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A.

500 Word Summary


7.1
The cell theory states three things: that all living things are made up of
cells, cells are the basic units of function and structure in the living
things, and that new cells are produced from existing cells. There are
two different types of cells. One is the prokaryotic cell, which does not
have a nucleus. There is also the eukaryotic cell, which has a nucleus
that holds the genetic material of the cell.
7.2
There are tiny organs in these cells called organelles, which are all
vital to the cell.
Nucleus
The main organelle, the nucleus, which holds almost all of the DNA in
the cell.
Vacuoles
Vacuoles store many things, such as water, sugars, proteins, and salts.
Lysosomes
Lysosomes break down many things because they are kind of like the
waste remover of the cell. They break things down and either let the
cell reuse them or get rid of them as waste. They break down old
organelles and large molecules so that the cell can use them.
Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton gives the cell its shape and maintains the cells
shape.
Ribosomes

The ribosomes are what put together the proteins.


ER and Golgi apparatus
The proteins that leave the cell and membrane proteins are made on
the rough ER, and then the Golgi apparatus changes, sorts, and
packages proteins to be either stored in the cell or to leave the cell.
Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts take the suns energy and turn it into chemical energy
that gets stored in food by using a process known as photosynthesis.
Mitochondria
The mitochondria, the powerhouses of the cell, change that chemical
energy of food into compounds that the cell can more easily use.
Cell Membrane
The cell membrane helps make sure that it knows what is going on
when things enter and leave the cell. It also protects the cell and
supports the cell.
7.3
There are two different kinds of movement in the cell. Passive
transport, which does not require energy, is the movement of materials
across the cell membrane (again, without using energy). Three main
types of passive transport are diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and
osmosis. There is also another kind of transport called active transport.
Active transport does require energy and it is the movement of
materials from areas of low concentration to areas of high
concentration. Three main types of active transport are protein pumps,
endocytosis, and exocytosis.
7.4

There are many things single celled organisms do to maintain


homeostasis. They grow, respond to the environment, get and use
energy, and reproduce. The cells that make up living things that have a
lot of cells have specific jobs that they are specialized in. These cells
are required to communicate with each other in order to maintain
homeostasis in the living organism. If these things dont happen and
homeostasis is not maintained, it could harm the living thing.
B. Review Questions
1.5.
A. nucleus

1. Helps cell keep its shape

B. vacuoles

2. Use photosynthesis to make food

C. ribosomes

3. Start the making of proteins

D. chloroplasts

4. Stores water, salts,

proteins, and sugars


E. cytoplasm

5. Holds cells DNA

6. What is the structure that controls the cells activities?


a. organelle

b. nucleus

c. cell membrane

d. nucleolus

7. What are cell membranes made up of?


a. mitochondria

b. ribosomes

c. lipid bilayers

d. carbohydrates

8. Where is the cells genetic information found in eukaryotic cells?


a. lysosomes

b. cell membrane

c. ribosomes

d. nucleus

9. What is the movement of water molecules over a semi-permeable


membrane called?
a. pumping
c. exocytosis

b. osmosis
d. endocytosis

10. All types of cells have a _____________.

C. Diagrams

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

D. Flow Chart