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# Understanding '*', '*args', '**' and '**kwargs'

When I started learning Python, I was very confused regarding what args, kwargs, * and ** does. And I feel there
are few like me who had this confusion and problem. With this post, I intend to reduce (hopefully I can eliminate)
that confusion.
Throughout this post, I will be using ipython and I suggest you to try everything on ipython as well. We will
intentionally make some mistakes along the way, so that we can understand this topic better.
Let's divide our work under five sections:
1.
Understanding what '*' does from inside a function call.
2.
Understanding what '*args' mean inside a function definition.
3.
Understanding what '**' does from inside a function call.g
4.
Understanding what '**kwargs' mean inside a function definition.
5.
A practical example of where we use 'args', 'kwargs' and why we use it.
Understanding what * does from inside a function call.
Let's define a function "fun" which takes three positional arguments.
In [5]: def fun(a, b, c):
...: print a, b, c
...:
...:
Call this function passing three positional arguments
In [7]: fun(1,2,3)
123

#Output

So, calling this function by passing three positional arguments, prints the three arguments passed to the function.
Let's make a list with three integer values in it.
In [8]: l = [1,2,3]
Let's use '*' now.
In [9]: fun(*l)
123

#Output

## What did '*' do?

It unpacked the values in list 'l' as positional arguments. And then the unpacked values were passed to function
'fun' as positional arguments.
So, unpacking the values in list and changing it to positional arguments meant writing fun(*l) was equivalent to
writing fun(1,2,3). Keep in mind that l=[1,2,3]. Let's try with some other value of 'l'.
In [10]: l=[5,7,9]

In [11]: fun(*l)
579

#Output

Let's make some errors now. Let's put four values in "l".
In [12]: l=[3,5,6,9]
Now, try to call function "fun".
In [13]: fun(*l)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------TypeError
Traceback (most recent call last)
/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()
TypeError: fun() takes exactly 3 arguments (4 given)
So, in our last statement which is 'fun(*l)' we did not get a proper output and a TypeError was raised. See the error,
it says "TypeError: fun() takes exactly 3 arguments (4 given)".
Why did it happen?
list 'l' contains four values. So, when we tried 'fun(*l)', 'l' was unpacked so that its value could be sent as positional
arguments. But, "l" has four values in it. So, writing 'fun(*l)' was equivalent to writing 'fun(3,5,6,9)'. But, 'fun' is
defined to take only three positional arguments and hence we got this error. Similary, you can follow same steps
with two values in list 'l' and notice the error.
In [14]: l=[5,6]
In [15]: fun(*l)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------TypeError
Traceback (most recent call last)
/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()
TypeError: fun() takes exactly 3 arguments (2 given)
Let's mix '*l' with a positional argument.
In [16]: fun(1, *l)
156
#Output.
Here we gave one positional argument which is 1 and two values i.e 5 and 6 were unpacked from "l" and hence 1,5
and 6 were passed to 'fun'.
Hope you were able to follow what '*' does when used inside a function call.
Understanding what '*args' mean inside a function definition.
Let's change the function definition now.

## In [18]: def fun(*args):

....: print args
....:
....:
Call this function with one positional argument.
In [19]: fun(1)
(1,)
#Output
Now call this function with two positional arguments or any number of positional arguments you wish.
In [20]: fun(1,2,3)
(1, 2, 3)
What does '*args' in a function definition do?
It recieves a tuple containing the positional arguments beyond the formal parameter list. So, "args" is a tuple. Don't
worry about the part "formal parameter list" in our explanation, it will be clear with next few examples. In our last
example when we printed "args", it printed a tuple which contained all the values we passed while calling the
function.
Let's mix "*args" with some "formal parameter list". Note that in our last example we didn't have any formal
parameter list. Let's redefine our function.
In [21]: def fun(a, *args):
....: print "a is ", a
....: print "args is ", args
....:
....:
In this function definition, parameter "a" constitue the "formal parameter list". Let's call "fun" with four positional
argument.
In [22]: fun(1, 2, 3, 4)
a is 1
args is (2, 3, 4)

#Output

So, we can see that 'a' is assigned 1 which was the first positional argument. There is only one parameter "*args"
defined after "a". So, "args" received a tuple containing the positional arguments beyond the formal parameter list.
So, args received 2, 3 and 4 as a tuple.
We can also call "fun" with just one positional argument. Let's do that.
In [23]: fun(1)
a is 1
args is ()

#Output

Here, we passed only one argument to the function which was assigned to the formal parameter 'a'. So, 'args'
received an empty tuple as can be seen from the output.
After we have "args", we can extract the values and do whatever we want. Let's redefine "fun".
In [24]: def fun(a, *args):
....: print a
....: print "args can receive a tuple of any number of arguments. Let's print all that."
....: for arg in args:
....:
print arg
....:
....:
We can call "fun" with any number of arguments.
In [25]: fun(1,5,6,7)
1
#Output
args can receive a tuple of any number of arguments. Let's print all that.
5
6
7
Since 'args' is a tuple, we could iterate over it.
Now, let's consider a case where we use whatever we saw till here. Here we need to use two functions. First
function has to take an arbitrary number of arguments and it has to calculate the sum of all the arguments except
the first argument. Also, this function has to make use of another function to calculate the sum. Weird use case, but
we just need to recap whatever we did till here. The objective here is to see how we get a variable number of
arguments in a function and pass these arguments to another function.
Let's first write the function which has to calculate the sum i.e the second function. For our use case, this function
will be used in the first function which we are yet to write.
In [26]: def calculate_sum(*args):
....: return sum(args)
....:
Here we make use of 'sum'. Function 'sum' is an inbuilt function which takes a tuple or a list and return the sum of
all the elements in the tuple. From our function definition we can see that 'args' will receive a tuple containing all the
positional arguments passed to this function. So, 'args' will be a tuple and can be directly used as an argument to
function 'sum'. Let's write the other function which takes any number of arguments and uses previous function to
calulate the sum of all arguments except the first argument.
In [29]: def ignore_firstargs_calculate_sum(a, *iargs):
....: required_sum = calculate_sum(*iargs)
....: print "sum is", required_sum
....:
....:

We can pass any number of arguments to this function. First argument will be recieved by 'a' which is a formal
parameter. All other arguments will be recieved by 'iargs' as a tuple. As per the case we are considering, we want to
calculate the sum of all arguments except the first. So, we leave 'a' as it receives the first argument. 'iargs' is the
tuple containing all arguments except the first. We will make use of function 'calculate_sum'. But 'calculate_sum'
expects number of positional arguments to be sent to it which it will receive in 'args' as a tuple. So, in function
'ignore_firstargs_calculate_sum' we need to unpack 'iargs', as it is a tuple, and then send the unpacked positional
arguments to 'calculate_sum'. Remember, we used '*' to unpack a list/tuple.
So, we write 'required_sum=calculate_sum(*iargs)'.
We can't write 'required_sum=calculate_sum(iargs)' because we need to unpack the values in the tuple 'iargs'
before sending to 'calculate_sum'. Not using '*' will not unpack the values and hence we won't have the desired
behaviour. Let's use the function we wrote.
In [34]: ignore_firstargs_calculate_sum(3,1,2,6)
sum is 9
#Output
The output is the sum of all arguments except the first argument.
Understanding what '**' does when used from inside a function.
Let's consider a simple example first. Let's define a function which takes three arguments.
In [35]: def fun(a, b, c):
....: print a, b, c
....:
....:
Let's call this function in various ways.
In [36]: fun(1,2,3)
123

#Output

## In [37]: fun(1, b=4, c=6)

146
#Output
Let's use "**" from inside the function call. For this we want a dictionary. Remember, while using "*" in the function
call, we required a list/tuple. For using "**" in the function call, we require a dictionary.
In [38]: d={'b':5, 'c':7}
Let's call "fun" using "**" in the function call.
In [39]: fun(1, **d)
157
What "**" did while being used in a function call?
It unpacked the dictionary used with it, and passed the items in the dictionary as keyword arguments to the
function. So writing "fun(1, **d)" was equivalent to writing "fun(1, b=5, c=7)".

## Let's try some more examples to understand it better.

In [40]: d={'c':3}
In [42]: fun(1,2,**d)
123

## #This is equivalent to fun(1,2,c=3)

In [43]: d={'a':7,'b':8,'c':9}
In [44]: fun(**d)
789

#Output

## Let's make some errors now.

In [45]: d={'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3, 'd':4}
In [46]: fun(**d)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------TypeError
Traceback (most recent call last)
/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()
TypeError: fun() got an unexpected keyword argument 'd'
Last statement was equivalent to fun(a=1, b=2, c=3, d=4). But, "fun" expected only three arguments and hence we
got this error.
In [47]: d={'a':1, 'b':5, 'd':9}
In [48]: fun(**d)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------TypeError
Traceback (most recent call last)
/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()
TypeError: fun() got an unexpected keyword argument 'd'
Last statement was equivalent to fun(a=1, b=5, d=9). Although it passed three arguments which is the number of
arguments expected by "fun", but "fun" does not have 'd' in its parameter list. But, 'd' was passed as a keyword
argument And hence we got this error.
So, "**" unpacks the dictionary i.e the key values pairs in the dictionary as keyword arguments and these are sent
as keyword arguments to the function being called. "*" unpacks a list/tuple i.e the values in the list as positional
arguments and these are sent as positional arguments to the function being called.
Understanding "**kwargs" in a function definition.
Let's redefine our function "fun".

## In [49]: def fun(a, **kwargs):

....: print a, kwargs
....:
....:
So, this function can only take one positional argument since formal parameter list contains only one variable 'a'.
But with "**kwargs", it can take any number of keyword arguments. Let's see some examples.
In [50]: fun(1, b=4, c=5)
1 {'c': 5, 'b': 4}
#Output
In [51]: fun(2, b=6, c=7, d=8)
2 {'c': 7, 'b': 6, 'd': 8}
#Output
What does "**kwargs" mean when used in a function definition?
With "**kwargs" in the function definition, kwargs receives a dictionary containing all the keyword arguments
beyond the formal parameter list. Remember 'kwargs' will be a dictionary. In our previous two examples, when we
printed kwargs, it printed a dictionary containing all the keyword arguments beyond the formal parameter list.
Let's again redefine our function.
In [54]: def fun(a, **kwargs):
....: print "a is", a
....: print "We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function"
....: print "b is", kwargs['b']
....: print "c is", kwargs['c']
....:
....:
Let's call "fun" now.
In [55]: fun(1, b=3, c=5)
a is 1
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 3
c is 5
Let's make some errors now.
In [56]: fun(1, b=3, d=5)
a is 1
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 3
c is--------------------------------------------------------------------------KeyError
Traceback (most recent call last)
/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()

## /home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in fun(a, **kwargs)

KeyError: 'c'
We were able to call the function. First positional argument was printed. Keyword argument 'b' was printed. But the
other keyword argument we passed was 'd'. Since function expected a keyword argument 'c' and tried to access it
from the dictionary "kwargs". But since we did not pass any keyword argument 'c', we got this error. If we add a
keyword argument 'c' in the function call, we won't get the error anymore.
In [57]: fun(1, b=3, d=5, c=7)
a is 1
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 3
c is 7
Since having "**kwargs" in the function argument list, we can pass any number of keyword arguments. We passed
'd' but did not make any use of it in the function.
Let's make one more error.
In [58]: fun(1, {'b':2, 'c':3})
--------------------------------------------------------------------------TypeError
Traceback (most recent call last)
/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()
TypeError: fun() takes exactly 1 argument (2 given)
As the error says, Function "fun" expected only one postional argument but was given two. So, although 'kwargs'
receives the keyword arguments as a dictionary, you cannot pass a dictionary as a positional argument to 'kwargs'.
Although you could have done somehing like:
In [59]: fun(1, **{'b':2, 'c':3})
a is 1
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 2
c is 3
Using "**" in front of the dictionary unpacks the dictionary and passes the items in dictionary as keyword
arguments.
A practical example of where we use 'args', '*kwargs' and why we use it.
Whenever we inherit a class and override some of the methods of inherited class, we should use '*args' and
'**kwargs' and pass the received positional and keyword arguments to the superclass method. Can be better
understood with an example.
In [4]: class Model(object):
...: def __init__(self, name):

...:
...:
...:
...:
...:
...:
...:
...:
...:
...:
...:

self.name = name
def save(self, force_update=False, force_insert=False):
if force_update and force_insert:
raise ValueError("Cannot perform both operations")
if force_update:
#Update an existing record
print "Updated an existing record"
if force_insert:
#Create a new record
print "Created a new record"

We defined a class. We can create objects of this class and objects of this class have a method "save()". Assume
that the objects of this class can be saved in a database which is being done inside the save() method. Depending
on the arguments we pass to save() method, it is determined whether new records need to be created in the
database or an existing record need to be updated.
We want a new class where we want 'Model' behaviour but we only want to have save the objects of this class after
we have checked some conditions. So let's subclass 'Model' and override 'save()' of 'Model'.
In [6]: class ChildModel(Model):
...: def save(self, *args, **kwargs):
...:
if self.name=='abcd':
...:
super(ChildModel, self).save(*args, **kwargs)
...:
else:
...:
return None
...:
Actual saving of object(as per our assumption, connecting with database and creating/updating) happens in the
"save" method of "Model". So we need to call the "save()" method of superclass from save() method of ChildModel.
Also, save() method of subclass i.e ChildModel should be able to accept any arguments that save() of superclass
accepts and must pass through these arguments to the superclass save(). So we have "*args" and "**kwargs" in
the argument list of subclass save() method to receive any positional arguments or keyword arguments beyond the
formal parameter list.
Let's create an instance of ChildModel and save it.
In [7]: c=ChildModel('abcd')
So, we created an instance of ChildModel with name='abcd'.
In [9]: c.save(force_insert=True)
Created a new record
#Output
Here, we passed a keyword argument to save() of the object. The save() we called is the subclass save(). It
received a dictionary containing the keyword argument in "kwargs". Then it used "**" to unpack this dictionary as
keyword arguments and then passed it to the superclass save(). So, superclass save() got a keyword argument
'force_insert' and acted accordingly.

## Let's try to pass another keyword argument.

In [10]: c.save(force_update=True)
Updated an existing record
#Output
That was all about it. Hope you liked the post.

10

## Packing and Unpacking Arguments in Python

Ever wondered what the *args and **kwargs that you keep seeing in Python functions mean? I certainly did. So I
did some searching and it turns they're pretty nifty, not to mention useful.
That * and the ** operators both perform two different, but complementary operations depending on where they're
used. When used in a method definition, like so:

## def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):

pass

They perform an operation called 'packing'. True to it's name, what this does is pack all the arguments that this
method call receives into one single variable, a tuple called args. You can use any variable name you want, of
course, but args seems to be the most common and Pythonic way of doing things.
Once you have this 'packed' variable, you can do things with it that you would with a normal
tuple.args[0] and args[1] would give you the first and second argument, respectively. If you convert the args tuple to
a list you can also modify, delete and re-arrange items in it.
So how do you pass these packed arguments to another method? Here's where unpacking comes in to play:

## def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):

# do some stuff
super(AwesomeClass, self).__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
#
^
#
LOOK HERE!

So there's the same * operator again, but this time it's in the context of a method call. What it does now is explode
the args array and call the method as if you'd typed in each variable separately.
Here's another example that might make things a little more clear:

## def func1(x, y, z):

print x
print y
print z
def func2(*args):
# Convert args tuple to a list so we can modify it
args = list(args)
args[0] = 'Hello'
args[1] = 'awesome'
func1(*args)
func2('Goodbye', 'cruel', 'world!')
# Will print

11

# > Hello
# > awesome
# > world!

This happens simply because we're changing the first two arguments before passing them off to func1.
The normal rules governing method definition apply here calling func2('a', 'b', 'c', 'd') will raise an error because it
will in turn call func1 with four arguments, which it doesn't expect.
The same principle applies to **kwargs too, except that in this case it applies to keyword arguments,
andkwargs turns out to be a dict.
Combined together packing and unpacking lets you do a lot of things like:

## validate arguments before passing them on

set defaults for positional arguments
create adaptors for different pieces of code / libraries
modify arguments depending on context
log calls to methods
write better and more resilient wrappers

I'm sure there's a lot more uses you can think of and see for these little *s. Have fun.
Edits & Credits:

Thanks to Florian Mayer for pointing out that super(self.__class__, self).__init__() would result in infinite
recursion if a subclass is written and used. self would still refer to the instance of the subclass when the call

## comes up the chain.

Thanks to Oleg Mitrofanov for the corrections about args being a tuple.