Yes. I'm the son of the man whose sanctity was violated. Hussein's sister Zaynab bint Ali and Umm Kulthum bint Ali. [78] Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in Yazid's Court[edit] . I'm the son of the one who was slaughtered by the Euphrates in worst manner. let me tell him that I'm Ali son of Hussein son of Ali bin Abi Talib. Oh people of Kufa! Oh deceitful and reneger people! Do you weep? So let tears not be dried and let groans not be finished. (January 2015) This article or section relies excessively on partisan sources. he said: “O people! Whoever recognizes me knows me and whoever does not. do weep numerously and do laugh less! Since you brought its shame and fault on yourself and you will not be able to cleanse it forever. . who was seriously injured in the battle of Karbala. violated my sanctity. Then she addressed the people of Kufa: "The praise is exclusively attributed to Allah.. He began by praising and glorifying Allah and saluted the Prophet. who was gravely ill. Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page. Ali ibn Hussein delivered a sermon addressing the people of Kufa. such a bad preparation you have made for yourself that Allah became furious of you and you will be at punishment forever. As they approached Kufa. “You are perished yet you are not aware of it. whose wealth was plundered and whose children have been seized. 680 AD). . Please help to discuss andresolve the dispute before removing this message. its people gathered to see them. all captives including all women and children were then loaded onto camels with neither saddle nor shade and were moved toward Kufa. Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in Kufa[edit] On Muharram 11 (October 11. so you do not belong to my nation” The effect of this sermon was such that the people of Kufa began to cry loudly and said to each other. and from Kufa to Damascus.(January 2015) During the journey from Karbala to Kufa. Thereafter... by Allah. And then. Beware.Sermons during the journey from Karbala to Damascus[edit] This section lends undue weight to certain ideas relative to the article as a whole. How will you face the messenger of Allah when he tells you: You killed my progeny. This suffices me to be proud. Among the captives were Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-'Abidin. [76] Zaynab bint Ali pointed at the people to be quiet. and son Ali ibn al-Husayn gave various speeches about Yazid and told the Muslim world of the various atrocities committed in Karbala." [77] Sermon of Ali ibn Hossein in Kufa[edit] When the prisoners were brought into Kufa. as well as Hassan ibn Hassan al-Muthanna.. And greetings to my father (grand father). and to his pure and benevolent family. Did you not write to my father to invite to Kufa and then deceive him? Did you not swear an oath of allegiance to him and then fought him? May you be ruined. Muhammad.

As for the one who did not recognize me I am introducing myself to them. Nos. Among the original works on maqātil (pl. forgotten what Allah says: The disbelievers must not think that our respite is for their good We only give them time to let them increase their sins.After being brought to Yazid's court. Meanwhile. son of Husain. 1836). he prolonged praising Mu’awiyah and Yazid. located at Gotha (No. he gave the permission due to the insistence of the people. however. and whose children have been arrested. (Surah Ale Imran. [79] Sermon of Ali ibn Hussein in Yazid's Court[edit] When Zaynab's sermon finished and she exchanged words with Yazid. Leiden (No. When Yazid recited the poem about his victory. Yazid asked an orator to ascend the pulpit and ordered him to rebuke Husayn ibn Ali and Ali ibn Abli talib and report their tasks in front of the men. and Saint Petersburg (Am No. 792). Then added: " Not happy for killing Hossein and his fellowships because Allah says: Do not think of those who are slain for the cause of Allah as dead. You have. 78) libraries. Zaynab continued her speech by cursing Yazid. For them there will be a humiliating torment. [82] [83] Rasul Jafarian has counted five primary sources that are now available. Abi Mikhnaf's original seems to have been lost and that which has reached today has been transmitted through his student Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi (died in 204 AH) There are four manuscripts of the Maqtal. They are alive with their Lord and receive sustenance from Him. I am the son of the one who has been slaughtered by river Euphrates though he never asked for blood or inheritance from the killers. 3: 169) . Berlin (Sprenger. 3: 178)" Then she addressed Yazid Son of freed in conquest of Mecca and blamed his for desecration women of Ahl al-Bayt. son of Abi Talib (‘a). Zaynab rose and after praising God and blaming Yazid for his poem said: " O Yazid! Do you think that we have become humble and despicable owing to the martyrdom and captivity? Do you think that by killing the godly persons you have become great and respectable and the Almighty looks at you with special grace and kindness? No this is wrong. I am the son of the one who was caught and killed and this is enough for me to be proud of. [79][80][81] Historiography of the battle of Karbala[edit] See also: Maqtal al-Husayn Primary sources[edit] The first historian to systematically collect the reports of eyewitnesses of this event was Abu Mikhnaf (died in 157 AH/774 AD) in a work titled Kitab Maqtal Al-Husayn. 159– 160)." (Surah Ale Imran. After praising Allah. son of Ali. Zaynab denounced Yazid's claim to the caliphate and eulogized Hussein's uprising. He initiated his speech and after due praise and glorification of the Almighty said: “O people! The one who knew me has known. of maqtal or place of death / martyrdom and hence used for books narrating the incident of Karbala) the ones that could be relied upon for . Although Yazid was not content to let Ali ibn Husayn speak. I am Ali. Ali ibn Husayn interrupted the speech and asked Yazid to let him have a lecture. whose wealth and bounty has been plundered. I am the son of those honorable ladies of the harem who have been disrespected. In the end of her speech she warned Yazid about his fate in hereafter and finally she praised Allah and finished her speech.

It also transforms the historical boundaries of Hussein ibn Ali's birth in 4 AH and his martyrdom in 61 AH to an eternal presence embracing the boundaries of history and legend. 3. Also among Shia Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid used it in Irshad. [87] [82] [88] Shia writings[edit] Salwa Al-Amd has classified Shia writings in three groups: [89] 1. This category is the nearest to Sunni writings because it fully cherishes the historical personality of Hussein ibn Ali and regards the Karbala incident as a revolt against oppression. Kashefi . dismissing the legendary treatment. These five sources are the Maqtal al-Husayn of Abu Mikhnaf. On the basis of the article of "Abi Mikhnaf" in "Great Islamic Encyclopedia" Ahmad ibn A'zham has mentioned Abu Mikhnaf in "Al-Futuh" thus he should be recognized as a secondary source. the Maqtal al-Husayn of AlBaladhuri. This category of writing holds that a person's stance toward Hussein ibn Ali and Ahl al. and charge feelings during tempestuous political circumstances on the memory of Ashura. Sunni Historian. For example Laura Veccia Vaglieri has found that Al-Baladhuri (died 279 AH/892-893 AD) like Tabari has used Abu Mikhnaf but has not mentioned his name.Bayt's misfortunes. 2. followers of Ali – later to be known as Shia Muslims – attached a much greater importance to the battle and have compiled many accounts known as Maqtal Al-Husayn. This category comprises the literary works common in rituals and lamentations (poetic and prose) and is characterized by its melodramatic style. [85] [86] Secondary sources[edit] Then latter Muslim historians have written their histories on the basis of the former ones especially Maqtal Al-Husayn of Abu Mikhnaf.reviewing the Karbala happenings are five in number. while using the language of revolt against tyranny and despotic sovereignty. the Maqtal al-Husayn of Abū HḤanīfa Dīnawarī. that have preoccupied the human mind since the beginning of creation. However. which aims to arouse pity and passion for Ahl al. A model writer of this category is Mohamed Mahdi Shams Al-Din. the Maqtal al-Husayn of Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Then other Sunni Muslim historians including Al-Baladhuri and Ibn Kathirnarrated the events of Karbala from Abu Mikhnaf. All these five maqtals belong to the period between the 2nd century AH (8th century AD) and the early 4th century AH (10th century AD). The legendary character of this category associates the chronological history of Hussein ibn Ali with notions relating to the origin of life and the Universe. and in which Al-Husayn is eternally present. and the Maqtal al-Husayn of Ahmad ibn A'zham. However they have added some narrations through their own sources which were not reported by former historians. Also there is a fabricated version of Abu Mekhnaf's book in Iran and Iraq. [84] However.Bayt is a criterion for reward and punishment in the afterlife. History of the Prophets and Kings. Sunni historian. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari narrated this story on the basis of Abu Mikhnaf's report through Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi in his history. History distortion[edit] As Jafarian says "The holding of mourning ceremonies for Hussein ibn Ali was very much in vogue in the eastern parts of Iran before the Safavids came to power. some other historians have recognized some of these as secondary sources.

[91] [90] Some 20th-century Shia scholars have protested the conversion of history into mythology. author of Nafas al-Mahmoum  Sayyid Abd-al-Razzaq Al-Muqarram. many Iranian authors composed poems and plays commemorating the battle. Prominent critics include:  Morteza Motahhari  Abbas Qomi. Most of these compositions are only loosely based upon the known history of the event." [90] After the conversion of Sunni Iran to the Shia faith. author of Maqtalul-Husayn [92][93][94] [95] [96] Also several books have been written in the Persian language about political backgrounds and aspects of the battle of Karbala.wrote the "Rawzah al-Shuhada" for the predominantly Sunni regions of Herat and Khurasan at a time when the Safavid state was being established in western Iran and had no sway in the east. [97] Impact on literature[edit] Mourning of Muharram Events  Battle of Karbala Figures  Imam Husayn  Ali Akbar ibn Husayn  Ali Asghar ibn Husayn  al-Abbas ibn Ali  Zaynab bint Ali  Sukayna bint Husayn  Muslim ibn Aqeel Places .

to give away parts of one's fortune or to sacrifice members of one's family enhances one's religious standing. higher and more important than all the other martyrs who are and have been in the world. Shia literature has given a central place to the death on the battlefield of Muhammed's grandson Hussein ibn Ali. Sanai. [citation needed] [citation needed] Persian literature[edit] The name of Hussein ibn Ali appears several times in the work of the first great Sufi Persian poet. and Sanai sees him as the prototype of theshahid (martyr). the name of the martyred hero can be found now and then in connection with bravery and selflessness. The development of the whole genre of marsia poetry and ta'zieh theatre in the Persian and Indo-Persian world. Here. Sacrifices are a means for reaching higher and loftier stages of life. Imam Husayn Shrine  Hussainia Times  Day of Ashura  Arba'een Customs  Majlis-e-Aza  Marsia  Noha  Soaz  Ta'zieh  Tabuik  Hosay  Chup Tazia The theme of suffering and martyrdom occupies a central role in the history of religion from the earliest time. [98] [99] . Taking into account the importance of sacrifice and suffering for the development of man. or in the popular Turkish tradition is in this way.

Mir Hassan. Both these poets lived in the 19th century and they were the contemporaries of the Delhi based poet Mirza Ghalib. Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai of Bhitshah (1689– 1752) is the first to express ideas which were later taken up by other poets.The tendency to see Hussein ibn Ali as the model of martyrdom and bravery continues in the poetry written in the Divan of Attar. the Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi rulers felt the need to render the Karbala tragedy in the language of ordinary Muslims. This was published by Rupa and Co. patronized Dakhini (an early South Indian dialect of Urdu) marsia. has translated a full length (197 stanzas of six lines each) Marsiya of Anis into English verse. especially under the patronage of Ali Adil Shahand Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah. He devoted "Sur Kedaro" in his Shah Jo Risalo to the martyrdom of the grandson of Muhammed. whose specialty was the genre of "suwari". patronized poets who wrote about the tragedy of Karbala. But there was also another way to understand the role of Hussein ibn Ali in the history of the Islamic people. London. Professor David Matthews of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Bedil. according to Persian scholar Wheeler Thackston. The genre of poetry that those two poets produced is known as Marsiya.. and poets such as . and saw the event of Karbala as embedded in the whole mystical tradition of Islam. [99] Urdu literature[edit] The most famous corpus of Urdu poetry on Karbala was produced by two poets of Lucknow named Mir Babar Ali Anis and Mirza Salaamat Ali Dabeer. who was a Sunni poet and philosopher. the way was shown by Muhammad Iqbal. In the Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi kingdom of Deccan. and importantly. Sachal Sarmast. and even into our own times. Muhammed's grandsons played a special role. [101] Azeri and Turkish literature[edit] Turkish tradition. The Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi dynasties of South India (Deccan). predominantly Twelver Shia in religious persuasion. and the genre of marsia. "was particularly cultivated by the Safavids. marsia writers themselves. Although Persian marsia of Muhtasham Kashani were still recited. [103] The legacy of Urdu Marsiya has lasted to this day and many poets are still writing that kind of poetry. A number of poets in Sindh have also composed elegies on Karbala. is deeply indebted to Shia Islam. whose works consequently became a source of elegy emulation for Iranians. as well as the more common forms. marsia flourished. those composed by Yunus Emre in the late 13th or early 14th century. Safavid rulers such as Shah Tahmasp I. When Shiism became the official religion of Iran in the 15th century. But it seems that already in some of the earliest popular Sufi songs in Turkey. [102] Sindhi literature[edit] As in many other fields of Sindhi poetry. Mirza Kalich Beg their devotion to Hussein ibn Ali is well known and deeply embedded in their Sufi teachings. Both Josh Malihabadi and Muhammad Iqbal followed the genre of six-line stanza and have produced great poetry. Mirza Baddhal Beg. New Delhi. especially in the later Bektashi Order. Shah Naser. persists in Sindhi poetry throughout the whole of the 18th and 19th centuries. This genre." [100] The most well-known 15th-century Persian marsiya writer was Mohtasham Kaashaani. India. The most famous of them is Sayed Sabit Ali Shah (1740–1810).

His marsia rely on the images. formerly Professor and Chairman. chaos. similar to the ones he used in his odes. [104] Ghalib described the "King of Martyrs". but a prototype for contemporary revolutionary struggles. by using metaphors. From village to village might has assumed the role of truth. The marsia of Mir Taqi Mir and Mirza Rafi Sauda are similar to those of Ghalib in that they perform their panegyric function for the martyrs of Karbala. and on the values invested in this genre by socio-religious reformers like Josh Malihabadi. of Philosophy at Aligarh Muslim University. Josh attempted to galvanize the youth of his day by intertwining their contemporary struggle of liberation from colonization with Hussein ibn Ali's battle: "O Josh. every day is Ashura. and nuances inherited from 19th century masters. but these poets also wrote marsia in which the narration of the Karbala tragedy was saturated with cultural and ceremonial imagery of North India. and yesterday there was only one. is the Arabic saying: "Every place is Karbala.Ashraf Biyabani. look at this tumult. has been crucial in keeping the tradition of marsia dynamic in present-day South Asia. for example. [citation needed] Shia observances[edit] . metaphors. Josh's writings during the late 1930s and the early 1940s. used the medium of marsia as a means to propagate the view that Karbala is not a pathos-laden event of a bygone era. Marsias are still sung on 10th Muharram. [105] [when?] [106] Bengali literature[edit] Mir Mosharraf Hossain wrote the novel Bishad Shindhu and Kazi Nazrul Islam wrote many poems on this incident. Hussein ibn Ali. Dept. Once again. or the poet of revolution. Urdu marsia written during this period are still popular in South Indian villages. they are instead posed as the sinews for the revival of an ideal Islamic state of being. [104] Josh Malihabadi renowned as "Shair-i inqilab". Akhtar deflects the interpretation of the martyrs of Karbala as mere insignia of Islamic history. when nationalist feelings were running high in South Asia. cast a glance at this twentieth century. Ghalib used regal imagery to underscore the virtues of Hussein ibn Ali. On the back cover of his recently published marsia anthology. At this moment there are numerous Yazids. and the earthquake. Human feet are in chains" [104] Vahid Akhtar. call out to the Prince of Karbala [Husain]. had a momentous impact upon his generation." By positing a similarity between Hussein ibn Ali's historic battle and the present day struggle of human kind against renewed forms of Yazidian oppression.

In Indonesia. Shia mourners in countries with a significant majority self-flagellate with chains or whips. Forty days after Ashurah. known as Ashurah. the Battle of Karbala is remembered in the Tabuik ceremony. the Battle of Karbala has inspired a number of literary and non-musical genres. and Afghanistan. and soaz. such as the marsia. Speeches emphasize the importance of the values the sacrifices Hussein ibn Ali made for Islam. which in extreme cases may causing bleeding. Men and women chant and weep. Shia Muslims commemorate the Battle of Karbala every year in the Islamic month of Muharram. the day of the battle. his family. through weeping and beating their chests with their hands in a process called Lattum/Matam while one recites a Latmyah/Nauha. In the Indian sub-continent Muharram in the context of remembrance of the events of Karbala means the period of two months & eight days i. however.e. This mainly takes place in countries such as Iraq. in Indonesia. Iran. 68 days starting from the evening of 29 Zill-Hijjah and ending on the evening of 8 Rabi-al-Awwal. mourning Hussein ibn Ali. Most Shias show grievances. India. and great grief. Shias mourn the death of Hussein ibn Ali in a commemoration called Arba'een.The Imam Husayn Shrine duringArba'een Tabuik. and his followers. The mourning of Muharram begins on the first day of the Islamic calendar and then reaches its climax on Muharram 10. public processions. It is a day of Majlis. [107] [108] [109] [110] In South Asia. Pakistan. noha. See also[edit]  Al-Mukhtar .

pub State University of New York Press. Jump up^ Tabari. Taken from Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah by Ibn Katheer. p.Peace Agreement between Imam Al-Hasan and Mu'awiya". Ibn Katheer. 2. Al-Islam. "Martyrdom of Imam al-Hussain (R. Ismail Ibn Omar 775 HISBN 978-603-500-080-2 Translated by Yoosuf Al-Hajj Ahmad p. translated by IKA Howard. Persecution of Shia Muslims  Sahabah  wikisource:The Sermon of Ali ibn Husayn in Damascus  Mokhtarnameh  The Hussaini Encyclopedia Footnotes[edit] 1. Retrieved 2014-08-21. Jump up^ Karbala: The Complete Picture . Jump up^ "Karbala: Chain of events Section . "The Excellences of the Imam Husayn in Sunni Hadith Tradition . Jump up^ fazeela (2013-11-15).3 167. ^ Jump up to:a b The Caliphate of Banu Umayyah the first Phase. ^ Jump up to:a b Administrator. Retrieved 201211-20. 9. 10. Karbala: The Complete Picture. 160. Jump up^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by alImam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 313 [2] .com. ^ Jump up to:a b "Battle of Karbala". p. Ahlus Sunnah. Jump up^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by alImam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 352353 [1] 14. The History of al-Tabari. 4. 8. Mahmood. ^ Jump up to:a b "Karbala. 82. Sibtayn. Jump up^ Maqtal al Husain .Islam Guidance". "At Karbala". ^ Jump up to:a b "Battle of Karbala' (Islamic history)". 12. 6.Chapter 8. New World Encyclopedia. 13. Retrieved 3.A)". the Chain of Events". volume 19. Al-Islam. 11. p163. 5. Encyclopedia Britannica.The Hosts. Jump up^ Hamish Tathkirat al Khawass. Jump up^ Datoo.

Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi. Jump up^ Maqtal al Husain . p. Al-Islam. Jump up^ Maqtal al Husain . ^ Jump up to:a b "Volume. Tradition No. Tarikh 6. Jump up^ "Some Traditions on Imam al-Husayn (as)". p. p. pp. Jump up^ Tabari. 29. ^ Jump up to:a b Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by al-Imam al-Waqidi Translated by Mawlana Sulayman al-Kindi Page 358 [3] 16. Jump up^ Lohouf. Ibn.D. Jump up^ Al-Tabari. p. 23 23.The Watering place".Zarud. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . AlIslam. p. Jump up^ al Qazwini. pg. Jump up^ al Gulpaygani. pp. Jump up^ "Karbala: Chain of events Section . Mohammad. Jump up^ Islamic Conquest of Syria A translation of Fatuhusham by alImam al-Waqidi. 1 (1328 A. 26./1910 A. ^ Jump up to:a b Maqtal al Husain . 304. 20. Al Bidaya 08. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . Radiyaddin ibn Nabi. Jump up^ Lohouf. Al-Islam. Al. 27. 34. "(the Sixth Letter deals with assassinated personalities)". 169.The Journey to Iraq. ibn.Yazid Becomes Ruler". Jump up^ Nama.15. 140 . ^ Jump up to:a b "Karbala: Chain of events Section – Karbala". Shaykh Lutfullah. 141.Day Nine". p.72 28. p. Jump up^ Kathir. Jump up^ Al-Tabari. 170. 19.Those Whose Conscience is Free". p. 25. 37. 21. Nawadir al Makhtutat. Tarikh 06. 35. p. Tradition No. 359 [4] 17. 10th Night. 36.: Al-Umma Press. p. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . 130. 168. 162. Al-Islam. Retrieved 2010-07-07. p. Muthir al Ahzan. Radiyaddin al Qazwini. 31. 21–33. Jump up^ The Tragedy of Karbala.H. 89. 22. Al Imamah wal Siyasah. 24. Retrieved2012-11-20. 165.Al Husain's Uprising. Jump up^ "Karbala: Chain of events Section – On the Way to Karbala". 101. Tazallum al Zahra. 177. 33. p. 995. 38. Retrieved 2012-11-20. Egypt)". ^ Jump up to:a b ibn Habib. Tarikh 06. 18. Muntakhab al Athar fi Akhbar al Imam al Thani ‘Ashar. 32. by Sayyid ibn Tawoos. 337.

Mohammad ibn Abutalib 48. Jump up^ Lohouf. 193. 251. Bāqir (2000). Al. 193. 54. 45. p. 51. Ibn. Tarikh 06. Bihar al Anwar. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . Simon (1894). 201. Tarikh 06. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . Tradition No. 84.177 61. Al. 190. Jump up^ al Kathir. p. Jump up^ Lohouf. Al. 43. Jump up^ Ockley. Tradition No.184. Tradition No. 55. Tradition No. Tradition 174 and 175. p. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Maqtal al Husain . 249. 185 . p. Tarikh 06. The Life of Imām Zayn alAbidin (as). p. Jump up^ Lohouf. 53.Al-Hurr Repents". Abdullah Nurallah. 27. p. Jump up^ Maqrizi. 182. n. 59. 50.The Right Wing Remains Firm". 206–235. p. 206. Khutat 02.39. 47.179 62. Iraq: Ansariyan Publications. Jump up^ Book "Martyrdom Of Hussain" 42. pp. Jump up^ Sharif al-Qarashi. 244. Ibn. 189. Jump up^ al-Tabari. Jump up^ Lohouf.Muslim ibn Awsajah". Jump up^ Lohouf. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . 60. p. Jump up^ al Bahraini.d. Print.Martyrdom of Ahl al Bayt". p. p. 49. p. et al. 58. 41. Al. Jump up^ al Kathir. 287. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . p. Jump up^ Majlisi. 44. The History of the Saracens. 404–405. 196.Ali al Akbar". ^ Jump up to:a b c "Maqtal al Husain . 56. pp. 46. Tradition No. London.182 64. ^ Jump up to:a b Tabari. ibn-Tavoos. Al-Kamil 04. p. Translated by Jāsim al-Rasheed.The First Campaign". 57. p.181 63.Habib ibn Mazahir". Jump up^ Tabari. Jump up^ "Maqtal al Husain . 40. ^ Jump up to:a b "Maqtal al Husain . Al. Al-Bidaya 08. 52. Maqtal al Awalim. ^ Jump up to:a b Tabari.Burayr ibn Khudayr". Jump up^ Lohouf.

"They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd” 76. of the Ansab. 2. 1. 38. pp. Relating to the heart rending tragedy of Karbala'.16. Tradition No. Tradition No. 229. Mohammed Raza (1996). Jump up^ "Imam Zayn al-Abidin (A. Jump up^ Islam re-defined: an intelligent man’s guide towards understanding Islam. Jump up^ Lohouf. The waning of the Umayyad Caliphate. Jump up^ In the Istanbul Ms. USA (April 4. 227. Carole Hillenbrand.188 66. Jump up^ Dungersi. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 230 77. Jump up^ Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law. 75. ISBN 978-9976-956-98-6. ^ Jump up to:a b Najeebabadi. the Courageous". 110. Jump up^ Syed Husayn M. Charles J. p.A Probe into the History of Ashura'. Akbar Shah (2001). ISBN 9960892883. 222. Ibrahim. 1989. 54[5] 73. Jump up^ A Glance Into The Sources On The Incident Of Āshūrā 85. "The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam". Shaykh 'Abbas. Jump up^ Qummi. Tradition No. Mircea Eliade. ISBN 9780-19-579387-1 84. "Chapter 32: Sermon of Lady Zaynab in the court of Yazid". Great Islamic A Brief Biography of Imam Ali ibn Husayn (a.65. vol. 74. p243. Jump up^ Al-Tabari. Tradition No. ^ Jump up to:a b Ayati. 597. Nafasul Mahmum. 223 68. 81. Jump up^ Abū HḤanīfa Dīnawarī. Jump up^ Lohouf. 219a-251b 86. Hussein ibn Ali is discussed in Ms. 233 to 241 78. The History of Islam vol. Jump up^ Lohouf. Adams. 226 69. Tradition No. Ummah. ^ Jump up to:a b Kitab Maqtal al-Husayn. Jump up^ The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol. p.s. Tradition No. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania. 37. 80. Islamic Study Circle. Jump up^ Lohouf. Jump up^ "The Advice of Asmaa bint Abu Bakr (ra) to her son Abdullah Ibn Zubair (ra)". Macmillan. 228. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2014-08-21. 70. 264 71. ff. Article of "Abu Mikhnaf" in Persian . 2002). 1987. Jump up^ Lohouf. al-akhbâr al-tiwâl.doc 83.): Zayn al-Abidin. 79. Jump up^ Lohouf. Riyadh: Darussalam. Jafri. p. 82. 192 and 193 67. Islamic Seminary Publications.). Jump up^ CGIE.

Jump up^ "First Sermon: 'Ashura .87. Relating to the heart rending tragedy of Karbala'". ^ Jump up to:a b "Karbala and the Imam Husayn in Persian and IndoMuslim literature".org. Al. A Millennium of Classical Persian Poetry (Bethesda: Iranbooks. Jump up^ "The Battle of Karbala". Jafra. Al-Islam. USA (April 4. 101. A Glance at Historiography in Shiite Culture. The Women of Karbala". Jump up^ "Aligarh Muslim University". tripod. Jump up^ "Research HḤUsayn Ibn ʿAlī.Misrepresentations and Distortions part 1" 96. p. 569. 17 Jul. Jump up^ "'Ashura .org. 93. AlIslam. 2008. p.79. 97. Jump up^ Syed Husayn Jafarian. 94. 2002).org. Jump up^ Yunus Emre 104. 92.BookRags. ^ Jump up to:a b Al-islam. AlIslam. Jump up^ Wheeler Thackston. imamalinet. 99. utexas.. Jump up^ "Table of Contents and Excerpt. Muharram: Mehndi processions to be taken out tomorrow. Jump up^ The Times of India. 106. Jump up^ "Nafasul chapter 13 91.History and Popular Legend". 100. 107. 102. Jump up^ Nezam. Aghaie. 103. Jump up^ "'Ashura . 95. 1994).edu 105. Oxford University Press.www. Jump up^ On Difference & Understanding: Al-Husayn: the Shiite of Religion". ^ Jump up to:a b c Utexas.Misrepresentations and Distortions". 2008Sanāʾī.com 89. AlIslam. Jump up^ "Karbala an Enduring Paradigm of Islamic Revivalism". 2 December 2011 .ac. Majlesekhobregan. Al-Islam. Encyclopædia Britannica ISBN 9780-19-579387-1 Al-shia. "The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam". Jump up^ "Shams Alshoara Mohtasham kashani". the Sunni Hero 90. -> Magazines -> Islamic Government 98. Times of India. Jump up^ Abu Mihnaf: ein Beitrag zur Historiographie der umaiyadischen Zeit by Ursula Sezgin 88. Jump up^ Encyclopædia Britannica.

The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State. Jump up^ Shiites throng Karbala for Arbaeen despite threats[dead link] References[edit]  Al-Tabari.) Bibliography[edit]  al-Tabari. translation and commentary issued iby . Britannica  List of the casualties of Karbla Sunni links[edit]  Karbala – A Lesson For Mankind . translated by I. Abd al Razzaq. (volume XIX.For all your Local Needs & Property Details".  Kennedy. Robinson. Muawiyah. Routledge.  What is Muharram?  A Probe Into the History of Ashura by Dr. circa 1990. Jump up^ http://definithing. translated by Yasin T. 2015 110. Muhammad ibn's biography. Jump up^ "Sulekha.K.  al-Muqarram. This is a 20th Century book . Sulekha.A Howard. (al-Muqarram was born in 1899 and died in 1971 . originally published Qum. pub Al-Kharsan Foundation for Publications. History of the Prophets and Kings. SUNY Press. Martyrdom Epic of Imam al-Husayn. 109. Muhammad ibn Jarir (1990). SUNY Press.) External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Karbala. Hugh. Ibrahim Ayati  Battle of Karbalāʾ. A. Al-Jibouri. 1991. Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid b. History of the Prophets and Kings. ISBN 07914-0040-9. by Chase F. Maqtal al-Husayn. Howard. p35. retrieved: Feb 15. 2001.seeIslamic Historiography. ISBN 0-395-652375.

com. 3 AH) Valley by Mount Uhud Failure of siege. the free encyclopedia Battle of Uhud Part of the Muslim–Quraish Wars Date Location Result March 19.Shia links[edit]  Events of Karbala  Meccans retreated Belligerents Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders and leaders . poetry on Kerbala by Mahmood Abu Shahbaaz Londoni  Sacred-texts. 625 AD (3 Shawwal. Battle of Karbala (English)  Battle of Karbala Battle of Uhud From  Poetryofislam.

The Battle of Uhud was the second military encounter between the Meccans and the Muslims. and a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca. which altered the outcome of the battle. led by Meccan war veteran Khalid ibn al-Walid.000 infantry. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims further. but marched back to Mecca declaring victory. 625 AD. and even Muhammad himself was badly injured. allowed a surprise attack from the Meccan cavalry. preceded by the Battle of Badr in 624. 4 3. which brought chaos to the Muslim ranks.000 camels. the Muslims gained the early initiative and forced the Meccan lines back. When the battle looked to be only one step away from a decisive Muslim victory. a serious mistake was committed by a part of the Muslim army.Muhammad Abu Sufyan Umar ibn al-Khattab Khalid ibn al-Walid Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib ⱶ 'Amr ibn al-'As Musab ibn Umayr ⱶ Strength 700 infantry. cavalry 200 cavalry Casualties and losses 70-75 killed Light [show]  V  T  E List of battles of Muhammad The Battle of Uhud (Arabic: ‫ غزوة أحد‬Ġazwat ‘Uh ḥud) was fought on Saturday. 625 (3 Shawwal 3 AH in the Islamic calendar) at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud. For the Muslims. thus leaving much of the Meccan camp unprotected. Whilst outnumbered. It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. the battle was a significant setback: although they had been close to routing the Meccans a second time. The Muslims had to withdraw up the slopes of Uhud. The Muslims readied for war soon afterwards and the two armies fought on the slopes and plains of Mount Uhud. the town from which many of the Muslims had previously emigrated. 3. where a small Muslim army had defeated a larger Meccan army. [1] Marching out from Mecca towards Medina on March 11. who left their assigned posts to despoil the Meccan camp. 50 archers. the Meccans desired to avenge their losses at Badr and strike back at Muhammad and his followers. March 19. in what is now northwestern Arabia. their breach of Muhammad's orders in favor of collecting Meccan spoils . A breach of Muhammad's orders by the Muslim archers. Many Muslims were killed.

Medina means City).1 Reason for battle o  2 Meccan force sets out  3 Encounter at Uhud  4 Aftermath o 4.3 Biographical literature  6 Battle of Uhud in warfare  7 Modern references  8 See also  9 Notes  10 References  11 External links Background[edit] Muhammad had preached the religion of Islam in Mecca from 613 to 622. but also drew staunch opposition from the rest of the Quraysh.reaped severe consequences.2 Further conflict  5 Islamic primary sources o 5. [2] Contents [hide]  1 Background 1. the tribe that ruled Mecca and to which he belonged. The two armies would meet again in 627 AD at the Battle of the Trench. The Meccans sent out a small army to punish the Muslims and stop their raiding. At the Battle of Badr in 624. a small Muslim force defeated the much larger Meccan army. The Quraysh had seized the properties and families of Muslims in Mecca and dispatched caravans toDamascus which the Muslims intercepted and raided.1 Muslim reaction o 4. A number of the leading tribesmen of [4] .1 Quran o 5. [3] Many Muslims considered this unexpected victory a proof that they had been favored by God and believed they were assured such victories in the future. The Muslims fled Mecca in 622 after years of persecution and established themselves at Medina (formerly known as Yathrib. He had attracted a small community of followers.2 Hadith o 5.

burning down two houses and laying waste to some fields in fulfillment of his vow.000 and set out for the Muslim base in Medina. includingHind bint Utbah. hoping that the Muslims would come out to meet them.Quraysh had been killed at Badr and so leadership passed to Abu Sufyan. for he was eager to exact revenge upon Muhammad. Muhammad eventually conceded to the wishes of the latter. and that huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. Encounter at Uhud[edit] . the Meccans—anxious to avenge their defeat at Badr—raised another force numbering 3. He forbade the mourning of the losses at Badr. Abu Sufyan accompanied a party of 200 men to the city. which was populated by numerous strongholds that would have required long sieges to overcome. Several months later. Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying their crops. they camped on the pastures north of the city. vowing to conduct a retaliatory raid on the city of Medina. his wife. Muhammad and many of the senior figures suggested that it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of its heavily fortified strongholds. [7][8] [9] A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers late on Thursday March 21. with Abu Sufyan at the helm. Further skirmishes between the Meccans and the Muslims would occur thereafter. and there was dispute over how best to repel the Meccans. Rather than attacking Medina itself. 625. He and his party then left Medina. and readied the Muslim force for battle. a Muslim conference of war convened. [5] Reason for battle[edit] The reason for the battle was to get back at the Muslims for the battle of badar [6] Meccan force sets out[edit] Ravine of Mount Uhud (bifurcated mount just seen below in line of tower structure) where Muhammed was taken for rest after injury The following year on March 11. obtaining temporary residence with the chief of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir and learning more of the current situation in Medina. a number of Meccan women are said to have accompanied Abu Sufyan's army to provide vocal support. The next morning. According to the early Muslim historian Ibn Ishaq.

Before the battle. they took a position on the lower slopes of the hill of Uhud. do not come to assist us. the archers on the hill were to protect the left flank. These were told: "Come." They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith. Ibn Ubayy and his followers would later receive censure in the Qur'an for this act." [12] . ayat 166-168 [11] The Muslim force. or (at least) drive (The foe from your city). and thus the Muslim army wouldn't be surrounded or encircled by the Meccan cavalry. fight in the way of Allah. This was a strategic decision in order to shield the vulnerable flanks of the outnumbered Muslim army. in order that He might test the believers. sura 3 (Al-i-Imran). if ye speak the truth. do not come to assist us." —Qur'an. while the right flank was to be protected by the Mount of Uhud situated on the east side of the Muslim camp.And the Hypocrites also. facing Medina with the rear being protected by the towering mount itself. now numbering around 700. was stationed on the slopes of Uhud. saying with their lips what was not in their hearts but Allah hath full knowledge of all they conceal." Say: "Avert death from your own selves. [10] What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met. he made this order very clear by uttering these words to the archers. Muhammad ordered the Muslim archers to never under any circumstances leave their positions on the hill unless ordered to do so by him only." They said: "Had we known how to fight. (of their brethren slain). we should certainly have followed you. "If you saw us prevail and start to take spoils. (They are) the ones that say. A group of approximately 1. was with the leave of Allah. Protecting the flanks of the Muslim army meant that the Meccan army would not be able to turn around the Muslim camp. while they themselves sit (at ease): "If only they had listened to us they would not have been slain.000 Muslim men set out on late Friday from Medina and managed to circle around the Meccan forces. showing the Muslim and Meccan lines respectively. 'Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy (the chief of the Khazraj tribe) and his followers withdrew their support for Muhammad and returned to Medina.Map of the battle. Shortly before the battle commenced. Muhammad had assigned 50 archers on a nearby rocky hill at the West side of the Muslim camp. And if you saw us get vanquished and birds eat from our heads. keeping in mind that the Meccan cavalry outnumbered the Muslim cavalry with a 50:1 ratio. with reports suggesting Ibn Ubayy's discontent with the plan to march out from Medina to meet the Meccans. Early the next morning.

Enjoying the best of these early encounters. fending off the assaults of Khalid's cavalrymen." [7][14] [17] . with victory appearing certain. `Uthman. Mount Uhud.The Meccan army positioned itself facing the Muslim lines. Talhah's brothers and sons went to retrieve the Meccan banner and fight unsuccessfully. bringing him to a similar fate as Talhah. that would shift the outcome of the battle. The Meccan army was pushed back. However. "The Prophet became the object of the attack of various units of the army of Quraish from all sides. and thus one by one. and the left and right flanks commanded by Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahland Khalid ibn al-Walid respectively. Meccan confidence quickly began to dissolve as the Muslims swept through their ranks. the Meccan cavalry led by Khalid ibn al-Walid exploited this move and attacked the remaining minority of Muslim archers who refused to disobey Muhammad's orders and were still positioned on the hill. Talhah ibn Abi Talhah al-‘Abdari. Thwarted by a shower of stones from the Muslims. leaving the flank vulnerable. Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib). It was their family that was responsible for the Meccan army's standardbearing. until they all eventually perished. however. as they ran downhill to join in the advance and despoil the Meccan camp. with the main body led by Abu Sufyan. that Muhammad had only been wounded—due to missiles of stone which resulted in a gash on his forehead and lip. [15] Following the duels. Medina At this critical juncture. rumors circulated that Muhammad too had perished. every unit that made an attack upon him and dispersed them or killed some of them. From there. the Muslims pierced through the Meccan lines. According to Ibn Atheer. [16] [7][14] Grave of Hamza. in compliance with Muhammad's orders. the Meccans were then able to target and overrun the Muslim flank and rear. who had been thrown down in a surprise attack by the javelin of the Ethiopian slave of Hind. It emerged. and repeated attempts by its cavalry to overrun the left Muslim flank were negated by the Muslim archers. Most notably was Hamza. Ali attacked. Wahshi ibn Harb. ran forward to pick up the fallen banner — the Meccan women willing him on with songs and the loud beating of timbrels. the young cousin of Muhammad. 'Amr ibn al-'As was named the commander of cavalry and his task was to coordinate attack between the cavalry wings. it was the detachment of the Muslim archers. Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib emerged from the Muslim ranks. and this thing took place a number of times in Uhud. It is recorded that Ali ibn Abi Talib alone remained. rushed forth and struck Talhah down in a single blow. [13][14] The Meccans attacked with their initial charge led by the Medinan exile Abu ‘Amir. While the Meccan riposte strengthened. disobeying Muhammad's strict orders to remain stationary. The Meccan standard-bearer. and numerous Muslims were killed. advanced and challenged the enemy to a duel. Abu ‘Amir and his men were forced to retire and tend to the camps behind the Meccan lines. general engagement between the two armies commenced. Talhah's brother. Confusion ensued.

this was because Muhammad realized that a show of force was required to speed the Meccans away from Medinan territory. which was considered a sign of God's favor upon them. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you but He forgave you: For Allah is full of grace to those who believe.-until ye flinched and fell to disputing about the order. The Meccans." Other scholars such as William Montgomery Watt disagree. [22] Muslim reaction[edit] For the Muslims. however. [18] [19] [7][14] The battle is generally believed by scholars to be a defeat for the Muslims. the Meccans had failed to achieve their strategic aim of destroying Muhammad and his followers. states the notion that "the Muslims suffered a disheartening defeat is clear enough. Hind and her companions are said to have mutilated the Muslim corpses. Robinson. A verse of the Qur'an revealed soon after the battle cited the Muslims' disobedience and desire for loot as the cause for this setback: [2][23] Allah did indeed fulfil His promise to you when ye with His permission Were about to annihilate your enemy. and disobeyed it after He brought you in sight (of the booty) which ye covet. not wanting to be perceived as being chased away. noting that while the Muslims did not win. writing in the Encyclopaedia of Islam. [7] [20] [21] Aftermath[edit] Muhammad and the Muslims buried the dead on the battlefield. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the Hereafter. the battle held a religious dimension as well as a military one. the misfortunes at Uhud — largely the result of the rear guard abandoning their position in order to seek booty — were partly a punishment and partly a test for . A small faction was cut off and tried to make its way back to Medina. as depicted in Moustapha Akkad's 1976 film The Message After fierce hand-to-hand combat. remained nearby for a few days before leaving. and so the fighting ceased. then. The Meccans' chief offensive arm. and that the Meccans' untimely withdrawal indicated weakness on their part. most of the Muslims managed to withdraw and regroup higher up on the slopes of Uhud. a few miles away from Medina. They had expected another victory like at Badr. ayah 152 [24] According to the Qur'an. they had barely held off the invaders and had lost a great many men. Hind is reported to have cut open the corpse of Hamza. after some brief verbal exchanges with Muhammad's companion. returning home that evening. The battle is also noted for the emergence of the military leadership and tactical military genius of Khalid ibn al-Walid. its cavalry.Muslim archers positioned on a hill during the Battle of Uhud. At Uhud. though many of these were killed. as they had incurred greater losses than the Meccans. in conquering the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine held Syria. cutting off their ears and noses and making the relics into anklets. who would later become the most famous of all Arab generals during the Islamic expansion era. decided to return to Mecca without pressing his advantage. taking out his liver which she then attempted to eat. sura 3 (Al-i-Imran). Abu Sufyan. Muhammad sent out a small force to harry the Meccan army on their way home. The next morning. Chase F. Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab). The Meccans retired for the evening at a place called Hamra al-Asad. —Qur'an. According to Watt. was unable to ascend the slopes of Uhud in pursuit of the Muslims.

) until. `Asim bin `Umar bi bin Ishaq said. set about forging alliances with surrounding nomadic tribes in order to build up strength for another advance on Medina. Soon thereafter. Qatadah. while the other was when the Muslims had sent out instructors to a tribe which stated it wanted to convert to Islam — the instructors had been led into an ambush by the guides of the would-be Muslim tribe. along with the allied confederate tribes. ) Mujahid. as well as . (they who are the losers. and His religion will prevail above Hadith[edit] Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri mentions that this incident is also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari. "This Ayah was revealed about them. Abu Sufyan. Firestone observes that such verses provided inspiration and hope to the Muslims. who were then killed as they approached by the tribe of Sulaym. those who disbelieve spend their wealth. [23] [25] Further conflict[edit] Abu Sufyan. some of his companions (hypocrites) returned (ho The event is also mention in Sahih Muslim. He adds that rather than demoralizing the Muslims. . Muhammad became convinced that the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir harbored enmity towards him and were plotting to kill him. according to Ibn `Abbas. 3:30:108 that Quran verse event: “ [Quran 4:88] was revealed about this When the Prophet went out for (the battle of) Uhud. sacralizing future battles that they would experience. the enemy) and collect our share from the war booty. He will give aid to His religion. 4:2050 . whose position as leader was no longer undisputed. As-Suddi an hate it.. Sahih al-Bukhari.steadfastness.e. two years after the events at Uhud (in 627).. Al-Hakam bin `Uyaynah. “ (Verily. Sa`id bin Jubayr. make His Word dominant. and were subsequently killed. The success of the Meccans' rousing of tribes against Muhammad reaped disastrous consequences for him and the Muslims with two main losses: one was where a Muslim party had been invited by a chieftain of the Ma'unah tribe. [26] [27] [2] Islamic primary sources[edit] Quran[edit] The event is mentioned in the Quran verse Mubarakpuri. Muhammad bin Yahya bin Hibban. would attack Medina in the Battle of the Trench." But when they went to them. 4:52:276 mentions: [31] “ The Prophet appointed 'Abdullah bin Jubair as the commander of the infantry men (archers) who were (i. they were for It is also mentioned in Sahih al-Bukhari. The Banu Nadir were expelled from Medina after a fifteen-day siege. the battle seemed to reinforce the solidarity between them. [28] [Quran 3:122] [Quran 8:36] according to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman [Quran 3:167] [29] The Muslim Mufassir Ibn Kathir's commentary on this verse in his book Tafsir ibn Kathir is as follows: Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Az-Zuhri. with some relocating to the oasis of Khaybarand others to Syria.

He deployed his forces in the same manner as a Persian or Byzantine general would have done. The infantry based centre provided the base upon which the cavalry would operate. an early biographer of Muhammad. [33] [34] [35] See also[edit]  Battle of Badr  Abu Dujana  Umm Hakim  Hammanah bint Jahsh . He intended to pull the celebrated "Double Envelopment" maneuver. The only approach from which they could be taken from the rear was protected by the deployment of archers.Biographical literature[edit] This event is mentioned in Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad. Mohammad. Muhammad: The Last Prophet. The general sequence of the events gained consensus early on. Much of the basic narrative and chronology. [30] [7] Battle of Uhud in warfare[edit] Though strategically indecisive. [32] Modern references[edit] The battle of Uhud is the second of the two main battles featured in Moustapha Akkad's 1976 film centering on the life of Muhammad. Abu Sufyan made full use of his cavalry by deploying them as two mobile wings. The cave in Mount Uhud where Muhammad rested temporarily during the battle has also received recent media attention in the light of proposals by some Islamic scholars for it to be destroyed. Messenger of God. so to neutralize the Meccan mobility factor. he decided to hold high ground with Mount Uhud in their rear. which provided security from any attack from the rear. The comparison of this battle with the Battle of Guadalete fought by Tariq ibn Ziyad against the Visigothic Kingdom is indeed striking. He knew an encounter in open country would expose the infantry wings to envelopment. the conduct of the battle was sufficient proof of the military awareness of the Arabs even before their campaigns in Persia and Syria. Accounts of the battle are derived mainly from descendants of the participants. directed byRichard Rich. Muhammad on the other hand showed his ability as a general by choosing the battlefield of Uhud. The battle of Uhud is also depicted in the 2004 animated film. The basic assumption that Arabs were generally raiders and learned warfare from the Persians and Syrians is proved wrong here. is reasonably authentic. Moreover as the front was of approximately of 800 to 900 yd (730 to 820 m) and on one flank he rested Mount Einein and on other flank were the defiles of Mount Uhud so in military language he refused both wings to the Meccan cavalry. and in the 2012 TV series Farouk Omar. according to Robinson. as demonstrated in the text of Ibn Ishaq. He decided according to the will of Muslims to fight in open country but he was aware of the superior mobility of the Meccans. Most of the information available about the events is derived from the sira—maghazi traditions (biographical narratives and documentation of military campaigns) of the early centuries of Islam. This battle is a specimen of how an infantry based entity should fight against a cavalry dominated arm. although some of the more elaborate details — such as the exact scale of the Muslim defeat — may be doubtful or difficult to ascertain. The other battle featured is the battle of Badr.

181. We are not equal: our dead are in paradise. 137 11. Umar. Encyclopedia of Islam Online 8. 258 14. you have not. "You have done a fine work. The Messenger told Umar to go up and answer him and say. Jump up^ Guillaume 813 10. 132—135 6. Jump up^ Watt (1974) p. "I regard you as more truthful and reliable than Ibn Qami'a". Jump up^ Muir. Jump up^ Mubarakpuri. 135 9. Weir (1912) p. p. Jump up^ Ibn Ishaq records this exchange as follows: When (the Quraysh leader) Abu Sufyan wanted to leave. 260 17." The Messenger told him to go and see what Abu Sufyan was up to. that is. "I adjure you by God. (online) 7. Jump up^ Watt (1974) p. 218 19. Nusaybah bint Ka'ab  List of Sahaba  List of battles of Muhammad  Umm Ayman (Barakah) the woman who was present at the Battle of Uhud Notes[edit] 1. "Come up here to me. Jump up^ Watt (1974) pp. saying. Jump up^ Reasons for the battle of Uhud 18." At this answer Abu Sufyan said to Umar. referring to the latter's claim that he had killed Muhammad. Abu Sufyan said. Jump up^ Review: The lesson of Uhud defeat (in Arabic) 13. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f "Uhud". Weir (1912) p. cited in Peters (1994) p. Victory in war goes by turns: today is in exchange for the day of Badr. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cambridge History of Islam 1A (1977) pp. Jump up^ Ibn Ishaq (1955) 380—388. Umar replied. Weir (1912) p. Jump up^ Muir. 138—139 15. Jump up^ Muir. Jump up^ Watt (1974) pp. 211—214 4. "God is most high and most glorious. Jump up^ Watt (1974) p. vindicate your religion. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Watt (1974) pp. 136 2. yours are in hell. Show your superiority. 259 16. When he came Abu Sufyan said. Jump up^ Quran 3:166–168 12. 142—143 5. Jump up^ Peters (1994) pp. he is listening to what you are saying right now". 47-48 3. The Sealed Nectar. he went to the top of the mountain and shouted loudly. have we killed Muhammad?""By God. . Hubal".

We had not reached arRawha until a number of them came against us and we continued on our way. 296 (footnote 2). —cited in Peters (1994) p.  An early Muslim historian. Encyclopedia of Islam Online 28. 24 April 2004. Ibn Ishaq (1955) 380—388. cited in Peters (1994) p. and they scattered in every direction. records 'Amr ibn al-'As (a Meccan commander) as saying: When we renewed the attack against them. Jump up^ Mubarakpuri. 219 20.  Nafziger. and some of the Awsand the Khazraj had stayed away from the battle. but later a party of them rallied. ^ Jump up to:a b Watt(1974) p. 200 22. Agha Ibrahim (2004). ISBN 0-19-597714-9 33. Jump up^ Review: The Message. The victory is ours. 32. . Jump up^ Mubarakpuri. 299-300. 226. 23. Jump up^ Nadir. 132 26. Jump up^ See:  Andrae.His Life and Campaigns. Moreover we had a number of wounded. ISBN 1861795750. 432. The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet . 292. 2009. 30. Quraysh then took counsel together and said.—cf. So they set off. 16-18. Jump up^ See:  Watt (1981) p.132 21. 29. 147—148 27. (online) 31. Jump up^ Akram. p. and all our horses had been wounded by the arrows. and we were not sure that they would not attack us. Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 9 (Part 9): Al-A'Raf 88 to Al-Anfal 40. 219. Mark Campbell. Menzel (1960) p. For we had heard that Ibn Ubayy had retired with a third of the force. Oxford University Press: Pakistan. Jump up^ Mubarakpuri. Jump up^ See:  Cambridge History of Islam 1A (1977) pp.  Watt (1974) p. al-Waqidi. p. ^ Jump up to:a b Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman. pp. Jump up^ Firestone (1999) p. Khalid bin al-Waleed . Banu-l. 144 24. let us depart. Jump up^ Quran 3:152 25. The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet . 47—48  Firestone (1999) p. 150. Walton (2000) pp. we smote a certain number of them. p. The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet . Jump up^ Watt (1974) pp. MSA Publication Limited.

23 January 2006.   Watt.  Holt.E.E. Cambridge University Press..J. New Impression edition. Mark W. Bearman. Bianquis. Walton.J. Tor. In P.  I. W. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. ISBN 0-275-98101-0. F. Westport. Jump up^ "Muhammad The Last Prophet": A Movie Below Expectations. W. P. (1912). Bosworth. 1A. Watt. C. Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. "Uhud". ArabNews . 35. Heinrichs.  Peters. CT: Praeger. New York: Harper Torchbook. Bianquis.34. T.  Nafziger. OCLC 871364. ISBN 0-19-636033-1. Cambridge History of Islam. ISBN Retrieved 2007-06-07. Ishaq and A. C. ISSN 1573-3912. Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. USA. Heinrichs. ISBN 0-19-512580-0. Jump up^ Call to destroy Uhud cave rejected. Vol. Encyclopedias  Robinson. Menzel. V. Muhammad and the Origins of Islam.. Oxford University Press.P. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. In P. Montgomery (1981). (2003). H.  Muir. C. Edinburgh: John Grant. Th. Muhammad at Medina.  Vacca.P. Brill Academic Publishers. Albany: SUNY Press. . Weir. F. "Nadir. van Donzel and W. New edition. Montgomery (1974). E. Islamonline. ISBN 0-19881078-4. Bernard Lewis (1977a). Guillaume (October 2002). ISBN 0-521-291364. Oxford University Press. ISSN 1573-3912. Brill Academic Publishers. Th. Bearman. Theophil (1960).  Firestone. Banu-l".E (1994). OCLC 5754953. Rueven (1999). ISBN 0-7914-1875-8. Islam at War: a history. Mohammed: The Man and His Faith. van Donzel and W. The Life of Muhammad. References[edit] Books and journals  Andrae. The Life of Mohammad. George F. William. Oxford University Press. Bosworth. E. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. M.