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 Analog to digital conversion (ADC)…

 We can use the ADC it is a device the converts the continues signal
to discrete signal digital numbers the reverse operation can be done by the

 The ADC is an electronic device that converts the following or

current analog signal to digital depending on the amplitude of the analog
signal, Note the digital output may be use different coding schema
(binary ,gray code and two' complement binary).

 An Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) takes an analog input signal

and converts the input, through a mathematical function, into a digital
output signal. While there are many ways of implementing an ADC, there
are three conceptual steps that occur.

1. Sampling the signal.

2. Quantization the sampled signal.

3. Coding the quantized signal.

This method is called Pulse Code Modulation(PCM).

• Sampling:
The analog signal is sampled every Ts s, where Ts is the sample interval is
called the SAMPLING FTEQUENCY, it denoted by fs, where fs = 1/ Ts,
The sampling have three type:

 Ideal: can not be implemented consider of margin part.

 Natural: when we use this type for sampling it retains the

shape of the analog signal.

 Flat-Top: It is the most common method sampling method.

 According to the Nyquist theorem, the sampling rate must be

at least 2 times the highest frequency contained in the signal.

• Quantization:
 Because the Analog samples requires an infinite number of binary
digits, we use the quantization "Digitizing the samples".

 The number of the level depends on the amplitude, where the

amplitude values have two values maximum and minimum amplitudes
of the signal.

Steps to make the quantization:

1. Get the Vmin and Vmax, to achieve the amplitude.

2. Get the unit step delta ∆ = Vmax – Vmin/ L, where L is the

Quantization Levels.

3. Give each level it's own midpoint.

4. approximate the value of the sample amplitude to the quantized


• Encoding:
It is the last step in PCM is encoding. After each sample is quantized and
the number of bits per sample is decided, the number of bits in each level
can be determined by the following equation " bit number=log2 L",
so if L = 16 levels then bit number = 4 bits.

To return to the original analog signal you want to make

reverse method Digital to Analog converter (DAC).

 Some of consideration you have to take into your account ? when

you use the ADC…

 Resolution
• It means the number of discrete values it can be produce over the analog
values. Resolution can be stored in binary representation 0 or 1.

• Number of values or levels can we get it by the power of two, and the
levels depend on the type of ADC outputting (8,16,32,etc)…

• The values represented on ADC can be signed or unsigned depending on

the application.

To get the resolution to the ADC by the following equation…

Q is the resolution value.

EFSR is the difference between the most and least value of the ADC

N is the number of the intervals.

M is the ADC's resolution in bits.

ADC converter of 8 levels

 Response type:
• Linear ADC's… linear it means satisfy the superposition theory, in more
details if the we have 2 source get us different output then we add these
sources together they give us the summation as they in individual.

f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y).

• Non-linear ADCs… it means there is no direct relationship between the

input and output.
Accuracy, Sampling value, Quantization and Coding.