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Christians often see Christ suffering in Isaiah 52:13-53:12.1 There are only two certain references to Isaiah 52:13-53:12 before 70 CE in the Christian literature: Romans 10:16 using Isaiah 53:1 and Romans 15:21 citing Isaiah 52:15. These two uses are for the church’s mission and not Christ’s death.2 Matthew has one certain citation Matthew 8:17 using Isaiah 53:4 and it is applies to Christ’s life and actions not passion.3 Given modern scholarship, the oldest Christian text for passion is found in Luke 22:37, which uses Isaiah 53:12 to show that the treatment was prophesied.4 A possible use in 1 Corinthians 15:3-4 due to allusion from Isaiah 53:5-6. Another case might be found in Christ hymn (Philippians 2) from Isaiah 52:12. If these are true, then these examples are older than the use in Luke. It is conceivable this section from Isaiah are used at typology in passion stories.5 . Some points of commonality many be: Silent Mark 14:61; Matthew 27:12, 14; Isaiah 53:7; numbered Mark 15:27; Matthew 27:38; Isaiah 53:12; praying Luke 23:34, 39-43; Isaiah 53:12. The content found in Isaiah 40-55 show the the four servant songs refer to all of Israel.6 For example, the Chosen One, the Despised One, the Wounded One all are Jacob. Rashi (1040-1105 CE) comments on Isaiah 53:3 that this text refers to a group since the prophet was using a single man to refer to all of Israel (See Isaiah 44:2 as example).7 Christian and Jewish interpretation of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 is similar to early
Leorna Batnitzky; Yikva Frymer-Kensky et al., editors, Chap. On the Suffering of God’s Chosen: Christian Views in Jewish Terms In ‘Christianity in Jewish Terms’, (Bolder, CO: Westview Press, 2000), Radical Traditions, p. 203. 2 Adela Yarbro Collins; Rodger Brooks and John J. Collins, editors, Chap. The Suffering Servant: Isaiah Chapter 53 as a Christian Text In Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity, Volume 5, ‘Hebrew Bible or Old Testament? Studying the Bible in Judaism and Christian’, (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990), p. 203. 3 Ibid., p. 204. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid., p. 205. 6 Roger Brooks; Rodger Brooks and John J. Collins, editors, Chap. A Christological Suffering Servant? The Jewish Retreat into Historical Criticism In Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity, Volume 5, ‘Hebrew Bible or Old Testament? Studying the Bible in Judaism and Christian’, (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990), p. 209. 7 Ibid.
Jewish thought.8 The sacriﬁce of innocent and loved son because of the love of a father for a God that calls for such a sacriﬁce.9 Like wise the death/resurrection of the “beloved son” (Isaac/Jesus) is important to the traditions. The Christian view on Isaiah 52:13-53:12 is almost identical to the Jewish though on Isaac in the rabbinic and medieval ages.10 Like Isaac, the Jewish community is being sacriﬁced due to its most favored son.11 Isaiah 52:13 my servant shall prosper – The prophet begins this section with a paradox. The world will see the slave as a successful person. Isaiah 52:14 many who were astonished at him –It seems that the surprise is due to the accomplishments but this is not the case. so marred was his appearance – The one praised by all now looks nothing like he did before. Isaiah 52:15 he shall startle many nations – All around the world, people will speak about the dramatic turn around. Isaiah 53:1 Who has believed what we have heard? – Unless you see what has happened for yourself, it is almost impossible to understand it. Isaiah 53:2 And to whom has the arm of the L ORD been revealed? – Which, if any, people recognize the reality behind the change of fortune? Isaiah 53:3 a man of suffering – The underlying assumption in Isaiah 53:3 is that servant is despised since he deserved punishment because of sin.12 A more contemporary example that shows this idea is Handel’s Messiah. The “dominate (though not the only) biblical perspective on suffering; namely those who obey God will be blessed and those who don’t will be cursed.”13 (Proverbs 3:33; Leviticus 26; Isaiah 5:24-25.) Suffering is tied to being chosen and to being favored.14 (Deuteronomy 8:5; Proverbs 3:12) Thus one must read Isaiah in this light also.15
Batnitzky, ‘Christianity in Jewish Terms’, p. 208. Ibid., p. 209. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid., p. 204. 13 Ibid. 14 Ibid., p. 205. 15 Ibid.
Isaiah 53:4 he has borne our inﬁrmities – Verses 53:4-5 seem to say that the servant suffering in our place is for both our health (salvation) and our sins.16 Jewish thought that suffering shows a “moral superiority” along with a value seen in “rabbinic, medieval, and modern form” of Judaism.17 This is not simple cause and effect.18 God’s chosen suffer for others.19 The central difference in Jewish thought when compared to Christian is that Jews do not identify Jesus as the one who suffers, instead they see the suffering tied to their community.20 In the post Holocaust world, many Jewish thinkers reject the connection between suffering and sin while retaining the bond between suffering and being chosen.21 Isaiah 53:5 he was wounded for our transgressions – Suffering cannot be separated from the communities (Jewish/Christian) and it depends on their hermeneutics.22 For Jews, suffering is not only because of their election but also because they fail to live up to their role of showing others the light.23 Jewish suffering, although it contains strong ideas on chastising a wayward child, is more ambiguous.24 Christians assert that only Christ is sinless. Romans 3:23-26. Thus for Christians, Isaiah 52:13-52:12 is suffering for humanity in general. Isaiah 53:6 we like sheep have gone astray – The entire community has wandered off the path. Isaiah 53:7 he did not open his mouth – The one/group that suffers does not lift up a complaint that anyone can hear. Isaiah 53:8 By a perversion of justice he was taken away. – The true application of the law would demand that this one/group have a fair trail. That never happens.
Batnitzky, ‘Christianity in Jewish Terms’, p. 204. Ibid., p. 205. 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid., p. 206. 20 Ibid. 21 Ibid., p. 207. 22 Ibid., p. 206. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid., p. 207.
Isaiah 53:9 his grave with the wicked – Even in death, this one/group has no honor. Perpetually his/there name will be shamed. Isaiah 53:10 the will of the L ORD to crush him with pain – This association of destruction with a divine plan is a problem in today’s world. If one believes in a god, it is more one like Zoroastrianism with its constant battle between good and evil or light and dark. The radical monotheism of Israel will not allow such a division. Everything is God’s responsibility. Isaiah 53:11 The righteous one, my servant, shall make many righteous – Somehow the righteous one transfers his attributes to the others. Greek philosophy presents one way to think of this issue and other ways of thinking many more. The unanswered question is, “Why does this need to happen?” Isaiah 53:12 he bore the sin of many – In the same manner, this one/group is now responsible for the behavior of others. This assignment of guilt has the identical questions raised by letting others be seen has guilt free.
Psalm 22:1 My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? – One can easily conceive of people and places that do not want the L ORD. The other way around is quite troubling because God is always out of our grasp. This means if the L ORD hides from us, we can never ﬁnd Him. Psalm 22:2 Why are you so far from helping me – This is a common experience. People ask for assistance and God does nothing. How does this behavior model a just God, one that can be trusted? Psalm 22:3 you are holy – Every attribute that is projected into existence is set so far apart from what we know. Psalm 22:4 In you our ancestors trusted – This is not some innovation. In the past, God listened and answered. He acted and history itself changed. Psalm 22:5 To you they cried, and were saved – Even tears were enough back then. God you saw them roll down their face and you did something. Why are you so quiet today?
Psalm 22:6 But I am a worm, and not human – Perhaps, the reason that God does not listen to my prayers is that I am not worthy to be called a human. This concept is dangerous because it places some people into a group that can be treated as non-entities. Psalm 22:7 All who see me mock at me – The suffering that this one goes through is so obvious that everyone sees it. Yet, God does nothing. Psalm 22:8 Commit your cause to the L ORD – Taunts ﬂy through the air. Trust the L ORD. But God still does nothing. God does not hear. How does one trust a God that hides? Psalm 22:9 you who took me from the womb – Life itself is a gift from God. That much is apparent. Why then, do you torment me like this? This is the unspoken question the author raises. Psalm 22:10 since my mother bore me you have been my God. – All my life, my trust has been in you. But something has changed. Is it what I have done? That is what the poet wants answered. Psalm 22:11 Do not be far from me – Right around is the corner is death and destruction, but I cannot see you L ORD. Far too often this is reality. Who is to blame? Is it God that refuses to show up or is it that God’s followers hide from the battle? Psalm 22:12 Many bulls encircle me – Young and strong forces appear not on the horizon but right beside me. In this clear and present danger, you would think that God should appear. But the L ORD does not. Is this God’s fault? A problem with our belief system? Or a failure on our part? Psalm 22:13 they open wide their mouths at me – Bulls do not eat their victims. Psalm 22:14 I am poured out like water – Like a common, everyday item that has no value, I am discarded. This idiom makes it possible to dehumanize others. The reality that humanity acts this way, does not make it right. Psalm 22:15 you lay me in the dust of death – God who has done little so far except to be absent from the scene now makes an appearance and places the author in the grave.
Psalm 22:16 a company of evildoers encircles me – The situation worsens and help does not appear. What do we say when this happens? Does God cause the cancer that eats up your liver? Does God send the plague that wipes out your town? Does God ask for suffering? Psalm 22:17 They stare and gloat over me – God by His inaction is aiding and abetting the enemy. Does the L ORD really operate in this manner? Psalm 22:18 they divide my clothes among themselves – The poet is too weak to keep his enemies from humiliating him by taking his clothes. Psalm 22:19 O my help, come quickly to my aid! – The author still has faith that the L ORD will come. Psalm 22:20 Deliver my soul from the sword – From a violent and unprepared death, good L ORD deliver us. Psalm 22:21 you have rescued me – At this point, the tone of the psalm changes. The author is saved. But, one cannot tell if this salvation is for the current set of problems or if the poet is only recalling something that occurred in the distant past. Psalm 22:22 I will tell of your name to my brothers and sisters – Salvation from evil causes a response. Psalm 22:23 You who fear the L ORD, praise him! – The call for praise now rises from the author’s lips. Psalm 22:24 he did not hide his face from me – This line stands in stark contrast to the ﬁrst part of the poem. Did the author lie to us or is something else behind this radical change? Psalm 22:25 From you comes my praise – The L ORD provides the author with the reason to speak a word of thanks. my vows I will pay before those who fear him – The L ORD provides strength to do what is right. It is interesting and grating in this time of the “social gospel” to hear the fact that the psalmist only repays that individuals who “fear” the L ORD.
Psalm 22:26 The poor shall eat and be satisﬁed – Perhaps as a corrective to the previous sentence, the author reminds us of the L ORD’s work: taking care of the helpless. Psalm 22:27 All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn to the L ORD; and all the families of the nations shall worship before him. – Is this a hope of the psalmist or is it actually what will happen? Does this occur in time or out of it? Psalm 22:28 For dominion belongs to the L ORD, and he rules over the nations. – This sentence simply states that the L ORD is in charge. Psalm 22:29 shall all who sleep in the earth bow down – Even the dead acknowledge that the L ORD is God. Psalm 22:30 Posterity will serve him – The L ORD’s future is secure. The people in the future will give the L ORD what is due. Psalm 22:31 and proclaim his deliverance to a people yet unborn, saying that he has done it. – This is the work of the L ORD’s people. They go and tell others that the L ORD is working in the world.
Hebrews 10:16 This is the covenant that I will make with them – This quote and what follows in verse 16 is from Jeremiah 31:33. This promise is now spoken to a new generation. Hebrews 10:17 I will remember their sins and their lawless deeds no more. – This line comes from Jeremiah 31:34. Hebrews 10:18 Where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin. – This conclusion explains what has changed in Christian worship. It is built on the assumption that Christ’s work completely covered all sins. Hebrews 10:19 to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus – The followers of Christ are protected in the holiest places by the blood of Jesus. The angel of death now passes over them.
Hebrews 10:20 he opened for us through the curtain – This seems to be an allusion to the curtains that are found in the temple (Exodus 26:1-13; 36:817; Numbers 3:26; 4:25; etc) Along with the tearing the occurred during Christ’s death (Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45). Hebrews 10:21 we have a great priest over the house of God – The role of Jesus is that of one who continually makes intercessions for the people. Hebrews 10:22 let us approach with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. – Followers of Jesus can come to the altar because of His work and not fear being struck down dead. Hebrews 10:23 he who has promised is faithful – The work of Jesus is secure since one can trust Jesus. Hebrews 10:24 consider how to provoke one another to love and good deeds – Those on the Way need to do what is required of them. Hebrews 10:25 not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day approaching. – The joining with other Christians helps the strong to support the weak.
John 18:1 The church fathers note a link between the Garden of Eden where sin entered the world and this garden where sin leaves.25 John 18:2 John 18:3 So Judas brought a detachment of soldiers together with police from the chief priests and the Pharisees – The forces of darkness come to attack the light of the world.26 The Greek for the size of the soldiers reads τ ν σπε ραν or six hundred troops.27
Francis J. Moloney, S.D.B.; Daniel J. Harrington, S.J., editor, The Gospel of John, Volume 4, Sacra Pagina Series, (Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1998), p. 484. 26 Ibid., p. 483. 27 Ibid., p. 484.
John 18:4 Then Jesus, knowing all that was to happen to him – Jesus is in complete control of the situation. This is not a betrayal.28 John 18:5 Jesus replied, “I am he.” – Here Jesus uses the formula for God ( γώ ε ι). By know the listener of the story should know that Jesus is using the Old Testament name.29 John 18:6 John 18:7 Again he asked them – Just to make sure they are looking for God, He asks again. John 18:8 I told you that I am he. – Again, Jesus uses γώ ε ι. So if you are looking for me, let these men go. – This explains why the followers were not killed. Jesus negotiated for their release. Even Judas is allows to go free.30 John 18:9 I did not lose a single one of those whom you gave me. In this account, Jesus does not even lose Judas.31 This reading makes the “son of perdition” in John 17:12 be satan as in 2 Thessalonians 2:3 and 8-9.32 John 18:10 cut off his right ear – There can be no good answer on the importance of the “right” ear.33 John 18:11 John 18:12 Caiaphas was the one who had advised – This recalls the words of John 11:49-52. John 18:13 John 18:14 Here is your King! – The close association of Jesus with passover and that is is called the king means that Jesus dies for Israel.
Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 485. Ibid. 30 Ibid., p. 483. 31 Ibid. 32 Ibid., p. 485. 33 Ibid., p. 486.
John 18:15 Simon Peter and another disciple followed – Peter along with someone else, who we assume is the beloved disciple are following. There is disagreement on who this really is.34 Since that disciple was known to the high priest – Through some past action, this disciple had ties with the priest. There is no satisfactory answer about this relationship.35 John 18:16 John 18:17 John 18:18 Peter also was standing with them and warming himself. Rather than standing with the light of the world, Peter associates himself with the darkness.36 John 18:19 Then the high priest questioned – The Greek verb ρωτάω is aorist complexive ( ρώτησεν) and it indicates a long, drawn out process.37 John 18:20 I have always taught – The verb διδάσκω (to teach) is in aorist ( δίδαξα). Jesus used to teach but this time has past.38 This time cannot be regarded as a trial. Jesus is in control. Additionally, everything that He taught was public.39 John 18:21 Ask those who heard what I said to them; they know what I said. – This statement by Jesus answers the question of where we are to go for information about Him: His disciples.40 John 18:22 one of the police standing nearby struck Jesus on the face, saying, “Is that how you answer the high priest?” – It seems that Jesus is asking for the police ofﬁcer to produce witnesses to the accusation that He is blaspheming.41 This is a sign of rejection and is not a form of punishment.42
Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 490. Ibid. 36 Ibid., p. 487. 37 Ibid., p. 491. 38 Ibid., p. 488. 39 Ibid., p. 491. 40 Ibid., p. 488. 41 Ibid., p. 488-489. 42 Ibid., p. 491.
John 18:23 John 18:24 John 18:25 John 18:26 John 18:27 John 18:28 It was early in the morning. – As the sun rises, the trial begins. There is a reason for this. The Jews try to stay clean for the start of Passover at sunset. They themselves did not enter the headquarters – It is not clear how this would make them unﬁt for Passover.43 able to eat the Passover – “In John, Jesus dies about the time when the lambs were slain in preparation for the Passover.”44 John 18:29 So Pilate went out – The movement of in and out creates seven scenes.45 John 18:30 John 18:31 We are not permitted to put anyone to death. – Jesus will be cruciﬁed (lifted up) to draw the world to Him (John 12:32)46 We do not know if the Romans allowed the Jews to execute people.47 The underlying issue is why they want Jesus killed.48 Is it simply that He is a criminal (18:30) or is it that they believe He is the Son of God?49 John 18:32
Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 497. William Loader, First Thoughts on Year C Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Good Friday, http://wwwstaff.murdoch.edu.au/ loader/LkGoodFriday.htm. 45 Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 497. 46 Ibid., p. 494. 47 Ibid., p. 497. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid.
John 18:33 Pilate entered the headquarters – In order to remain ritually pure for the Passover, the Jews have stayed outside of Pilate’s ofﬁces. It is ironical that the Jews will not enter the praetorium but will call for the release of a terrorist. Are you the King of the Jews? This is but the ﬁrst time that Pilate asks Jesus this question. In 37, the same basic question is asked. This is a strange question to ask because it makes one think that Jesus came to free the Jews from the Romans.50 There may be some truth to the question since Pilate offers Jesus or Barabbas in John 18:38. It does not appear that Jesus ever offered a threat to the Romans.51 Another reason why this question is bizarre is that kings are not normally placed on trial.52 They are killed by people who disagree with what they are doing.53 Craig Koester in Symbolism in the Fourth Gospel notes that Jesus form of kingship is very strange. He runs and hides (6:14-15; 12:13-15, 12:36). Kings bring the good life to their subjects. How ironical it is that the king of life is put to death for our life. John 18:34 John 18:35 John 18:36 My kingdom is not from this world. – To say that Jesus has no concern for the people of this world is absurd.54 There are only ﬁve occurrences of kingdom βασιλεία in John. Three are in this verse and two in John 3:3 and 3:5 (Jesus and Nicodemus). This kingdom may not be in the world but it can be seen in the world.55 John 18:37 For this I was born – Jesus is the embodiment of kings, truth, and God.56
William Loader, First Thoughts on Year B Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Christ the King, http://wwwstaff.murdoch.edu.au/˜loader/MkChristtheKing.htm. 51 Ibid. 52 Brian P. Stoffregen, Christ the King Sunday - Year B, http://www.crossmarks.com/ brian/john18x33.htm. 53 Ibid. 54 Loader, ‘First Thoughts on Year B Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Christ the King’. 55 Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 497. 56 Loader, ‘First Thoughts on Year B Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Christ the King’.
and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice. – This is the summary of the Gospel according to John. to testify to the truth – The truth in this account is the revelation of God.57 Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice. – Jesus is the truth and Pilate does not see it. John 18:38 What is truth? – This is not a deep question by Pilate.58 In Jesus, He has seen and heard the truth but he dismissed it. I ﬁnd no case against him. – Even though Pilate cannot see the truth, he knows that Jesus is innocent.59 John 18:39 But you have a custom – There is little support of this idea in the surviving documents.60 John 18:40 Barabbas was a bandit. – The term here λέγοντες could mean a person with “messianic pretensions” or it might he the thief and robber who comes to steal the sheep.61 John 19:1 John 19:2 John 19:3 John 19:4 I am bringing him out – Pilate lies. Jesus comes out on His own. John 19:5 So Jesus came out – Even at this late stage in the trial, Jesus is in control. He comes out on His own accord. wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. – The author never tells us that these are removed from Jesus. Here is the man! – “The old ‘Behold the man’ Ecce homo, really means: ‘Here’s the fellow’. ‘The human being’ over translates, but we need to see that John deliberately focuses in this scene on the frail and weak humanity
Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 497. Ibid., p. 498. 59 Ibid., p. 494. 60 Ibid., p. 499. 61 Ibid.
of Jesus who cuts a pathetic ﬁgure. John is doing theology. He wants us to see divine glory in the inglorious human ﬁgure, a challenge to all human pretentiousness and power.”62 John 19:6 John 19:7 he has claimed to be the Son of God – Finally, we have the real charge against Jesus. Ironically, it is true. John 19:8 he was more afraid – Pilate will have to decide, “What is truth?” and this scares him.63 John 19:9 Where are you from? – This is a key question in the Gospel.64 Jesus is from the Father, He speaks with the Father’s authority, and He does His Father’s work. John 19:10 John 19:11 the one who handed me over to you is guilty of a greater sin – Judas has already been give to the Father (John 17:2 and following; 18:9).65 It might be Caiaphas who sent Jesus to Pilate or it might be satan.66 You would have no power over me unless it had been given you from above – This response by Jesus partially answers where He is from because it shows His perspective on the manner of authority.67 John 19:12 no friend of the emperor – This is probably dramatic irony rather than something spoken by the crowd.68 Everyone who claims to be a king sets himself against the emperor. – The Jews tell Pilate that Jesus, as a king, cannot compete with the emperor. Ironically, they will throw their allegiance to God away and align themselves with the emperor (god).
Loader, ‘First Thoughts on Year C Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Good Friday’. Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 500. 64 Ibid. 65 Ibid. 66 Ibid. 67 Ibid., p. 496. 68 Ibid., p. 500.
John 19:13 sat on the judge’s bench – It is unclear if Pilate or Jesus is sitting in judgement.69 John 19:14 Now it was the day of Preparation for the Passover; and it was about noon. The sixth hour is the time when the lambs are sacriﬁced.70 The Jews want the Lamb of God killed. John 19:15 John 19:16 So they took Jesus – This time has really been a trial of the Jews and Pilate. They both have seen the light of God and heard the Word but they have refused to listen and to see. They have judged themselves (John 12:47-48). John 19:17 carrying the cross – Jesus does not need help in this account. with him two others, one on either side, with Jesus between them – Jesus is in the middle for all to see lifted up on the cross. John 19:18 John 19:19 John 19:20 in Hebrew, in Latin, and in Greek – These are the languages the cultured Romans.71 Jesus draws everyone to Him.72 John 19:21 John 19:22 John 19:23 John 19:24 Let us not tear it – The patristic interpretation is that this refers to the unity of the witness of the church.73 John 19:25
Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 500. Ibid., p. 496. 71 Ibid., p. 502. 72 Ibid. 73 Ibid., pp. 503, 507.
John 19:26 Woman, here is your son. – Because of faith and on Christ’s command, a new family is created.74 John 19:27 Here is your mother. – The role of Mary has been expanded.75 The church has been established.76 John 19:28 Jesus knew that all was now ﬁnished – Still in control of His life, Jesus knows that His mission is ﬁnished. John 19:29 John 19:30 It is ﬁnished. – “‘It is ﬁnished’ (19:30) means in John’s world of thought: Jesus has completed the task given to him, to make the Father known”77 gave up his spirit. – Moloney argues that παρέδωκεν τ πνε α should be translated as “handed over the Spirit.” because the verb παραδίδω ι indicates entrusting and the deﬁnite article means the Holy Spirit.78 Moloney also states that the Spirit is given to the new family at the cross.79 John 19:31 John 19:32 John 19:33 they did not break his legs – This indicates Jesus is the Passover Lamb (Psalm 34:20-21; Exodus 12:10, 46; Numbers 9:12).80 John 19:34 pierced his side with a spear – “Only John has the thrust of the spear, perhaps suggested by use of Zechariah 12:10 in the tradition (as in Rev 1:7). It provides the proof Jesus really died a human death like one of us and spawns detail for the Thomas story in 20:24-29.”81 John 19:35 He who saw this has testiﬁed so that you also may believe. His testimony is true, and he knows that he tells the truth. – Moloney argues that
Moloney, The Gospel of John, p. 503. Ibid., p. 504. 76 Ibid., p. 508. 77 Loader, ‘First Thoughts on Year C Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Good Friday’. 78 Moloney, The Gospel of John, pp. 503, 505, 508-509. 79 Ibid., p. 505. 80 Ibid. 81 Loader, ‘First Thoughts on Year C Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Good Friday’.
this personal interruption by the narrator means that the pierced side means something extraordinary.82 Speciﬁcally, the blood is the Eucharist and the water is Baptism.83 One of the problems with this interpretation is that the blood and the water fall to the ground and are not spilled on the new family, which represents the church. John 19:36 John 19:37 John 19:38 though a secret one – This might be a message for the hidden Christians to come into the light.84 John 19:39 weighing about a hundred pounds – This exaggerated amount of spices indicates that Jesus is buried as a king.85 John 19:40 John 19:41 John 19:42
Batnitzky, Leorna; Frymer-Kensky, Yikva et al., editors, Chap. On the Suffering of God’s Chosen: Christian Views in Jewish Terms In ‘Christianity in Jewish Terms’, (Bolder, CO: Westview Press, 2000), Radical Traditions, pp. 203– 220. Brooks, Roger; Brooks, Rodger and Collins, John J., editors, Chap. A Christological Suffering Servant? The Jewish Retreat into Historical Criticism In Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity, Volume 5, ‘Hebrew Bible or Old Testament? Studying the Bible in Judaism and Christian’, (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990), pp. 201–210.
Moloney, The Gospel of John, pp. 505, 509. Ibid. 84 Ibid., p. 512. 85 Ibid., pp. 510, 512-513.
Collins, Adela Yarbro; Brooks, Rodger and Collins, John J., editors, Chap. The Suffering Servant: Isaiah Chapter 53 as a Christian Text In Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity, Volume 5, ‘Hebrew Bible or Old Testament? Studying the Bible in Judaism and Christian’, (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990), pp. 201–206. Loader, William, First Thoughts on Year B Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Christ the King, http://wwwstaff.murdoch.edu.au/˜loader/ MkChristtheKing.htm. Loader, William, First Thoughts on Year C Gospel Passages from the Lectionary Good Friday, http://wwwstaff.murdoch.edu.au/ loader/LkGoodFriday.htm. Moloney, S.D.B., Francis J.; Harrington, S.J., Daniel J., editor, The Gospel of John, Volume 4, Sacra Pagina Series, (Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1998). Stoffregen, Brian P., Christ the King Sunday - Year B, http://www. crossmarks.com/brian/john18x33.htm.
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