Framework for a 21st century city

Sustainability Made Tangible Through the Arts

CITY AS LIVING LABORATORY

Mary Miss & Marda Kirn

CITY AS LIVING LAB

VISION

SUSTAINABILITY MADE TANGIBLE THROUGH THE ARTS

SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY

Artists Scientists Poets

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

Performers
ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

CITY AS COLLABORATION AND THE ARTS LIVING LABORATORY
Engineers Sociologists

Historians Designers

Framework for a 21st Century City

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CITY AS LIVING LAB

VISION
City as Living Laboratory (CaLL) is a vision for linking the arts with sustainability to help us imagine and create cities that redefine how we live our lives, use our resources, communicate, educate, and work. GOALS
● To make SUSTAINABILITY TANGIBLE and visible for citizens, communities and institutions ● To EDUCATE the public about environmental, social and economic sustainability ● To stimulate ECONOMIC VITALITY in our neighbohoods and city-wide ● To ADDRESS CRISES in our cities such as environmental degradation, neighborhood blight, crumbling infrastructure, and natural disasters

ARTISTS AND COLLABORATIONS
● Artists are specialists in innovative thinking and are currently being overlooked as a resource ● Artists, working in collaboration with people in other fields, can create projects that educate, inspire, encourage, and motivate citizens to think about the world around them in new ways

CRITICAL ISSUES
● NATURAL SYSTEMS can be made evident in local and regional contexts ● INFRASTRUCTURE can be revealed and given visual expression ● SOCIAL PROGRAMS can connect neighborhoods with their environment, culture, history, and each other

IMPLEMENTATION
● SCALE - a city’s large-scale sustainability initiatives can be expressed through smaller-scale projects ● RESOURCES - collaborative arts projects can partner with existing programs and institutions ● TIME - arts projects can happen immediately with fewer resources ● SPACE - arts projects can be integrated into the physical and virtual spaces of a city

PROGRAM TYPES
● PLACES - such as community gardens, parks, abandoned lots, infrastructure sites ● EVENTS - performances, festivals, exhibits, talks, tours, fairs, feasts, films ● TOPICS - land, water, transportation, energy, air, climate change, etc.

CONCLUSION
● CITY AS LIVING LABORATORY can help make ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC sustainability integral to all communities of a city 2

CITY AS LIVING LAB

GOALS

SUSTAINABILITY MADE TANGIBLE
The City as Living Laboratory will include places and programs where sustainability becomes tangible. To turn this goal into a reality artists and designers will create projects which address the critical environmental issues of our time (such as pollution, sprawl, water and energy), or reveal a site’s history, or provide meaningful social spaces within and beyond a community.

EDUCATION
Educating the public about environmental, social, and economic sustainability is an important part of this program’s mission. Whether focusing on environmental issues or learning about the history of a place, citizens will be able to enjoy a city where education is approached in a very unique way. Rather than the conventional use of interpretive signage or directives, educational experiences will engage people through the creative work of artists and designers.

ECONOMIC VITALITY
Sustainability is an economic mandate for both the public and private sector. Its focus on long term value is good business. City economies can benefit from sustainability in many ways such as increased private investment on the creation of new jobs. Innovation is the critical driver. Artists are a ready source of entrepreneurial capital and innovation in our cities.

ADDRESSING CRISIS
The City as Living Laboratory program can also serve as a means to address sudden crises, educating citizens about how to deal with the unexpected, whether it be severe water shortages, an energy crisis, flooding, fires or hurricanes. Innovative solutions can be tested for problems that have been occurring more frequently recently as a result of the unsustainable practices that have taken a toll on our natural and urban environments. 3

CITY AS LIVING LAB

GOALS
Artists have a centuries-long history of addressing issues in the public realm. Art can be critical, educational, analytical, interpretive, or symbolic.

PRECEDENTS

Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Novelist & Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe

The Jungle 1906 Writer / Social Critic Upton Sinclair

Guernica 1937 Painter Pablo Picaso

Burn on Big River Burn on 1972 Musician/Song-writer Randy Newman

Angels in America 1992 Playwright Tony Kushner

Still Here 1994 Choreographer Bill T. Jones

The Last Wilderness 2004 Photographer Subhankar Banerjee

EFFECTS RESULTS

The novel so ignited public discussion about slavery and its possible abolition that Abraham Lincoln called it “the little book that started the Civil War.”

The novel prompted Theodore Roosevelt to pass the Meat Regulation Act which helped establish the Food and Drug Administration.

The mural has become emblematic of the tragedies and horrors of war inflicted on individuals and innocent civilians.

The song galvanized the city’s efforts to clean up the polluted Cuyahoga River, which helped inspire the creation of the Clean Water Act.

The Broadway play helped to shift public opinion about AIDS and homophobia.

The dance work helped to focus attention on people with life threatening diseases.

The photo used in the Senate to stop drilling in the Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

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CITY AS LIVING LAB

ARTISTS AND COLLABORATION
Artists, designers and other visualizers can play a significant role as catalysts for environmental, social and economic sustainability.
Through collabortaion artist can identify and re-examine issues to be addressed. They can create new partnerships across disciplinary, departmental, and institutional lines. They can refocus existing resources to achieve common goals. They can create solutions in temporary and permanent projects, programs and infrastructure. They can encourage the involvement of all citizens and inspire the personal and political will to create revitalized, sustainable cities.

Experimental City
visual artists literary artists performers

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scientists planners engineers sociologists historians

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temporary permanent conceptual virtual

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sound touch taste smell sight

where new ideas can be investigated and tested

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where sustainability is made tangible through the arts

Experiential City Evolving City

where issues of our times can be expressed

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CITY AS LIVING LAB

CRITICAL ISSUES
NATURAL SYSTEMS INFRASTRUCTURE SOCIAL PROGRAMS

Cities face numerous critical issues which vary depending on the needs and interests of each community. The following section maps out one way issues could be organized.
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CRITICAL ISSUES EXAMPLES / OPPORTUNITIES Community issues might be organized using the following headings: natural systems, infrastructure and social programs.
Collaborative projects can span across many scales and disciplines.
SCALES

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NATURAL SYSTEMS
strategies to reveal and give visual expression to natural systems in local and regional contexts

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strategies to reveal and give visual expression to infrastructural systems & networks

INFRASTRUCTURE

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SOCIAL PROGRAMS

strategies to connect neighborhoods and communities physically and socially with issues focused on environment, culture, history, and justice

REGION

Air Quality Test Sites Environmental Artist & Air Quality Specialist

Water Treatment Plants as Public Places Artist & Engineers Convert spaces below elevated transportation infrastructure to greenhouses & public spaces. Architect & City Maintenance Convert City Rooftops (gardens, planted trellises, or solar panels) Artist & Landscape Architect Neighborhood Energy Measuring Billboards Urban designer & Power Company Revealing Underground Utility Infrastructure Lighting Designer & Civil Engineer Rush-hour/Dance-hour Dancers & Traffic Control Specialist Street-Level Building Metric Markers Graphic Designer & Environmenatal Engineer The Death and Life of Great American Cities: Part 2 Essayist/Writers and Urban Planners

Traces of History Video Installations at Transit Stops Video Artist & Historian

CITY

Wildlife Migration Markers & Information Points Visual Artist & Zoologist Sustainable Habitat Stations & Monitoring/Surveillance Sites Film-maker & Ecologist Water Quality Test Sites Landscape Architect & Ecologist

Creative $$-saving & Sustainable Business Events Urban Designers & Economists Historical & Folk Music Traditions Concert Musicians & Historians Neighborhood Culture Front-yard Showcase Set Designer & Local Residents Ancestry & Immigration Maps Public Exhibition Web-designer & Anthropologist Puppet Show Exercise Hour Puppeters & Fitness Trainers Eating Healthy Organic Garden Paths Landscape Artist & Dietician Sustainable Story-telling hour Poets & Grade Schools

BOROUGH

NEIGHBORHOOD

BLOCK Permeable pathways & Storm-water Habitat creation Visual Artist & Hydrologist STREET Geologic/Climatic History Installations Visual Artist & Geologist Micro-Climate Landscape Rooms Interior Designer & Botanist INDIVIDUAL Seasonal Blooms Plays Actors & Forestry Experts

BUILDING

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CRITICAL ISSUES

collaboration precedent: Artist + Hydrologist

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NATURAL SYSTEMS

CONNECT THE DOTS (2007) Boulder, Colorado Three hundred six-inch diameter blue discs marked the projected flood level in the center of the city. Initiated as an art installation, the piece was so effective that city officials requested that it stay up long after the exhibit was over so they could use it for their flood control education program.

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CRITICAL ISSUES

collaboration precedent: Artist + Engineers

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INFRASTRUCTURE

Arlington County Water Treatment Plant (2003-2005) Arlington, Virginia This proposal transforms a 30 acre sewage treatment plant into a public space. It creates a full-scale threedimensional diagram that explains the wastewater treatment process. The public can now interact with this vital piece of infrastructure in new ways. It establishes a clearer understanding of the relationship between the surrounding neighborhoods, the plant, and the Chesapeake Bay.

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CRITICAL ISSUES

collaboration precedent: Artist + Landscape Architect + Plant Specialist

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SOCIAL PROGRAMS

Roshanara’s Net (2008) New Delhi, India A derelict 17th-century archaeology site in Delhi, India was transformed into a temporary ayurvedic medicinal garden giving the nearby community a new connection to this site. As a result of this project’s success the possibility of a permanent garden in this and other parks is being pursued within the municipality.

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CITY AS LIVING LAB

IMPLEMENTATION
SCALE RESOURCES TIME SPACE

By seeding the city with small-scale projects over time the landscape, experience and understanding of sustainability can be fundamentally altered.
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IMPLEMENTATION SCALE Small-scale arts projects can communicate a city’s plans for large-scale initiatives.

LARGE-SCALE INITIATIVES

Large-scale Initiatives

The energy, transportation, infrastructure and other needs of cities can be met through a political process that implements planning, program and policy initiatives through broad moves. ● Utility infrastructure sites need to be more energy efficient. ● Air quality needs to be improved significantly. ● Waste leaving the city needs to be reduced. ● Neighborhoods need to be revitalized. Geology & Design Poetry & Epidemiology

PLANNING
Dance & Sociology Art & Ecology

PROGRAM
Planning & Sculpture Horticulture & Urban Design

POLICY
Anthropology & Architecture Hydrology & Performing Arts

Small-scale Projects

SMALL-SCALE INTERVENTIONS
Sustainability initiatives can be made apparent and meaningful to individual citizens through small-scale collaborative arts projects that they encounter in their daily lives. Artists and designers can create a series of interventions throughout the city that can start immediately. ● Infrastructure sites can be transformed into public places to make people aware of the systems that support their lives. ● Pedestrians can be made aware of all the buildings they pass that have green roofs. ● Bio-swales can be made visible on median strips or in parks that clean street runoff water. ● The history of a neighborhood can be revealed.

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IMPLEMENTATION RESOURCES Arts projects can be implemented through collaborations with existing institutions and existing programs.
Sustainable cities can be achieved through refocusing existing programs, institutions and resources to address common goals. Cultural, civic, and educational institutions, businesses and neighborhood groups can participate. If each can undertake to support a single project, over an extended period of time the city can be transformed one small step at a time.

Cultural programs
Studio in a School Creative Time Design Trust for Public Space Public Art Fund

Community Programs
Neighborhood Associations Churches, Temples, Mosques Business Improvement Districts Soup Kitchens Senior Citizens center YMCA/ YWCA Big Brothers & Sisters

Cultural Institutions

Existing Programs & Places

Museums Zoos Botanical Gardens Aquariums

City Departments

Resources & Partners

Existing Institutions

Educational Institutions
Universities/Colleges Public Schools Private Schools

Transit Utilitities Sanitation Parks Community Boards Housing and Preservation Environmental Protection Health & Human Services Design and Construction Economic Development

Existing Businesses

Corporations & Small Businesses

Civic Resources Government Funding Agencies Private Resources Foundations
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IMPLEMENTATION TIME Artists can help communicate a city’s plans for the future within a relatively short period of time.
Planning, program and policy initiatives have long range goals and often take years if not decades to implement. In the first 10 years, smaller-scale interventions created by artists and designers in collaboration with others can happen almost immediately and with fewer resources. As such, they can have an important role by creating an interim presence for projects that will take years to complete. These interventions could engage a community’s interest and participation around an issue. New ways of thinking about sustainability can be introduced while announcing a city’s long term intention to create change. Issues of environmental and social justice can be addressed making an immediate impact on underserved communities.
AIR QUALITY Reduce pollution by 50%

GREEN MARKETS Locate in all communities

TRANSPORTATION Reduce car traffic by 60%

ENERGY Reduce fossil fuel energy consumption

JOBS Increase employment especially in underserved neighborhoods

INFRASTRUCTURE Make all waste and utility sites public spaces

PARKS Convert all parks to 50% native plants

Sustainable City

WATER Gain access to waterfronts, improve quality, reduce consumption

next 90 years

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2100

- Variety of arts projects: temporary, permanent, virtual, conceptual - A range of scales of projects: $1,000-$5,000; $10,000-$20,000, $50,000-$100,000; $500,000-$1million; $1.5 million + - Different constituencies: communities, neighborhoods, boroughs, BID districts, interest groups - Different locations in the city

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IMPLEMENTATION SPACES Arts projects can be integrated into the physical and virtual environments of the city.
In this way, the face of the city can be transformed as sustainability projects are implemented in multiple venues.

Public Spaces
Building Facades Lobbies Atrium Doorways Store Fronts Transit Stops Transit Stations Sidewalks Parks Plazas Community Gardens

Physical Spaces

Infrastructural Spaces
Roofs Under Bridges and Elevated Roads Water Bodies Drainage Systems Manholes Power Plants Waste Plants

Institutional Spaces
Museums Zoos Botanical Gardens

Where can this happen?
E-commerce Sites
Craig’s List E-Bay Amazon

Other
Municipal Websites Mobile Devices GPS Devices Blogs

Virtual Environments

Networking & Social
FaceBook MySpace Friendster Linked-In

Google
Google Earth Google Maps Google Sketch-up Google Documents

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CITY AS LIVING LAB

PROGRAM TYPES
PLACE TOPIC EVENT PLAN

The following examples show different approaches to transforming a city into a City as Living Lab.

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PROGRAM TYPES

PLACE
TOPIC EVENT PLAN

A redevelopment zone can engage artists early on to make sustainability important and visible to its citizens. This could set an example for the city’s ongoing revitialization.
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PROGRAM TYPES

PLACE: Hunters Point

Hunters Point Housing Plan Hunter Point, Long Island City, New York City This project for Hunters Point in Queens would create opportunities for about 300 housing units in new buildings that would be designed according to green design standards. However, it is not enough to simply meet green building requirements. Through the City as Living Laboratory, artists can help create a visibly different green city, raising awareness among local residents about sustainable practices and the complex history and infrastructure of Hunters Point.

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PROGRAM TYPES

PLACE: Hunters Point
Arts projects can be inserted into all construction phases during the making of and on-going occupation of a place.
Project construction phases for Hunters Point South Housing Plan
DEMOLITION & SITE WORK TEMPORARY PROJECTS SUB-STRUCTURE STRUCTURE SKIN & MATERIALS SERVICES & TECHNOLOGY ON-GOING OCCUPATION

PERMANENT PROJECTS

VIRUTAL PROJECTS

CONCEPTUAL PROJECTS

Infrastructure Art Project Natural Systems Art Project Social Programs Art Project

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PROGRAM TYPES

PLACE: Hunters Point
Arts projects can be implemented through collaborations with existing institutions and programs

CITY-WIDE RESOURCES
Environment
1. Brooklyn Center for the Urban Environment 2. Downtown Alliance 3. Eyebeam Atelier

LOCAL RESOURCES
Utilities
1. Consolidated Edison Co. 2. Newtown Creek Waste Water Treatment Plant

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Art Organizations
4. Creative Time 5. Exit Art 6. Alliance for the Arts 7. Dancing in the Streets 8 . Arts for Change 9. Public Art Fund

Art institutions
3. Sculpture Center 4. PS1 Contemporary Art Center 6. 5pointz Aerosol Art Center

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Government
7. PlanNYC 8. Art in the Park 9. DOT Urban Art Program 10. Dept of Environmental Protection 11. Economic Development Corporation

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Social
10. American Documentary 11. CultureNOW 12. Van Alen Institute 13. Architectural League of New York 14. Center for Urban Pedagogy 15. Design Trust for Public Space 16. Municipal Art Society 17. New York Foundation for Architecture 18. Open House New York 19. Storefront for Art and Architecture

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Colleges Universities
12. Queens College 13. Pratt Institute 14. LaGuardia Community College

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Environmental
15. Alley Pond Environmental Center 16 Community Environmental Center

Organizations
20. Architecture For Humanity 21. Green Home NYC 22. Not An Alternative

Schools
17. Information Technology High School 18. Long Island City School of Ballet 19. Public School 78

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Local Resources for Hunters Points South

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PROGRAM TYPES

PLACE

TOPIC
EVENT PLAN

Topic-focused arts projects can provide in-depth investigations of a specific theme within the broad range of sustainability.
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PROGRAM TYPES

TOPIC: Water

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NATURAL SYSTEMS

BEACONPOINT AT LONG DOCK (2007) Beacon, NY / Artist: George Trakas The artist-designed peninsula on the Hudson River waterfront adjacent to Dia:Beacon includes a terraced fishing deck, a new boardwalk, restored bulkhead, and a naturally preserved south shoreline, providing direct access to the river and its ecosystems.

Water-related systems identified through data mapping and analysis can become opportunities for intervention.

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PROGRAM TYPES

TOPIC: Industrial History

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SOCIAL PROGRAMS

MOTORNAMA ROSHANARA (2008) New Delhi, India / Artist: Ashok Sukuman & Shaina Anand This project offered tours of the old industrial district along Roshanara Road in Delhi using eco-friendly rickshaws. The tour called attention to the various sites and histories of the industrial age of this area, and its related narratives of pollution, automation and skilled labor. Sites visited include a 100-year-old ice factory, a derelict cinema, motor repair and recycling shops, and a printing press among others.

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PROGRAM TYPES

TOPIC: Roadways
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INFRASTRUCTURE

RUMBLE STRIP TRIP (2005) New York, NY / Urban Designer: Petia Morosov This is an example of a designer reimagining the function of insfrastructure. Innovative road-surface milling system that adapts existing CNC technology used for grinding highway rumble strips to engrave musically-encoded, acousticallyprecise strip patterns in driving lanes. There are three main objectives: to improve highway safety, to enhance driving experiences and to orient drivers to their surroundings. Collaborators on the project represent the fields of urban design, industrial design, acoustics, cognitive sciences, musicology and transportation planning.

Project collaboratioins included an urban designer, industrial designer, acoustician, cognitive scientists, a musicologist and transportation planners.

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PROGRAM TYPES

PLACE TOPIC

EVENT
PLAN

Themed events of varying lengths of time can engage new audiences in issues that otherwise might go unnoticed.
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PROGRAM TYPES

EVENT: Boulder

ECOARTS FESTIVAL (2007) Boulder, Colorado http://www.insite05.org/index.php Climate change was a topic that generated the creation of an EcoArts Festival in and around Boulder, Colorado. “EcoArts is a new event, a new model, a new way of thinking bringing together people from all walks of life - to investigate the realities of climate change and celebrate the delights of a sustainable future - in a conversation sparked by the arts. EcoArts brings together science, environmental, arts, indigenous, and other organizations to offer you a wide variety of events - performances, exhibits, talks, tours, films, fairs, and more.”

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PROGRAM TYPES

EVENT: New Delhi

48°C PUBLIC • ART • ECOLOGY (2008) New Delhi, India http://www.48c.org 48°C Public.Art.Ecology is an experiment set within the metropolitan city of Delhi. Twenty five art installations in a variety of public spaces drew attention to the fragile ecology of the city.

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PROGRAM TYPES

EVENT: San Diego & Tijuana

inSITE (first version 1992) San Diego, California & Tijuana, Mexico http://www.insite05.org/index.php inSite is dedicated to the realization of binational collaborative arts partnerships among nonprofit and public institutions in the San Diego-Tijuana region. Operating through a unique collaborative structure that is based on the active participation of cultural and educational institutions in the US and Mexico, inSite is focused on promoting artistic investigation and activation of urban space.

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PROGRAM TYPES

PLACE TOPIC EVENT

PLAN

The numerous and complex issues addressed in a city’s existing sustainability plan can be made tangible to citizens through collaborative arts projects.
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PROGRAM TYPES

PLAN: PlaNYC 2030
On Earth Day 2007, New York City published PlaNYC, a report outlining a long-term strategy of sustainability for the City. The plan set forth a variety of initiatives in categories such as land, water, transportation, energy, air and climate change. While many projects such as improving water and air quality have benefits that affect everyone in the City, they are largely invisible to the public. Through the City as Living Laboratory, artists can help identify opportunities to reveal these efforts to people throughout the City.

LAND PROJECTS
HOUSING OPEN SPACE BROWNFIELDS

WATER PROJECTS

City Sustainability Initiatives

CITY AS LIVING LABORATORY
framework for a 21st century city

WATER QUALITY WATER NETWORK

TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS
CONGESTION STATE OF GOOD REPAIR

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OTHERS PROJECTS
ENERGY AIR QUALITY CLIMATE CHANGE

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PROGRAM TYPES

PLAN: PlaNYC 2030
City as Living Laboratory projects can call attention to PlaNYC initiatives.
Since the inception of PlaNYC, nearly all of its 127 initiatives have begun. While many PlaNYC projects such as the opening of new playgrounds and bike lanes are quite visible to the general public, many highly beneficial efforts go largely unnoticed. For example, 15% of the taxi fleet has been converted to clean-fuel vehicles. Citywide emissions of greenhouse gases have been reduced. The MTA has begun drilling the tube to extend the 7 train line. Major strides have been made to improve the City's ability to handle storm and wastewater. These are among the many projects that the City as Living Laboratory could help make visible to citizens.
2010 LAND PROJECTS HOUSING OPEN SPACE BROWNFIELDS 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030

WATER PROJECTS WATER QUALITY WATER NETWORK TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS CONGESTION STATE OF GOOD REPAIR OTHERS PROJECTS ENERGY AIR QUALITY CLIMATE CHANGE LEGEND Infrastructure Projects Natural Systems Projects Social Programs Projects

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CITY AS LIVING LAB

CONCLUSION
WHAT MAKES THE CITY AS LIVING LABORATORY A VITAL IDEA? Why would a city want to implement such a plan?

WE MUST DEAL WITH THE CRISES IN OUR CITIES.
It is imperative that we change the ways we live, work, build and play to deal with the economic, environmental and social crises we face.

MAKE ISSUES OF SUSTAINABILITY TANGIBLE AND VISIBLE.
We need the participation of all citizens, communities and institutions to maintain the political will to create newly sustainable cities

GIVE THE CITY A GLOBAL I.D. AS AN INNOVATIVE GREEN CITY.
Redefining the city in this way is essential to maintaining a contemporary presence in the global marketplace.

LINK CULTURE AND SUSTAINABILITY IN AN INNOVATIVE WAY.
Use the skill of artists and the power of the arts as a resource to imagine and create change.

FAST TRACK SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES GIVING THEM AN IMMEDIATE PRESENCE.
This approach allows long term policy, program and planning initiatives to be visible throughout the city in a timely way.

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CITY AS LIVING LAB

CREDITS

Artist Mary Miss has been redefining how art is integrated into the public realm since the early 1970s. She is interested in how artists can play a central role in addressing the complex issues of our times. Collaboration has been essential in Miss’ work, which crosses boundaries between landscape architecture, architecture, and urban design. Miss has worked with historians, hydrologists, and botanists on projects as diverse as marking the predicted flood level of Boulder, Colorado, or revealing the history of the Union Square Subway station in New York City. Mary Miss has won numerous awards, including the 2001 New York Masterworks Award, the Centennial Medal from the American Academy in Rome in 2001, and an Honorary Doctorate Degree from Washington University in 2000. She has been a Guggenheim Fellow, a Resident Artist at the American Academy in Rome and a recipient of several New York State Council on the Arts grants and NEA grants. Marda Kirn is the founding director of EcoArts Connections, bringing together science, environmental, arts, and indigenous organizations in programming to increase awareness of climate change and sustainable living. Kirn was the founding director of the Colorado Dance Festival, which, during her 14-year tenure, was considered one of the top three dance festivals in the US; a founding member of the National Performance Network; and a founder and director of the International Tap Association. Kirn has written for various publications, received numerous awards, and has been a speaker, panelist, and/or consultant for organizations in the US, Europe, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Cuba, and India.

Mary Miss & Marda Kirn

Contributors: Phanat Xanamane, Mary Miss Studio Joseph McGrath, Mary Miss Studio Scott Johnson Judy Hussie-Taylor Rennie Tang

This booklet was made possible in part thanks to the generosity of: The Compton Foundation The Schramm Foundation Our Anonymous Angel

Copyright 2009 Mary Miss & Marda Kirn

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