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Problem Set Matrices

1. Consider Paulis spin matrices: =

0
1

1
0
1 0
, =
, =
.
0
0
0 1

(a) Show that , = 2 , , = 2 , , = 2 . Given, , = .


(b) Show that , = , = , = 0. Given , = + .
(c) Show that 2 = 2 = 2 = , is a second order unit matrix.
(d) Show that 2 , = 2 , = 2 , = 0, where 2 = 2 + 2 + 2 .
(e) Are these matrices orthogonal?
(f) Are these matrices Hermitian?
(g) Are these matrices unitary?
2. Show that for any matrix , + and are Hermitian but is anti-Hermitian.
3. Show that every square matrix can be uniquely represented as the sum of a Hermitian and an antiHermitian matrix.
4. Given and both are symmetric matrices. Show that the commutator of and , that is,
is skew-symmetric.
5. Given A and B both are Hermitian matrices. Show that the commutator of A and B, that is, AB BA is
skew-Hermitian.
6. If and are two Hermitian matrices, prove that is Hermitian only if and commute.
7. Show that the determinant of an orthogonal matrix is 1.
2 1 0
8. Consider a third order square matrix = 1 0 1 . Obtain the cofactor matrix and hence the adjoint
0 2 1
matrix of . Also find the inverse of , i.e. 1 . Is self-adjoint matrix?
9. Show that ()1 = 1 1 , where and are two square matrices of same order.
10. Obtain the eigen values and normalized eigen vectors of matrix =
11. Obtain the trace and determinant of the matrix =
the normalized eigen vectors of .

1
0

1
2
0

2 0
0 0 .
0 0

0
. Hence obtain its eigen values. Also find
1

12. Prove that at least one eigen value of a singular matrix is zero.
13. Prove that eigen values of a unitary matrix are of unit magnitude.
14. For a nonsingular matrix , prove that the eigen values of its inverse matrix are reciprocal of the eigen
values of the original matrix .

Department of Physics
St. Pauls C. M. College

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15. Show that the eigen values of a hermitian matrix are real and the eigen vectors corresponding to
different eigen values are orthogonal.
16. Eigen values of antihermitian matrix are either purely imaginary or zero.
17. Show that for a diagonal matrix the eigen values are equal to its elements along the principal diagonal.
18. Show that if is an eigen value of a matrix , the eigen value of the matrix ( is an integer) is .
19. Show that if is an eigen value of a matrix , the eigen value of the matrix is .
1 2 0
20. Diagonalise the matrix = 2 1 0 . Also find the diagonalising matrix. Show that the matrix A
0 0 1
satisfies Caley Hamiltons theorem.
21. If a matrix satisfies a relation 2 + = 0, prove that 1 exists and that 1 = + , where
is a unit matrix of same order as .
1 1 1
22. Given = 2 1 0 . Find 2 and show that 2 = 1 .
1 0 0
Review of CU Exam. Papers:
CU 2015
1. If is an orthogonal matrix, prove that Det = 1. [2]
2. Find the eigenvalues and normalized eigen vectors of the matrix

cos
sin

sin . [4]
cos

3. Prove that all eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix are real. [2]


CU 2014
1. Show that a Hermitian matrix remains Hermitian under a unitary transformation. [2]
2. Find the eigen values and normalized eigen vectors of the matrix =

1
4

1
. [2+3]
1

3. If a matrix is both Hermitian and unitary, show that all its eigen values are 1. [3]
4. Show that the product of two symmetric matrices is symmetric if they commute. [2]
CU 2013
1. Prove that simultaneous eigen vectors exists for two matrices if they commute. [2]
2. Find the eigen values and normalized eigen vectors of the matrix =

5
2

2
. [4]
2

0 1
0
and =
. Which of the matrices is/are Hermitian?
1 0
0
Which of the matrices is/are unitary? Find . [2+2+2]
3. Consider the matrices =

Department of Physics
St. Pauls C. M. College

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CU 2012
1. Given a unitary matrix , show that 1 is Hermitian if is Hermitian. [2]
2. Consider the following transformation in three dimensions:
= cos + sin , = sin + cos , = .
(i) Write down the transformation matrix ().
(ii) Show that 1 2 = (1 + 2 ).
(iii) Is () unitary? [1+2+2]
3. Show that all the eigen values of a Hermitian matrix are real. [2]
4. Find the eigen values of the matrix =

1 1
. [3]
1 1

5. Prove = cos 1 + sin where is a matrix with 2 = 1 and is a real quantity. [2]
CU 2011
1. If and are unitary matrices, show that 1 is also a unitary matrix. [2]
2. Give an example where the product of two matrices is a null matrix, but none of them is null matrix. [2]
3. For any matrix , if = = for every , then show that = where is the identity matrix. [3]
4. If and are Hermitian matrices, show that ( ) is Hermitian. [2]
5. Show that for a square matrix , Tr() = sum of eigen values and det = product of eigen values. [3]
CU 2010
1. Show that a Hermitian matrix remains Hermitian under unitary transformation. [2]
2. Find the eigen values and normalized eigen vectors of the matrix =

. [2+2]
0

CU 2009
1. Let be a square finite dimensional matrix with real entries such that = , where denotes the
transpose of . Show that = . [2]
2. Determine the sum and product of the eigen values of the matrix
3. Find the eigen values and eigen vectors of the matrix =

Department of Physics
St. Pauls C. M. College

. [2]

1 2
. [4]
2 2

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