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International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

BOUND STATE SOLUTION TO SCHRODINGER EQUATION WITH MODIFIED HYLLERAAS PLUS INVERSELY QUADRATIC POTENTIAL USING SUPERSYMMETRIC QUANTUM MECHANICS APPROACH

Ituen .B.Okon 1 , Oyebola Popoola 2 and Eno.E. Ituen 1

1 Department of Physics, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. 2 Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1 Department of Physics, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

In this work, we obtained an approximate bound state solution to Schrodinger equation with modified Hylleraass plus inversely quadratic potential using Supersymmetric quantum mechanics approach. Applying perkeris approximation to the centrifugal term, we obtained the eigen-energy and the normalized wave function using Gauss and confluent hypergeometric functions. We implement Fortran algorithm to obtained the numerical result of the energy for the screening parameter α = 0.1,0.2,0.3, 0.4and 0.5 .

The result shows that the energy increases with an increase in the quantum state. The energy spectrum shows increase in angular quantum state spacing as the screening parameter increases.

KEYWORDS

Schrodinger,

Supersymmetric

Quadratic potential.

Quantum

Mechanics

Approach,

Modified

Hylleraass

plus

Inversely

1.

INTRODUCTION

Schrodinger wave equation belongs to non-relativistic wave equation. The total wave function of any quantum mechanical system basically provides implicitly the relevant information about the physical behavior of the system. Bound state solutions most time provides negative energies because oftenly, the energy of the particle is less than the maximum potential energy therefore, causing the particle to be trapped within the potential well. However, in a well that is infinitely long, the particles can have positive energies and are still trapped within the potential well, hence we can conclude that for infinitely long potential well, bound state energy of a particle is either

less than the potential at negative infinity(E < −∞) or less than the potential at positive infinity (E < ∞) which provides the reason for obtaining both negative and positive bound state energies predominantly in Klein-Gordon equation. A lot of authors developed interest in studying bound state solutions majorly due to its scientific applications in both physical and chemical sciences in particle, high energy Physics and molecular dynamics . [1-3].

International Journal of Rec ent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

Different analytical techniques h ave been adopted by different authors in providing solutions to

relativistic and non- relativistic

wave equations. These are: Nikiforov-Uvarov m ethod, exact

quantisation, asymptotic iterati on method, supersymmetric quantum mechanic s approach,

factorization method, tridiagona lisation method etc.[4-10] . Some of the pote ntials under

consideration are: woods-Saxon

plus modified exponential coulomb potential,

ulthen plus

generalized exponential coulom b potential, Rosen-Morse, Hulthen, pseudo harmo nic, Poschl- Teller, kratzer fues and Mie-Type potential, Eckart potential and P-T symmetric Hult hen potential etc [11-20]. This paper is organ ized as follows: section 1 is the introduction. In s ection 2, we introduced the concept of supers ymmetric quantum mechanics approach. In section 3, we apply the concept of supersymmetry to provide the solution to Schrodinger equation using the proposed

potential and obtained the energy eigen value and the wave function

In section 4, w e implement

.. an algorithm to obtained numeric al computation for the resulting energy.

The modified Hylleraas plus inve ersely quadratic potential is given by

V

(

r

) =

v

0

χ

1

e

2

α

r

χ

2

1 e

2

α

r

+

χ

3

r

2

(1)

Where

against

χ

3

the

is a constant , inter-nuclear

χ

1

and

dista nce

χ are Hylleraas parameter. The graph of t his potential

2

with

various

values

of

the

screening

p arameter nature of the

α = 1.0, 2.0,3.0and 4.0 is show

n below. The chosen α is to enable one sees the

graph which is quite different fro m the one for numerical computation.

Figure a. 2.THE CONCEPT OF SUPERYSYMMETRIC QU ANTUM
Figure a.
2.THE
CONCEPT
OF
SUPERYSYMMETRIC
QU ANTUM

MECHANICS(SUSYQM )

The supersymmetric approach de als with the partner Hamiltonian of the form

H

± =

2

p

+

  • 2 m

V

(

x

)

(2)

Where P is the momentum and V (x) is the effective potential which can be expresse d in terms of super-potential as

  • V eff ±

(

x

)

=

φ x φ x

(

)

±

(

2

)

The ground state energy is obtain ed as

(3)

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International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

1

φ x

0

(

) =

Ce

N

(4)

where N is the normalization constant which for very simple cases can be determined using the expression

N

(

x

)

=

x

φ

(

r

)

dr

  • x 0

(5)

However, the superpotential satisfies shape invariant condition of the form

V

+

(a , x)

0

=

V (a , x)

1

+

R(a )

1

Where

a

1

is

a

new set

of parameter uniquely determined from the old set

mapping

f : a

0

a

1

= f (a

0

)

The supersymmetric energy is determined as

E

n

n

=

s = 1

(

R a

s

)

a

0

(6)

through the

(7)

(8)

While higher order state solutions are obtained through the expression

φ

n

(

a

0

,

x

)

=

n 1

s = 0

A

(

a

s

)

(

E

n

E

s

)

1

2

φ

0

(

a

n

,

x

)

Where

A

(

a

s

)

is a raising ladder operator expressed as

A

s

= −

x

+

φ

(

a

s

,

x

)

(9)

(10)

3. RADIAL SOLUTION OF SCHRODINGER EQUATION

Schrodinger equation is given by

d

2

R

+

2

µ

dr

2

h

2

(

E

nl

V

(

r

)

)

1)

l l

(

+

r

2

(

R r

)

=

0

Substituting equation (1) into (11) gives

d

2

R

+

2

µ

dr

2

h

2

E

nl

+

v

0

χ

1

e

α

r

2

χ

3

l ( l +

1)

χ

2

1

e

2

α

r

r

2

r

2

(

R r

)

=

0

(11)

(12)

Let’s define suitable approximation to the centrifugal term as

1

r

2

=

α

2

D

 

0

+

D

1

(

  • 1 e

2

α

r

)

 

(13)

Substituting equation (13) into (12) and re-arranging gives

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International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

d

2

R

+

 

1

2

µ

v

0

χ

1

e

2

α

r

2

µ

v

0

2

χ α

3

D

1

l l

(

+

1)

2

α

D

1

(

R r

)

 

dr

2

 

(

1

e

2

α

r

)

h

2

χ

2

h

2

     

(14)

= −

2

E

µ

h

2

l

(

l

+

1)

α

2

D

0

2

µ

v

0

This can also be represented as

2

χ α

3

D

0

h

2

(

R r

)

d

2

R

 

1

2

µ

v

0

2

χ α

3

D

1

+

l l

(

+

1)

2

α

D

1

 

2

µ

v

0

χ

1

e

2

α

r

(

R r

)

 

dr

2

 

(

1

e

2

α

r

)

h

2

 

h

2

χ

2

     

(15)

= −

2

E

µ

h

2

l

(

l

+

1)

α

2

D

0

2

µ

v

0

2

χ α

3

D

0

h

2

(

R r

)

Let’s define second order differential equation containing effective potential as

 

d

2

R

nl

(

r

)

+

 
 

%

V

eff

(

r

)

R

nl

(

r

)

=

E

nl

R

nl

(

r

)

 

(16)

 

dr

2

In order to represent equation (15) in the form of equation (16) , then equation (15) is multiply by

-1.

d

2

R

+

 

1

2

µ

v

0

2

χ α

3

D

1

+

l l

(

+

1)

α

2

D

1

2

µ

v

0

χ

1

e

2

α

r

(

R r

)

 

dr

2

(

1 e

2

α

r

)

h

2

 

h

2

χ

2

   

(17)

=

2

E

µ

h

2

l l

(

+

1)

α

2

D

0

2

µ

v

0

2

χ α

3

D

0

h

2

(

R r

)

Comparing equation (17) to (16), we obtained the following:

V

r

=

1

2

µ

v

0

2

χ α

3

D

1

+

l l

+

2

α

D

2

µ

v

0

χ

1

e

2

α

r

 

eff

(

)

 

(

1

2

e

α

r

)

h

2

 

(

1)

1

h

2

χ

2

   

(18).

%

E

nl

=

Let

A

=

2

E

µ

h

2

2

µ

v

l l

(

0

χ α

3

2

+

1)

2

α

D

0

2

µ

2

D

1

+

l l

(

+

1)

α

v

0

2

D

2

χ α

3

D

0

h

2

1

and

(18

B = −

b

)

2

µ

v

0

χ

1

2

(19)

 

h

h

χ

2

Then, the effective potential reduced to

V

eff

(

r

) =

1

A

+

Be

2

α

r

 

(20)

 

(

1

2

e

α

r

)

The super-potential suitable for the effective potential is given as

 
 

φ

(

r

) =

(

q

1

1

2

e

α

r

)

+

q

2

(21)

In order to construct partner potential, we apply equation (6) by first taking the square and first derivative of equation (21)

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International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

 

2

α

r

r

φ

(

) =

2

α

q e

1

2

α

r

2

 

(22)

2

(

1 e

2

)

2

q q

1

2

+

 

q

2

1

φ

(

r

) =

q

2

(

1

e

2

α

r

)

(

1 e

  • 2 α

r

)

2

The partner potentials are

V

+

=

2

(

r

+

r

2

  • 2 q q

1

2

+

 

q

2

1

+

2

α

q e

2

2

α

r

(23)

eff

(

r

)

φ

)

φ

(

) =

q

2

(

  • 1 e

  • 2 α

r

)

(

  • 1

e

2

α

r

)

2

(

1

e

2

α

r

)

2

(24)

V

=

2

2

  • 2 q q

1

2

+

q

2

1

2

α

q e

2

2

α

r

eff

(

r

)

φ

(

r

)

φ

(

r

) =

q

2

(

  • 1 e

  • 2 α

r

)

(

  • 1 2

e

2

α

r

1

e

)

2

(

α

r

)

Equation (24) and (25) satisfies shape invariant condition.

2

(25)

3.1 CALCULATION OF GROUND STATE ENERGY

 

The ground state energy can be calculated by solving associated Riccati equation. This equation is given as

 

%

2

φ r

(

)

φ( r

%

)

=V

eff

(

r

)

E

0

l

 

(26)

Where

 

E

0l

is the ground state energy.

 

Substituting equation (20) and (25) into (26) and simplifying in decreasing order of exponent gives rise to three pairs of simultaneous equations

 

%

A+ E

 

l

= q

2

1

 

+ q

2

2

2

q q

1

 

(27)

0

2

 

%

B A

2

E

0

l

= −

2

q

2

2

+

2

q q

1

2

2

αq

1

 

(28)

%

E

0l

B

= q

2

2

(29)

Solving the following simultaneous equations then

 

q

1

= q

2

±

2 q + (A + B) 2
2
q
+ (A + B)
2
 

(30)

 

A

+

B

+

2

α

q

1

  • 2 A

+

B

+

2

α

q

1

2

= −

 

 

=

q

2

2

q

1

q

  • 2

2

q

1

The ground state energy is calculated using equation (29)

 

(31)

%

E

A

+

B

+

2

α

q

1

2

B

%

E

 

A

+

B

+

2

α

q

1

2

B

=

 

+

= −

 

(32)

0

l

 

2

q

1

 

0

l

2

q

1

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International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

3.2 CALULATION OF HIGHER ORDER SUPERSYMMETRIC ENERGY

Using the condition of shape invariant, higher order supersymmetric energy can be calculated as using

E

nl

=

(

R a

k

)

 

k

=

1

(

R a

1

(

R a

2

(

R a

3

(

R a

n

)

)

)

)

=

=

=

=

(

R a

0

)

(

R a

0

)

(

R a

0

)

(

R a

n

1

(

R a

1

)

(

R a

2

)

(

R a

3

)

)

(

R a

n

)

q

1

: a

q

1

+

α

a

0

: a

a

0

+

α

a

n

: a

a

n

+

α

n

q

1

: a

a

0

q

1

: a

a

n

 

2

A

 

+

B

+

2

α

q

1

2

2

A

+

B

+

2

α

q

0

2

=

 

=

q

2

2

q

1

q

2

2

q

0

 

A

+

 

 

2

A

 

2

 

(

R a

1

) =

 

B

+ 2

α

q

2

q

0

0

 

+

B

2

+ 2

α

q

1

q

1

 

A

+

 

 

2

A

 

2

2

(

R a

2

) =

 

B

+ 2

α

q

2

q

1

1

 

+

B

2

+

2

α

q

q

2

(

R a

3

) =

A

+

B

+ 2

α

q

2

2

2

A

+

B

2

+ 2

α

q

3

2

 

q

2

 

q

3

=

A

+

 

2

A

+

 

E

nl

=

(

R a

k

)

 

B

2

+ 2

α

a

0

 

B

2

+

2

 

k = 1

 

a

0

a

n

α

a

n

2

Equation (33) satisfying shape invariant condition can be evaluated as follows

Thus, there is one to one corresponding mapping as shown below.

Therefore, using (35), equation (31) can be written as

Using equation (34), the following evaluations is carried out

(33)

(34)

(35)

(36)

(37)

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International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

3.3 CALCULATION OF TOTAL ENERGY

The total energy is the sum of the ground state energy and higher order supersymmetric energy. This is given as

%

E

nl

= E

nl

+ E %

0l

(38)

Sometimes, the ground state energy can be negative (bound State condition) like in hydrogen atom which is about -13.6eV. Hence, equation (38) can in this manner be expressed as

%

E

nl

= E

nl

+

(

E %

0

l

)

Substituting equation (32) and (37) into (39) gives

%

E

nl

= −







A

+

B

+ 2

α

a

n

  • 2 a

n

+

B

Let’s recall equation (30)

q

1

= q

2

±

International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015 3.3 CALCULATION OF TOTAL

2

q

2

+ (A + B) q

1

If

a

n

:

a a

n

+αn

,

for

2 = α ± α + (A + B) q : a a 1 n
2
= α ±
α
+ (A + B)
q
:
a a
1
n

,

q

2

:a α

Then

+

a αn α

n

=

±

2 α + ( A + B )
2
α
+
(
A
+
B
)

a

n

=

(

α n

+

1

)

±

2 α + ( A + B )
2
α
+
(
A
+
B
)

(39)

(40)

(41)

Substituting equation (18b) and equation (41) into (40) and simplifying gives the total energy as

E

nl

=−







2

h

2

µ









2

2

D

1

h

2

+

l l

(

+

2

1)

α

D

1

2

χ

1

χ

2

+

2

2

α

n

+

1

±

2 µ v χ 2 0 1 + 1) α D − 1 2 h χ
2
µ
v
χ
2
0
1
+
1)
α
D
1
2
h
χ
2

2

µχα

3

2

D

1

h

2

+

l l

(

 

µχα

3

µ

v

0

n

2

α

+

1

±

2 µχα D 1 + l l ( + 1) α
2
µχα
D
1
+
l l
(
+
1)
α

2

3

h

2

2

D

1

2

µ

v

0

1

χ

h

2

χ

2

  • 2 µ

χ

v

0

1

h

  • 2 χ

2

+

χα

3

2

D

0

+

2

h l l +

(

2

1)

α

D

0

2

µ

(42)

Equation (42) is the energy equation for Hylleraas plus inversely quadratic potential. However, because of the plus and minus accaompanied by the square root sign, equation (42) can be expressed as follows:

E

nl



2

2

D

1

2

h

+

l l

(

+

2

1)

α

D

1

2

µ χ

v

0

1

χ

2

 2  2 µχα D 2 µ χ v 2 3 1 2 α 0
2
2
µχα
D
2
µ χ
v
2
3
1
2
α
0
1
+
2
 n
+ +
1
+
l l
(
+
1)
α
D
2
1
2
h
h
χ
2

 



µχα

3



2

h



2

µ

=−







n

  • 2 α

1

+ +

2 µχα D 2 µ χ v 3 1 2 0 1 + l l (
2
µχα
D
2
µ χ
v
3
1
2
0
1
+
l l
(
+
1)
α
D
2
1
2
h
h
χ
2

2

  • 2 µ χ

    • v 0

2

h

χ

2

+

χα

3

2

D

0

+

2

h l l +

(

2

1)

α

D

0

2

µ

(43)

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International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

E

nl



2

2 µ χ v 0 1 2 h χ 2
2
µ χ
v
0
1
2
h
χ
2

2

µχα

3

2

D

1

2

h

+

l l

(

+

2

1)

α

D

1

 



µχα

3

2

D

1

+

l l

(

+

2

1)

α

D

1

µ χ

v

0

1

χ

2

+

2

2

α

n

2



2

h



2

µ

2

h

1

+ −

=−







n

2

α

1

+ −

International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015 E nl  

2

µχα

3

2

D

1

2

h

+

l l

(

+

2

1)

α

D

1

2

µ χ

v

0

1

2

h

χ

2

  • 2 µ χ

v

0

1

2

h

χ

2

+

χα

3

2

D

0

+

2

h l l +

(

2

1)

α

D

0

2

µ

(44)

3.4 CALCULATION OF THE WAVE FUNCTION

Furthermore, in order to calculate the radial wave function, we used the coordinate transformation into equation (16) and obtained the following

s

=

e

2

α

r

d

  • 2 R

    • 2 +

(

1 s

)

dR

+

1

dr

s

(1

s

)

ds

s

2

(1

s

)

2

+

v

0

χ

1

+

l l

(

+

1)

D

0

+

χ

3

D

0

2

E

µ

2

4

α χ

2

4

4

4 h

2

2

α

s

2

v

0

χ

1

+

2

χ

3

D

0

+

χ

3

D

1

+

l l

2 (

+

1)

D

0

+

l l

(

+

1)

D

1

E

µ

2

4

α χ

2

4

4

4

4

h

2

2

α

χ

3

D

0

+

χ

3

D

1

+

l l

(

+

1)

D

0

+

l l

(

+

1)

D

1

2

E

µ

4

4

4

4

4 h

2

2

α

s

(45)

The corresponding radial wave function is then given by

R

nl

(

r

)

=

N

n

(

e

2

α

r

)

χ D 3 + 4
χ
D
3
+
4

0

χ

3

D

1

4

+

l

(

l

+

1)

D

0

4

+

l

(

l

+

1)

D

1

4

2

E

µ

4 h

2

α

2

(1

e

2

α

r

)

1

+ 1) D 2 µ E 1 − 2 2 4 4 h α
+ 1) D
2
µ
E
1
2
2
4
4 h
α

χ

3

D

0

4

+

χ

3

D

1

4

+

l

(

l

+

1)

D

0

4

l

+

(

l

 

× P

n

1

+

χ D χ D l ( l + 1) D 3 0 3 1 0 2
χ
D
χ
D
l
(
l
+
1)
D
3
0
3
1
0
2
+
+
+
4
4
4

l

(

l

+

1)

D

1

4

2

E

µ

4

h

2

α

2

 

,

 

3

+

2

International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015 E nl  

χ

3

D

0

4

+

χ

3

D

1

4

l

+

(

l

+

1)

D

0

4

l

+

(

l

+

1)

D

1

4

2

E

µ

4 h

2

2

α





 

(

1

2 e

2

α

r

)

(46)

4. NUMERICAL COMPUTATION OF THE ENERGY EQUATION

Using equation (43), we implement Fortran algorithm to compute for the energy of the equation in electron volt with various values of the screening parameter α . We use the following values

for our computation.

V

0

= h = µ =

1.0,

D

0

1

=

12

,

D 1
D
1

=

1.0,

χ

1

= −

1,

χ

2

=

2,

χ

2

=

1

.

34

International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.4, No.4, November 2015

Bound State energy with α = 0.1 for different quantum state

n

l

E

n

(

α =

0.1)

eV

n

l

E

n

(

α =

0.1)

eV

n

l

E

n

(

α =

0.1)

eV

n