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THE MODEL OF HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC HOUSEHOLD WASTE (B3 RT)

PRCESSING IN SEMARANG CITY BY USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA)


APPROACH
Elanda Fikri, Purwanto, Henna Rya S, Budi Widianarko
ABSTRACT
Hazardous and toxic materials (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3) are not only produced by
industrial sectors. However, household activities become one of the sources of Hazardous and toxic
materials (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3). The problem is that there is no regulation or fixed
operational rules and also the way of waste disposal which is still mixed both domestic waste and
hazardous and toxic household waste (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3 RT). So that, it can impact
towards the health and the reduction environment quality.
This research used life cycle assessment (LCA) approach according to ISO 14040 : 2006 by
using one ton of hazardous and toxic materials (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3). Five method
were proposed, where the boundaries of the system was directed on separating the kinds of waste in
household unit. The concept of the production of the model of integrated waste processing facility
for hazardous and toxic household waste (Tempat Pengolahan Sampah Terpadu Bahan Berbahaya
dan Beracun Rumah Tangga TPST B3 RT) in the city unit, the recycle process in recycle industry,
the delivery of (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3 RT) to waste processing company (PPLI), the
burning by using incinerator, and finally the production of specific landfills for hazardous and toxic
household waste TPA B3 RT. The impact category (LCIA) was observed and limited on global
warming with the indicator of greenhouse gas emission (GRK). The method (LCIA) used is IPCC
2007 GWP 100a V1.01 and for comparing method, the researcher used Eco Indicator 95 V.2.05 and
CML 1992 V.2.05 by using Simapro program version 7.1.
Hopefully, the research is able to produce the most effective and efficient waste processing
by considering the impact towards the environment especially related on global warning and the
indicator of greenhouse gas emissions.
BACKGROUND
The escalation of society needs will increase the waste produced. It is included on hazardous
and toxic household waste (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3). Nowadays, the industrial sector is
considered as the hazardous and toxic household waste (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3)
resource. In fact, the household activities also produce hazardous and toxic household waste (Bahan
Berbahaya dan Beracun B3). Waste disposal in the society settlement is not much. Due to huge
Translated into English by Kariyani S.Pd / CLT Unika Soegijapranata

population and there is no special treatment, it will seriously cause danger for the environment and
human health.
Generally, the people in the city mix all components of household waste, included hazardous and
toxic household waste (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun B3). Of course, it is contradicted with the
UU RI No. 18 year 2008 article 22 verse 1 about waste processing, which says that, Pemilahan
dalam bentuk pengelompokan dan pemisahan sampah sesuai dengan jenis, jumlah, dan/atau sifat
sampah.(The sorting of waste grouping and separation is in accordance with the type, the
amount and/ or the characteristic of the waste.). Although the existence B3 waste in the waste
appearance from city people is relatively small, or around 0.3-0.5 % in the household, but it needs
to be sought comprehensive treatment (Shorten et al., 1995).
Many people do not know that household activities can produce dangerous waste and
endanger health and surrounding environment. Many household products contain of the same
chemical materials with industrial waste and can cause environment pollution (Otoniel et al., 2008).
In Indonesia, the efforts to process B3 waste also focus on industrial B3 waste processing. Domestic
and settlement B3 waste do not get enough attention. In the Government Regulation No. 18 Jo 85
Year 1999, Chapter III, article 9 verse VI about hazardous and toxic household waste processing,
mentioned that ketentuan pengelolaan limbah B3 yang dihasilkan dari kegiatan rumah tangga dan
kegiatan rumah tangga dan kegiatan skala kecil ditetapkan kemudian oleh instansi yang
bertanggung jawab(The terms of the processing of hazardous and toxic household waste (Bahan
Berbahaya dan Beracun B3) which are resulted by households small-scale activities will be
determined later by the responsible agency.). It shows that there have been no continuing efforts
which are done to process B3 household waste.
Semarang city is a metropolitan city where the population increases each year. The rate of
growth of population in Semarang City is 1.11% per year in 2011 (BPS and BAPPEDA, 2011). The
impact of population growth is that consuming products categorized B3 increases (Praditya, 2012).
This is related to life style and the public convenient in using products categorized B3 waste so they
will impact on the dependence towards using products categorized B3 waste.
Although the existence B3 waste in the waste appearance from city people is relatively
small, by more increasing population growth, it will cause not only much waste produced but also
B3 waste. Besides that, Semarang City still uses Controlled landfill system, where the waste or
garbage is only backfilled and at any time it will be backfilled by soil. This system will create
accumulation from the hazardous and toxic materials in the landfills (TPA). The accumulation of
the waste will cause negative impacts such as soil pollution and ground water pollution around the
TPA. The danger posed is that the products categorized B3 comes into ground water such as deep
Translated into English by Kariyani S.Pd / CLT Unika Soegijapranata

well, surface water such as shallow well and rivers or direct contact to human beings or other living
things.
The impact of B3 household waste is the exposure of health and the reduction of
environment quality. From the health point of view (Ziaee et all., 2012) stated that one of B3
household waste characteristics is toxic. The toxic can come into food chain and it will be
accumulated on human and be able to cause some gen mutation, cancer and congenital.
From the environment reduction point of view, it causes surface water and ground water quality
reduction around landfills (TPA). The sample shows result containing Pb, Ni, Cd and also the
increase of physic parameter concentration and chemical such as pH, turbidity, conductivity and
phosphate (Ololade et al., 2009, Tuthill et al., 1987).
Other researches, which are done to see the impact batteries disposal from household on
landfill, (Panero et al., 1995) in Italy, (Karnchanawong and Limpiteeprakan. 2009) in Thailand,
(Zand and Abduli, 2008) in Iran, and (Shpaek, 1995) in Florida. From the researches, it can be seen
that there is a serious problem correlation between batteries disposal on the landfill with the
environment damage and health impact. it is caused by the batteries which were thrown on the
landfill contribute to the reduction of leachete quality which contain a big amount of metals, for
example mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), mangan (Mn) and zinc (Zn).
Considering the potential of the impact of hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) to
the health and the reduction of environment quality, the effort of hazardous and toxic household
waste (B3 RT) processing must have been started well. It is based on the model of waste processing
in big cities in Indonesia which is most of them uses an old paradigm collect-transport-throw away
(centralization) and prioritizing downstream sector. Another thing that should be highlighted is the
weakness of control mechanism on the hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) processing
from the city government as the controller. In addition, there is no fixed operational formula, so the
hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) processing system in society is individually
interpreted as their habits.
It can be concluded that there is no fixed operational formula about hazardous and toxic
household waste (B3 RT) processing. In addition, the impact potential on health and the reduction
of the environment quality is being the background of the research. So that, an approach a strategy
to process the hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) is needed. The approach used is Life
Cycle Approach (LCA). LCA is a systematic approach to identify, measure and assess environment
impact from entire evaluated life cycle process. LCA approach can be applied on planning waste
processing system, including hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT). The using of LCA
approach gives advantages to create the most effective strategy (scenario) in processing hazardous
Translated into English by Kariyani S.Pd / CLT Unika Soegijapranata

and toxic household waste (B3 RT) by considering environment impact especially related to the
global warming with the indicator of greenhouse gas emissions.
THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH
1. General Purpose
The general purpose of this research is to produce a model scenario of processing hazardous and
toxic household waste (B3 RT) in Semarang City by using Life Cycle Assessment Approach
System (LCA).
2. Specific Purpose
a. Identifying the kinds or the composition of hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT)
which is used by Semarang people.
b. Calculating the amount of hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) which is resulted
by Semarang people.
c. Reviewing the conditions of hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) in Semarang
City.
d. Naming the model scenario of hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) in Semarang
City by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach.
THE METHOD OF RESEACH
a. The Design of the Research
In accordance with the purpose of the research, which is to produce a model (scenario) of
processing hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) in Semarang City, so that the design
of the research follows the step in LCA according to ISO 14040:2006?
b. The Sample of the Research
1. The determination of the total of the sample.
The calculation of the total of the research sample is calculated by using Slovin formula
(Sevilla, 1990. Rivera and Rivera, 2007. Ryan, 2015). Based on the calculation result, there
are 400 families which are used as the sample of the research. The next step is determining
the sample of the location in Semarang City by using Stratified Proportional Sampling
Method (based on economy level and the geography condition of Semarang City). The
proportion of the number of respondent which will be used as the sample is:
Table 1 the location of the research and the amount of needed sample according to each subdistrict.
House
Economy Geographic
Total
Condition
Level
Area
Family
Pedurungan
Permanent
Upper
Smg atas
48,859
Translated into English by Kariyani S.Pd / CLT Unika Soegijapranata
Sub-district

(%)

Sample

28.11%

113

Semarang Barat
Semarang Utara
Tembalang

Semi-permanent Middle
53,448 30.75%
Non-permanent
Lower
31,854 18.33%
Smg bawah 39,650 22.81%
Total
100%
The Sample of the location of domestic recycling business of Semarang City
The Sample of the location of the garbage final disposal

123
73
91
400

c. System Boundaries of the Research


HHW

Raw material

S=separated/pemisahan sampah
S1 = seperation in household
S2 = seperation in TPST
S3 = seperation in landfill

S1
Collection and transport

Energy

S
S
Environment

TPST
Garbage
bank
(bank
Compost

Transport

TPS
Industri daur
ulang /Recycle
Sentral TPST
B3 Kota

Landfill
MRF/PT.
Narpati
Compost

Recycling material
Perusahaan Pengolah
Limbah B3 /PPLI
TPA Khusus B3
Incenerator

Picture 1 system boundaries

GHG Emisssions

d. Data Analysis
1. Life Cycle impact Assessment (LCIA)
The impact category which was used in this research was limited on global warning, with
the indicator of greenhouse gas emissions. The research was done by using IPCC 200 7
GWP 100a V1.01. As the comparison, eco indicator 95 V.2.05. and CML 1992 V.2.05.
2. Interpretation
The analysis or the model interpretation by using software Simapro version 7.1 which was
involving:
a. Inventory LCI result : through this analysis, the amount of emission which was released
to the environment (air) would be known.
b. Impact assessment LCIA result : through this analysis, in which phase or process that
gives the biggest impact to the scenario would be known.
c. Contribution analysis : through this analysis, in which process that is mentioned and
contributed to the total impact in life cycle would be rated.
3. The Test of the sensitivity of the Model.

The sensitivity test was used to evaluate the strategy which might be used on the system of
hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) processing through modeling scenarios. This
test was done to find the influence of assumptions which were very important and
influenced to the LCA calculation result.
4. Monte Carlo Analysis (Validation Model)
Translated into English by Kariyani S.Pd / CLT Unika Soegijapranata

Monte Carlo analysis was used as model validity test in LCA. This test was used to find the
uncertainty data as the normal distribution login with validity level 95% ( =5%).

THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE RESEARCH


The proposal of the model is the hypothesis that will be tested with the LCA approach. This
proposal of the model/scenario is based on the bibliography and informant. After that, it will be
compared among each chosen scenario which has the most minimum greenhouse gas emission. The
scenario of waste processing which was limited to the handling of hazardous and toxic household
waste (B3 RT) in Semarang City was started with material recovery. In waste processing facility
(Tempat Pengolahan Sampah TPS) unit, integrated waste processing facility (Tempat Pengolahan
Sampah Terpadu TPST), garbage bank (bank sampah) and recycle facilities of hazardous and toxic
household waste (B3 RT) in Semarang city until the final disposal in landfills (TPA). The units of
separation of hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) which is proposed in this research are 3
(three), they are separation unit in household, integrated waste processing facility (Tempat
Pengolahan Sampah Terpadu TPST) or garbage bank (bank sampah) and landfills (TPA). However,
the expansion concept of the model is directed to the producing of integrated waste processing
facility for hazardous and toxic household waste (Tempat Pengolahan Sampah Terpadu untuk
Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun Rumah Tangga TPST B3 RT) model in city unit, recycle process in
recycle industry, the delivery of hazardous and toxic household waste (B3 RT) processing company
(PPLI), burning by using incinerator, until the producing of special landfills (TPA) for hazardous
and toxic household waste (B3 RT). The scenario model of the processing of hazardous and toxic
household waste (B3 RT) which is proposed is as follows.

Pemisahan di TPST

Pemisahan di sektor rumah tangga (pada sumber)

Skenario 1
O
R
T

TPS
T

O
B3

TPS
T

Skenario 2
K

Pemisahan dengan plastik


khusus/Tempat sampah khusus dengan
warna yang berbeda

A
non B3

TPS
T

A
B3

TPS
T

Pemisahan di TPST

O non
B3

I-D
O

P
A

Skenario 3

O
non B3

R
T

TPA

TPS
T
A

O B3

A non
B3

TPA

A B3

Skenario 4

Translated into English by Kariyani S.Pd / CLT Unika Soegijapranata

PPL
B3

S TPST
B3

Pemisahan di TPST
K

O non
B3
O
R
T

TPS
T
A

O B3

A non
B3

TPS

K
I

O
B3
A
non B3
A
B3

TPA K
B3

O B3

A non
B3
A B3

S TPST
B3

TPA

TPS
T
A

Pemisahan di TPA

TPA

O
non B3

R
T

R
T

I
D

A B3

Skenario 5

O non
B3

PPL
B3

TPA

S TPST
B3

Keterangan : RT = rumah tangga, C = pengumpulan, P =


pengangkutan, O = organik, A = anorganik, TPST = Tempat
Pengolahan Sampah Terpadu, K = Kompos, TPA = Tempat
Penimbunan Akhir, P = Pengepul, ID = industri daur ulang,
PPL B3 = Perusahaan Pengolah Limbah B3, S TPST B3 =
Sentral TPST B3 Kota, TPA K B3 = TPA Khusus B3, I =
Incenerator.

TPA

TPA K
B3

Translated into English by Kariyani S.Pd / CLT Unika Soegijapranata

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