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CAREER ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY PERCEPTIONS OF CARIBBEAN HOTEL AND TOURISM

MANAGEMENT STUDENTS
Author(s): Kwame R. Charles
Source: Social and Economic Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1 (MARCH 1992), pp. 1-19
Published by: Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies , University of the
West Indies
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27865051
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Social and Economic Studies 41:1 (1992)

ISSN: 0037-7651

CAREER ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY


PERCEPTIONS OF CARIBBEAN HOTEL AND
STUDENTS
TOURISM MANAGEMENT
Kwame R. Charles, Ph.D.
Centre
for Hotel and Tourism Management,
Lecturer,
University of theWest Indies, Nassau, Bahamas

Abstract
This paper presents thefindings of a study of the career orientation
and industry perceptions of undergraduate hotel management and
tourism management

students enrolled

in theHotel

and Tourism

Programme at the University of theWest Indies. All


Management
students enrolled in the programme during the academic
year

1989-90 were surveyed at the beginning and at the end of the year.
'
The results of the study provide insights into these students views
their career

choices, working in the industry, perceived


employment opportunities and career path expectations. The study
found major differences betweeen students pursuing a hotel man
about

as opposed
to students pursuing a tourism man
agement degree; among students from different territories in the
were
region; and between the two surveys. The latter
' differences
to
to
be
students
attributable
primarily
industry internship
found
agement degree

experience.Thefindingsof thestudysuggestthathoteland tourism


and
students may need more academic preparation
that
the
the
and
experience before entering
industry,

management
practical

needs tobe betterprepared toreceiveand retainhoteland


industry

tourism management

graduates.

INTRODUCTION
The Centre forHotel and TourismManagement (CHTM) of
theUniversity of theWest Indies (UWI) has been graduating

students inhotel management

and tourism management

since 1979

pp. 1-19

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDIES

1987, respectively. The programme was established to edu


cate, train and generally prepare students to assume future leader
and

ship roles intheCaribbean hoteland tourismindustry an industry

that has seen rapid expansion and growth over the last two decades
and Charles for a description of the programme].1
[See O'Reilly
Since its inception in 1978, no research has been done to determine

what kind of student is attracted to a career in hotel and tourism


the
what motivations,
aspirations and expectations
have and how these may influence the student's
of his or her career and of the industry.

management,
student may
perception
Some

research has been done with graduates of the pro


In a survey conducted five years after the

however.

gramme,
establishment

of the programme, O'Reilly2 found that over half of


the graduates responding to the survey were not directly employed
in the hotel and tourism industry. Graduates in this study cited lack
o?experience, a depressed tourism industry and poor salaries as the

main problems encountered in securing a suitable job upon gradu


ation. Graduates also gave foreign domination of the industry and
a lack of "meaningful" employment opportunities as theirmajor
frustrations and disappointments. Finally, graduates in this study
a desire towork their way up the organizational
ladder
as
to
to
the
and
contribute
the development of
theirmain
industry

mentioned
goals.

In contrast to the paucity of career research among Caribbean


hotel and tourism management
students, a great deal of literature
exists on the career orientation of American hospitality students,

which has contributedtotheteachingandpracticeofhoteland tour

in that country [e.g., Knutson].3 The research


was
patterned after similar research conducted with
reported here
students.
American hotel and tourism management
ism management

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


The purpose of this study was to gather baseline information on
students with respect to
Caribbean hotel and tourism management
career
orientation and their perceptions of theCaribbean hotel
their

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Career Orientation

and tourism industry. The research was, therefore, exploratory in


nature. Another important objective of the study was tomeasure
changes in students* views over time as a function of their under
graduate experience. The overall objective of the research was to
help educators, the industry and the students themselves under
stand better the needs, expectations and aspirations of hotel and
students and thus better prepare them for
tourism management
their transition to the world of work.

For purposes of this research, "career orientation" was de


fined in terms of students' stated preferences for employment
within the hotel and tourism industry and the factors influencing

their career choices; "industry perceptions" was defined in terms of


views and expectations about working in the industry

students'

upon graduation.

METHOD
Two surveys were conducted

on students enrolled

in theHotel

and

TourismManagement Programmeat theCHTM/UWI during the


1989/90academic year. In Survey I, all of the42 second and third

enrolled in the programme were given a survey


to
questionnaire
complete during the first week of the first term.
The survey instrument contained 26 closed and open-ended ques
to obtain
Items were designed
tions and was self-administered.
year students

data, to describe the characteristics of the student


at
the time of the survey, and to obtain students' views
population
of their career choices and the industry. Students were asked to
demographic

indicatewhat influencedtheirchoice of career; theirjob prefer


ences and expectations about working in and stayingwith the
Students were also asked their opinion of
opportunities in the industry.

industry after graduation.

employment

as to students' sex, age group, nationality and working


experience were also collected so as to determine the relationship,
if any, between these variables and students' views.
Data

Survey II was conductedduring thefinalweek of classes in

the second

term of the same academic

year. Students were again

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDIES

asked
This

to complete a questionnaire similar to the one in Survey I.


instrument contained 25 questions and differed from the first

in terms of replacement of career influence questions with


questions designed to determine the factors influencing students1

only

views during the academic

year.

Forty usable questionnaires were returned in Survey


in Survey II, representing response rates of 95.2 per cent
to the small size of the
per cent, respectively. Due
were used to analyze
and
statistics
frequencies
descriptive

I and 38
and 90.5
samples,
the data.

RESULTS
Student Profile
The

typical student enrolled in the UWFs


in the 1989/90
Management
Programme

Hotel

and Tourism

year was
or
22
from
Trinidad
and
female,
Jamaica,
years old,
Tobago
in hotel management with less than 2 years working
specializing
experience in general and even less hotel and tourism industry ex
Table

perience.

1 summarizes

academic

students' demographic

data.

Analysis of the data revealed that the major predictor vari


vs tourism
ables were area of specialization
(hotel management
are
the
main
and
These
variables
used in
management)
nationality.
presenting
Career

the results of the study.

Influences

Students were

asked

to indicate what

influenced

them most

to

choose a career in the hotel and tourism industry. Their statements


were content analyzed and five main categories of responses were

identified.
Table 2 shows therankingof career influencesstatedby

different categories of students. It indicates that, in general, stu


dents surveyed were drawn to a career in hotel and tourism

managementby a varietyof influences.


Primaryamong theseis that
are
that
they
"people oriented",
theyperceive that the industry
holds potentialemploymentopportunitiesforthem,and theyhave
a personal interestin the industry.
On closer scrutiny,thefindings
indicate thatHotel Management

(HM) students were more

inclined

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Career Orientation

TABLE

1.RESPONDENTS'

PROFILE:

SURVEY

I
%

AGE
Below
20-24

20 13 32.5
15

6
4
2

25-29
Above 29
No Response
SEX
Male

Female

37.5

15.0
10.0
5.0
15.0

34

85.0

10

25.0

11

27.5

NATIONALITY
Jamaica
Trinidad & Tobago 18 45.0
Other (Bahamas, Barbados, OECS

No Response

countries)

2.5

AREA OF SPECIALIZATION
Hotel Management
28 70.Q
12 30.0
Tourism Management

HOTEL/TOURISM WORK EXPERIENCE


None
Less than 1Year

More than1Year
No Response

10 25.0

23

6
1

57.5

15.0
2.5

OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE


11

None

Less than1Year
1-2Years

27.5

20.0

10 25.0

More Than 3 Years

No Response

10 25.0

2.5

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDIES

to give the people-oriented


responses whereas Tourism Manage
ment (TM) students cited the opportunity to contribute to the devel
opment of their respective countries as the influencing factor. This
last response category
graduates, cited above.

TABLE
By Area

is similar

to O'Reilly's2

2. CAREER

findings among

INFLUENCES

of Specialization

Response

HM
%

Categories

People Orientation
Employment Opportunities
Personal Interest
JobCharacteristics
Opportunity toContribute
Other Influences

28.6
17.9
21.4
14.3
3.6
14.3

Specialization

TM
%

Total
%

11.1
22.2
-

24.3
18.9

11.1
33.3
22.2

16.2
13.5
10.8
16.2

By Nationality
Response

J'ca

Categories

People Orientation
Employment Opportunities
Personal Interest
?
Job Characteristics
Opportunity toContribute

50.0
?
17.6
17.6

Other Influences

Nationality
T&T
Other
17.6
9.1
35.3
9.1

25.05.9 27.3
18.6
?
9.1
25.0

27.3 5.9

to nationality, Jamaican students gave more


responses, students from Trinidad and Tobago
"people-oriented"
(T&T) more "employment opportunity" responses, and students
With

respect

from the smaller

territories more

"personal

interest" responses.

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Career Orientation

Career

Preferences

As mightbe expected,HM andTM studentsdifferedintheirchoice


ofwhich sectorof the industrytheywould like towork inafter
graduation.Over 2/3of theHM studentsinSurvey I and over 3/4
inSurvey II opted for thehotel sectorand at leasthalfof theTM
students in each survey chose national tourism organizations (NTOs:
of tourism, tourist boards, etc.) as the sector in which
in the
they would wish to work. There was a marked decrease

ministries

of HM students desiring a career in food service (full


service and fast food restaurants, catering) between Survey I and
Survey II. This is possibly due to the fact that students came to the

number

that not toomany fast food chains and restaurants in the


hire university graduates. There was no major change
among TM students, although in both surveys a large percentage
careers such as education and
opted for non-industry-specific
realization

Caribbean

consultancy.
Table 3 shows students* industry sector preferences and also
area or department preferences within the industry. In both sur
veys, HM and TM students showed differing area/department pref
erences, with HM students exercising a larger number of c ptions

In Survey I, HM students showed an equal


in
the food and beverage and human resources
preference
areas, while sales/marketing/promotions was chosen most by TM
students. In Survey II, food and beverage retained its first place
than TM

students.
towork

among HM students while human resources management dropped


to fourth place behind operations and sales/marketing/promotions.
Among TM students, themost noticeable change occurring be

tweenSurvey I and Survey II was theshiftfromaccountingand

finance to other areas like research and development. It is not clear


students' class
what may have prompted these shifts. However,
room exposure to these areas and their internship experiences may
them to change their interests. There were
differences due to nationality on these questions.

influenced

have
major

no

were asked to indicatewhich one of


In both surveysstudents
several

items was

the most

important to them in selecting

an

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oo

I i

On

60.0

10.0

55.5 11.1

30.0

22.2 11.1

Survey

HM
TM %

81.5

3.7

7.4

30.8 11.5 15.4

7.4

50.0 16.7

25.0 8.3

7.7

15.4

19.2

58.3 16.7 16.7

8.3

Survey
I

TM %
HM

71.4 14.33.6

10.7

26.9

26.9 11.5 3.8 11.5

19.4

TABLE
3.
CAREER
PREFERENCES

Misc.
(e.g.
education,
consultancy)

Sales/Mkting/Promotions
&
Food
Beverage
Human
Resources
Accounting/Finance

Service
Food

Sector
Industry
the
of
Hotel

Operations
(Hotel,
Tour,
etc.)
Travel,
(e.g.
Other
Research
&
Development)

Airline

NTOs

Area/Department

Undecided

Undecided

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tant

Opportunity
for
growth
Professional
Survey
II
Good
Salary1
Interesting
Work

Factors

Selecting
in

an

Organization

with

which

to

Work

Opportunity
for
Growth
Professional
1.

I
Survey

Chance
For
2.
Promotion
3.
Work
Not

in
Survey
I
included

Interesting

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10

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDIES

for which to work after graduation. There were no


organization
major differences between HM and TM students or among the
different nationalities on this question. In both surveys, students
the opportunity for professional growth as the most
important factor in selecting an organization. The consistency
between the two surveys stops here, however, as Table 3 indicates.
considered

"Interesting work" moved from third place in Survey I to second


place in Survey II, while "good salary" replaced "chance for
in the top three in Survey II. It should be noted that
promotion"
salary" was
Survey I.
"good

not included

in the list given

to students

in

The results suggest that students were consistent and insistent


in their desire for professional growth in an organization and, to a
lesser extent, in the need for interesting work. But, notwithstanding
these intrinsic factors, they did not lose sight of the importance of

extrinsic factors like salary.


Career

Expectations

questions were designed to find out students' expectations


of the industry forwhich theywere being prepared. Table 4 shows
students' responses to these questions over the two surveys. In
Several

students seemed to temper their expectations between


I
and Survey II. This is clearest in students' entry-level
Survey
trainee posi
expectations. More students chose themanagement

general,

tion in Survey II than in Survey I. This difference was much more


among TM students. No major nationality differences

marked

were found on thismeasure.


Another
expectations

general finding was that HM students have higher


about the industry than TM students. HM students

expected tobe higherup in theirorganizationsafterfive years, to


be promotedmore quickly,and anticipated
moving fromtheirfirst
Con
organization much sooner than their TM counterparts.
a
TM
to
of
in the
number
remain
smaller
students
versely,
expected
industry after five years. This number
between Survey I and Survey II.

decreased

even

further

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20.0
80.0

74.114.8

66.733.3

11.1

27.3
59.1

4.5

9.1

40.0
60.0

20.0
20.0
60.0

29.6
70.4

51.814.8
33.3

60.0

40.0

3.7
85.2

11.1

I
Survey

TM
HM

Not

75.0
Yes 8.3
No
3.6 Sure
16.7
10.7
85.7

4.
TABLE
CAREER
EXPECTATIONS

"As

Other
(e.g.,
7.416.7
Anticipated
Consultant)
Owner,

Long

as

Length

29.155.5
Management
63.0
58.3 18.5
Manager
Department
22.2
50.0
Department
11.1
16.7
Manager
8.3 4.2 Manager
11.1
Supervisor/Asst.
Trainee
Supervisor/Asst.
Expected into
Entry
Industry
%%Manager
Manager
General
11.1
16.7
Trainee After
Within
85.2
41.6
58.3 2Years
14.8
2
Level
Management
Other
Owner) ? ?
(e.g.,
Expected
After
5
Years
Years
Expected
Level First

me
Right"

30.8

First
Organization
with
Expect
tobeTreat Industry
Working
in5 Years
the
They in
Stay
Less
3Years
.30.8
18.2
of than
54.5
38.4
3-10
Years

Promotion

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27.3

12 SOCIALANDECONOMICSTUDIES

These findingssuggest thatTM studentssee themselvesat a


greaterdisadvantage thanHM studentswith respecttogrowthand
advancement

in the industry and are, therefore, less likely to remain

in it.
When coupledwith students*desire forprofessionalgrowth

from an organization,

TM

students* greater uncertainty

about

stayingin theindustryisunderstandable,given theirperceptionof

it. In other words, what TM students seem to be saying is: "We want
but we
opportunities for professional growth from an organization,
"
don't expect to find this in tourism organizations!
Career

Perceptions

questions sought tomeasure


attitudes toward their career choice

Several

students' perceptions of and


and the Caribbean
hotel and

tourism industry. Students were asked to indicate what they liked


best and least about their career choice. Students* likes remained
across

the two surveys. Students used words such as


"challenging'*, "flexible", "stimulating", "creative", "innovative",
to describe what they liked best about their career choice. The

consistent

ability tomeet people was also cited as a positive

factor about the

industry.

themajor findingwas an
Among thedislikesof theindustry,
increase in thenumberof responses identifying
"qualityof life"

issues from Survey

I to Survey II. Such responses

included refer

ence to longworkinghours,workingweekends andnightsand their


inevitableeffectson social and family life.By the timeof the
second survey, this concern preoccupied almost half of the students
sampled. Not surprisingly, HM students were more concerned

were
about qualityof lifeissues thanTM students,
while thelatter
more concernedaboutjob securityand thenegativeview of tour
ism in the region. This latter concern among TM students increased
dramatically between Survey I and Survey II. Nationality was not
an important factor on either of these measures.
Table 5 shows
career perception

findings.

Another interestingfindingwas thedecrease in students*

career satisfaction between

the two surveys. Whereas

almost 60 per

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3.8
20.0

20.0 30.0 30.0

20.0

50.0 40.0 10.0

16.7

40.759.3

Survey

TM
HM%

40.0 20.0

20.0

50.0 30.8

15.4

58.3 8.3

4.2
12.5

ISurvey

TABLE
5.
PERCEPTIONS
CAREER

Ratings
of Career
Dislikes
and
Quality
Likes
Job

Opportunity
to10.7
16.7
Contribute
HM
TM

Negative
View
Tourism
of
8.3
7.4
40.7
of
14.8
8.3 16.7 Somewhat
Politics
satisfied
41.7
40.7
Issues
57.1
33.3
Organizational
Meeting21.4
16.7
Responses
Other
41.7
22.3
Responses
Other
33.3
10.7
59.3
Very
People
Job
14.8
25.0
LifeSecurity
Characteristics

Likes %

?
?
Satisfaction
CareerSatisfiedDissatisfied

Dislikes

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58.3

14

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDIES

cent were very satisfied with their career choice in Survey I, this
number dropped to 42 per cent in Survey II. The decrease was most
among HM students, although TM students also expe
rienced a slight dip in satisfaction. This finding does not augur well
for the retention and satisfaction of these students in the industry.

noticeable

Perceptions ofEmploymentOpportunities in theCaribbean


Four questions

tried to tap students' perceptions of employment


for hotel management
and tourism management

opportunities
graduates in the Caribbean

in general and in their home countries


in particular. The major differences on thesemeasures were nation
ality differences. As might be expected, given the level of tourism

in Trinidad and Tobago, students from this country


development
were much more skeptical about employment opportunities for
HM and TM students at home than were other students. This is
notwithstanding the fact that the same students identified employ
ment opportunities as a major reason for choosing their careers.
This apparent contradiction among T&T students suggests that
conflict with
theymay be experiencing an "approach-avoidance"
career
an
to
their
chosen
in
that
respect
promises much but
industry
which may not deliver.
felt more positive about job
than in tourism management
both in their home country and in the Caribbean region as a whole.
In general, students surveyed
opportunities in hotel management

This findingisconsistent
with theview thatemploymentopportu
nities inNTOs

and other non-hotel-related

tourism organizations

are limitedin theCaribbean. (See Table 6).


were asked iftheywould be willing towork
Finally,students
in a Caribbean

country other than their own. In Survey I almost


towork in other Carib
the
of
students
2/3
expressed a willingness
bean countries. Only 5 per cent (two students) indicated that they
would not work in a country other than their own. In Survey II, the

numberwilling towork outsideof theirhome countryjumped to


78.4 per cent.Themajor contributorto thischangewas theincrease
in thenumberof studentsfromthesmaller territories
indicatinga

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%
Other

62.5 37.5

77.8

T&T
%

12.5

22.2

62.5 37.5

87.6

25.0 75.0

25.0

50.0

81.9 18.2

Other

70.0

63.7 36.4

60.0

9.1 27.3

63.6

40.0

T&T
38.9 61.1

87.5

30.0

50.0

72.8 27.3

TABLE
6.
STUDENTS'
VIEWS
EMPLOYMENT
OF
OPPORTUNITIES
BY
NATIONALITY
I
Survey

12.5
43.8 56.3

75.0

Survey

J'ca

88.9 11.1

66.7 33.3

64.7

33.3 66.7

60.0
77.8
Yes
45.5

35.3

Maybe
20
22.2
54.5

Rating
of
Tourism
Employment
Management
Opportunities
One's
in
Own
Country

Rating

of Hotel
J'ca

Rating
Hotel
of
Employment
Opportunities
One's
management
in
Own
Country

Rating
Management
Tourism
of
Employment
the
Opportunities
Caribbean
in

Management
80.0 20.0

Fair
33.3
Poor
?16.7
50.0
9.1
Opportunities
50.0
Good?
90.9
Excellent
83.3
66.7
,
70.0 30.0

in The Caribbean
20
No
-?

55.6 44.4

Employment

'Willing
to
Caribbean
Work
in
Country
athan
Other
Your
Own?"

Excellent
Poor

Good?

Good?

Excellent

Excellent

Poor
Fair
?

Poor
Fair
?

Good
Fair

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16 SOCIALANDECONOMICSTUDIES

H s numberalmost
willingness towork outsideof theircountries.
doubled from45.5 per cent inSurvey I lo 88.9 per cent inSurvey
IL It is unclear what could have accounted

for this large increase.

It is possible thatstudentsfrom thesmallar territories


had not
considered thispossibilityuntil interacting
with theircounterparts
from the larger territories, who had no apprehensions

about work

ingincountriesotherthantheirown andwere thusinfluenced.HM


and TM studentswere equally willing to work in Caribbean
countries other than their own.

Factors InfluencingStudents' Views


Students inSurvey II were asked to identify
thefactorwhich had
themost

influence on their views of their careers and the industry.

The overwhelming
majority (60 per cent) identifiedtheirintern

ship experience as having the greatest effect on their views. This


was followed by CHTM
courses (28.6 per cent). CHTM
faculty
and opinions/experiences
of other students and alumni had little
impact on students' views. There were no nationality or specializa

tiondifferenceson thisfinding.This findingsuggests thecritical


for shaping
importance of the students* internship experience
their attitudes and perceptions of their chosen careers and of the
industry.

DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONSOF THE FINDINGS


The major findingsof thisstudycentrearound thedifferencesin
career

influences, preferences, perceptions and expectations be


tween hotel management and tourism management students, among
students from different countries and between the two measures of

students* responses. In general, the hotel management students in


would like to work in the food
this study were "people-oriented",

and beveragedepartment
of a hoteland had higherexpectationsof
entry intoand advancementwjthin the industrythandid their
tourism management

tourism manage
counterparts. Conversely,
drawn to their career because
it
they felt
'
to
their countries de
presented both opportunities for contributing
same
At
for
the
and
time, they were
velopment
employment.

ment

students were

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17

Career Orientation

nities. On

about the unstable nature of these emptoymet? opportu


the other hand, hotel ma?agemeat
students were more

concerned

about "quality of life* issues.

concerned

Some of the tourismmanagementfindings interacted


with

nationality since as many as 67 percent of thetourism management

studentswere fromTrinidad and Tobago. Tins would explain the


tendency among

tourism management

students lo be drawn

to the

industryby the possibilityof employmentopportunitiesas die

present government

of Trinidad

and Tobago

has embarked

on a

tourismthrustto bolster its falteringeconomy. This would also

explain

tourism management

students'

concern

for job security,

of thesuccess of thisthrust
given theuncertainty
Other findingsof thesurveys suggest thatCaribbean hotel
and tourism management

students desire opportunities

for profes

sional growthfrom theirorganizations,are willing towork in

countries other than their own and like what they


as
the excitement, stimulation, creativity and flexibility of
perceive
their career choice (job characteristics).

Caribbean

The findingsof thisstudyhavewide-rangingimplicationsfor

in the
the teaching and practice of hotel and tourism management
For example, from an educational perspective,
Caribbean.
they

show the strong influenceand great importanceof the industry

practicum on the views and perceptions of students. To the extent


that students' expectations and perceptions of the industry become
more realistic after their internship experience, itserves a positive

changes in career satis


sure a function of the same experiences,
it
that educators need to better prepare students to work in

benefit. But to the extent that the observed


faction and dislikes
suggests

and the industryitselfneeds toenhance thequalityof


the industry
work lifeexperiencesavailable tohotel and tourism
management
graduates

in order to continue to attract and retain them. Otherwise,

or burningout
itruns theriskof scaring themout of the industry

those who remain. It should be noted that these findings are consis

tentwith theresultsofNorthAmerican studieswhich suggest that


working in thehotel and tourismindustrytakes a physical and

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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC

18

mental

toll on management

STUDIES

personnel, which

in turn reduces

the

likelihood that theywill remain in the industry[Sarabakhsh,

Carson

and Lindgren;4

Pavesic

and Brymer].5

From a purely Caribbean perspective, the results of this study


suggest many deficiencies and inadequacies of theCaribbean hotel
and tourism industry. First, they suggest that employment and
students are
advancement opportunities for tourism management

perceived tobe sadly lacking.Secondly, theyindicatethathoteland


tourism organizations must provide opportunities for professional
growth, interesting work and good salaries if they wish to retain
tour
theirmanagement
employees. The history of the Caribbean
ism industry does not indicate that such opportunities exist in any
great measure. Finally, Caribbean governments need to re-exam

ine their immigration and employment policies to allow the freer


of Caribbean nationals within the region. Such policies
to go outside of
the need for Caribbean organizations
reduce
may
talent which may exist in an
the region to employ management

movement

unutilized

or underutilized

form elsewhere

making the industry truly Caribbean


study had no qualms about working
than their own.

in the region, thus


Students in this

in nature.

in Caribbean

countries other

CONCLUSION
literature on career orientation

of university students in the


is sparse, if not nonexistent. This study and its results
support the need formore research to better understand the career
stu
and employment expectations and aspirations of Caribbean

The

Caribbean

dents and the requirements of Caribbean

industry so as to ensure a

betterfitbetween theneeds of studentsand theneeds of industry.


In the case of theCaribbean

hotel and tourism industry in particu

lar,furtherresearchfollowingthestudentsin thisstudy into the

of work after graduation or surveying graduates already in


the industry can only serve to enhance educators' ability to better
prepare students for the industry and the industry to better receive
and retain university graduates.

world

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Career Orientation

REFERENCES
(1990) "Creating a H?tel and Tourism
Management Programme ina Developing Region: The Case of the
University of theWest Indies". Hospitality and Tourism Educator,

O'Reilly, A.M. and Charles, K.R.

2(3),

18-19,47-49.

O'Reilly, A.M. (1983) "The Hotel Management Degree Programme


Graduate in theHotel Field in theCommonwealth Caribbean: An
Assessment after Five Years". Unpublished manuscript.
Knutson, BJ.
Wave
193-201.

(1989) "Expectations of Hospitality Juniors and Seniors:


.
Hospitality Education and Research Journal. 13(3),

Pavesic, D.V.

and Brymer, R.A. (1990) "Job Satisfaction: What's Hap


to
Cornell HRA Quarterly,
the Young Managers?"77ie
pening
90-95.
February,

Sarabakhsh,M., Carson, D., and Lindgren,E. (1989) "The Personal Cost


of Hospitality Management". The Cornell HRA Quarterly, May,
73-76.

This content downloaded from 192.188.48.181 on Fri, 27 Nov 2015 17:47:20 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions