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The Sources of the Young David by Andrea del Castagno

Author(s): Dalia Haitovsky


Source: Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, 29. Bd., H. 1 (1985), pp. 174182
Published by: {kif}, Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max-Planck-Institut
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27653158
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Dalia Haitovsky:

THE

SOURCES

OF THE YOUNG

DAVID

BY ANDREA

DEL

CASTAGNO

called
in the National
The
del Castagno
David,
by Andrea
Gallery,
Young
Washington
picture
on leather,
The
it is painted
and
is unusual;
the title
is rather
many
questions.1
shape
(Fig.
i), raises
non-commital.
a youth
in a running
A wind
hair
The
work
attitude.
blows
his brown
represents
pausing
through
a short
over
a fluttering
red cloak
and his garment,
white
tunic.
He
is looking
to the
left as if so
were
in that
attention
His
his
direction.
left hand
is raised,
outstretched,
drawing
fingers
mething
a sling.
as if to get
in his
he carries
hand
The
and
the
left stretched
back,
leg is bent,
right
right
a better
stance
for casting
is lying between
the
A
his
severed
head
the face has
the pallor
legs;
sling.
on
a stone
blood
is congealed
All
of death,
has
the
this
takes
forehead.
it, and
place
penetrated
a vast
in a rocky
with
trees
in the middle
and
with
outdoors,
ground,
sty
landscape
palm
skyline
above.
lized
clouds
seems
action
to be self-contradictory.2
David's
If he
and
the sling,
is the
is running
why
aiming
of Goliath
in the
severed
head
? On
if the figure
of David
is sym
the other
hand,
lying
foreground
run ? We
sources
will
to answer
does
he
in searching
for the
that
these
bolic,
why
try
questions
have
the painter.
influenced
may
as for
are
of David
in early
of the
Goliath
found
Christian
art,
story
Depictions
killing
already
on the Brescia
in the reliefs
left side
A.D.3
On the
instance,
Lipsanotheca
century
(Fig.
2) of the 4th
row
see David,
a stone
from
at Goliath
who
second
the
in hand,
of the cover,
top, we
aiming
sling
or collapsing.
a short
wears
of his movement
is seen
David
and
the direction
tunic,
away
stumbling
to that
of Andrea
del Castagno's
is similar
David.
on a silver
even
as regards
resemblance
An
closer
exists
the David
and Goliath
plate,
centerpiece
set of nine
in Cyprus
in the Metro
with
of David,
of a 7th
the
found
and now
century
plates
story
York
New
Museum,
(Fig.
3).
politan
on the plate
of David
The
The
three
moments
in the
and Goliath.
upper
represents
story
design
de
the exchange
of insults
with
scale
shows
before
the battle,
the middle
scene,
register
figures
larger
The
in the
and
off the dead
Goliath's
head.
the combat,
lowest
David
is seen
cutting
picts
register
scene
in a short
is a curly-headed
his
David
of the middle
dressed
feet
wide;
tunic,
spread
youth
to
in his
is raised
hand
is ready
for action
and
left hand,
in his
the
his
cloak,
right
sling
wrapped
is not
Goliath
off a possible
from
to
the
biblical
ward
blow
the advancing
Goliath.
story,
Contrary
an
in hand
is protected
much
taller
than
he wears
advances
and
classical
armour,
David;
spear
by
con
are generally
The
shield.
silver
from
the period
of Heraclius,
elaborate
plates,
although
dating
to be a revival
of the
classical
of the 4th
and
centuries
A.D.4
sidered
5th
style
an illustrated
a 10th
for Ba
also belongs
Psalter
written
To
the same
from
tradition
page
century
illus
in the Marcian
full page
This
is the second
silius
cod. Gr.
II, now
Venice,
17 (Fig. 4).
Library,
a portrait
the first one shows
of the emperor
himself
tration
in the manuscript;
surrounded
by prostrate
as in the
case
Psalter
of the Heraclian
This
foes.
is a hero
identified
with.
the ruler
David,
plate,
"
"
an antiquarian,
is one
of the
so-called
aristocratic
with
Hellenistic,
Psalters,
figurative
basically
ar
A giant
is standing
of the
the combat
Goliath
One
six scenes
fully
style.5
represents
5).
(Fig.
on the Brescia
on the right, while
a young,
in a halo
med
head
small David,
his short
box)
curly
(as
at
measures
bent
in hand,
the
throw.
His
for the final
up to him,
right
sling
legs are spread,
ready
a short
of
The
in the wind.
the knee
for better
He
tunic
that
flutters
is wearing
position
leverage.
land
is set in a hilly
the
the windblown
and
the
that
the scene
the
tunic
fact
look,
legs,
evaluating
all recall
David.
scape,
Castagno's
art
on Greco-Roman
are
These
two
have
in common,
dependent
examples
things
they
stylistically
a minute
are narrative
either
David
and Goliath
is shown
and
in intention.
The
between
they
fight
or during
before
the action
itself.
treat
a change
and
it received
underwent
to the subject
the Renaissance
attitudes
symbolic
During
?
a single
David.6
scene was
victorious
the static,
ment
into
the battle
figure
by which
compressed
David
in the Bargello
The
The
best
known
is David
standing
young
example
6).
(Fig.
by Donatello
some
of the
on Goliath's
David
Donatello
is naked
for hat
and
boots.
severed
head,
gave
except
him
as nudity
and
turned
and
such
of the victorious
athlete
of antiquity,
attributes
beauty,
physical
are of this
a static
kind.
static
of David
into
Most
Renaissance
They
depictions
symbolic
figure.7
Davids
a victor
are the two other
of the victory.
show
Of the same
than
tell the story
rather
type
of Verrocchio
the David
and National
Florence,
(Bar
Gallery,
Washington),
by Donatello
(Bargello,
and
in painting,
the David
Museen,
Berlin-Dahlem).
(Staatliche
by Pollaiuolo
gello,
Florence)
static
the
he
was
to
When
what
kind
of
David
of
faced with
the question
rejected
paint
Castagno
of paint
are perhaps
reasons
the medium
for this.
he held
that
Donatello
several
There
Perhaps
type.
to a greater
extent
than
of action
and narrative
itself
to the rendering
Perhaps
sculpture.
ing lends
were
the
of depicting
in the Florentine
which
tradition
his choice
reflected
his own
artistic
interests,
comment
in action.
the humanist
Christoforo
human
When
Landino,
contemporary,
Castagno's
figure
"
et di
as being
del Castagno
Andrea
ed on the artists
of his
he commended
time,
disegnatore
grande

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D.

H ait ov sky

/ The

by Andrea

Young

David

David.

Washington,

del

Castagno

f:l|pi

Castagno,

Young

National

Gallery.

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175

176

D.

Haitovsky

Lipsanotheca.
medioevale.

/ The

Young

Brescia,

David

Museo

by Andrea

Civico

dell'et?

del

Castagno

cristiana

et assai
facile
nel
amatore
della
vivo
et prompte
et di scorci,
difficult?
dell'arte
molto;
rilievo,
gran
"
and
as an example
fare...
".8 Baxandall
vivo
the David
of
of the qualities
", that
is,
propto
gives
"
"
that
a figure
in the David,
the quality
of showing
in diversified
The
movements.
is, the
disegno
in the manner
rather
of the figure
is minimized,
is impressive.
The modelling
representation
by outline,
later.9
we will
of painters
like Pisanello,
whose
connection
the David
with
try to establish
on a ceremonial
leather
Another
consideration
The David
is painted
have
may
altogether
prevailed.
a
needed
its curious
hence
of the period.10
which
shields
follows
the heraldic
shield,
Castagno
shape,
nar
on the
new
of hero
who
he relied
would
and
therefore
catch
the
active,
type
eye
immediately
an
seen
to have
rative
tradition
one.
for him
rather
than
the static
The most
likely
place
symbolic
he was
was
active
David
and where
where
he began
in the years
his career,
strongly
Venice,
1442-45,
Classi
influenced
of Northern
of classical
centered
around
the universities
Italy.
by the revival
learning
and
were
cal remains
da Fabriano
in sketch
Gentile
recorded
books
such as Pisanello,
Jacopo
by artists
of Da
for the figure
In one of these
a classical
Bellini.11
seen
sketch
he could
have
books
prototype
"
Ta
as the
Horse
on the
at that
time
the figure
known
left
in the
vid,
perhaps
group
sculptured
"
"
"
was
or
mers
near
Dioscuri
in Rome,
Constantine's
The
Cavallo
Thermae,
site, Monte
(Fig.
7).
and
remained
called
to move,
after
the sculpture.
The
is so big
that
it was
group
probably
impossible
in the same place
the anatomical
on the left, his
since
at the Horse-Tamer
stance,
antiquity.12
Looking
The
David.
of his
elaboration
to Castagno's
we
see a striking
and biceps,
resemblance
legs, his arms
our
resemble
also
of the head
sinews
and
and
muscles
the elaboration
of the neck
position
especially
the
are differences;
There
is clothed;
and
the David
the Horse-Tamer
is naked
propor
painting.
while
David's
on the ground
tions
are different
of the figures
and the Horse-Tamer's
left foot rests firmly
left
foot
is on tip-toe.
his other Davids
was
while
David's
are comprehensible.
clothes
the novelty,
naked
bronze
Donatello's
David
and National
are clad.
the Young
The
fact that Castagno
(Bargello
painted
Gallery,
Washington)
on a shield
a naked
meant
to be carried
since
in processions
account
for the clothes,
also
figure
may
or the public.
have
to the patron
offended
might
The
in the last
in proportions
difference
Florentine
reflects
the artistic
taste
of the period.
preference
was
David
of the
was
of figure
for the
and Castagno's
quarter
lean, wiry,
15th century
type
energetic
ahead
the an
knew
of his times
in this
Another
be that Castagno
may
respect.13
possible
explanation
one of the many
to his David
is on a sheet
extant
That
closest
tique monument
by
through
copies.

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D.

Pisanello

or

his

Haitovsky

7th
century,
Metropolitan

/ The

Young

Silver
Museum

David

found
Plate,
of Art.

by Andrea

in Cyprus.

del

Castagno

New

177

York,

school

f. 214
inf.
the Dioscurus
in proportions
closer
to
(Ambrosiana
10V.)
showing
of the antique
Pisanello's
is fairly
but
in the
the changes
accurate,
copy
figure
the legs show his
of anatomy.14
had a much
better
especially
ignorance
Castagno
on
and
acted
it.
same
an exact
of the
is not
but wras made
under
the
kind,
drawing,
approximately
copy
a Nude
of the Dioscurus
a Rearing
and
Youth
Horse
by Fra Ang?lico
represents
Holding
no.
an
Cat.
seems
to be
This
of
the
classical
Mu:eum,
1950,
152,
(British
Fig.
9).
adaptation
a live model
in the attitude
theme
created
of the ancient
statue.
The
of this
by posing
idiosyncracies
were
nude
on his
his bow
the wart
foot.
The
horse
is
living
copied,
including
legs and
right
rearing
was
also
included.15
The
well
known
and
influential
the Renaissance
and Castagno
group
throughout
seen
or on returning
have
of
it either
in Venice
to Florence,
his
connection
might
copies
through
with
Domenico
who
Veneziano
studied
with
Pisanello
and Gentile
da Fabriano.16
have
been
influenced
the antique
Since
this David
However,
may
Castagno
directly
by
sculpture.
is dated
to the
last years
of Castagno's
as modern
life
and
hold
that
scholars
stylistically
(1450-57)
was
on decorations
in Rome
in 1454, working
in the Bibliotheca
in the Vatican,
he
Greca
Castagno
seen
could
have
the
itself.17
group
antique
source
on Castagno
Another
of influence
nar
be found
in the depictions
of the David
may
perhaps
rative
found
in Byzantine
in the silver
from Cyprus
from
art, as exemplified
plate
(Fig. 3) and the sheet
the Psalter
of Basilius
same
Gr.
to the
tradi
classical
II, Cod.
17, Fig.
4), which
belongs
continuing
seen works
tion.
In Venice
case
could
have
to these
similar
and
in the
of the
silver
Castagno
plate,
it is doubtful
whether
he wrould
have
it as belonging
to a period
later than
the classical.
His
recognized
stance
David's
has
scene
of both
these
in a
the battle
is set
Further,
something
early " monuments.
"
in a
more
so than
and
archaic
much
the
fashion,
landscape
schematically
painted
primitive
style
seen
for the human
in the middle
The
hills
in bird's
the palm
trees
adopted
eye view,
figure.
rocky
and
distance
the stylized
clouds
have
been
in Castagno's
commented
The
upon.18
already
landscape
as in the Psalter
scene
se
and
in the whole
combat
indeed
is only
David,
tradition,
Italo-Byzantine
a drop
to emphasize
the action
of the figure.
and Goliath
in
David
condary,
background
arranged
?
are placed
the Psalter
in front
of a huge
and Goliath's
David's
littleness
mountain,
emphasizing
size.
Goliath
is in fact as tall as the mountain.
In Castagno's
in the valley
the two rocks meet
David,
over Goliath's
the vegetation
is wild
and dishevelled,
like David's
and
is an enor
the sky
head,
hair,
Castagno's
anatomy
knowledge
Another
influence

(Fig.
8).
of the figure,
of anatomy,

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178

D.

Haitovsky

ioth
cod.

/ The

century,
Gr.
17.

Detail

David

Young

Psalter.

from

Venice,

Fig.

by Andrea

Biblioteca

4: David

and

del

di

Castagno

S. Marco,

Goliath.

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D.

Haitovsky

Donatello,

/ The

Bronze

Young

David.

David

Florence,

by Andrea

Museo

del

179

Castagno

Nazionale

del

Bargello.

mous
area
in the
which
the figure
is silhouetted.
like
the figures
David,
against
7th and
Castagno's
on the same
and do not
nth
centuries
and
indeed
in earlier
classical
all move
works,
plane
examples,
walk
inside
the
but
to it.
landscape
parallel
"
a new
and
the
defiant
In this David
calls
which
Castagno
developed
type,
Janson
iconographie
"
a pose
to convey
hero.19
This
for
desired
defiance
to
look
of
victorious
quality
Castagno
prompted
and
the
hero
further
defies
his unseen
it. The
the slightly
facial
open mouth
enemy
by his
expression,
arm
and
of the
raised
left hand.
open
palm
at David's
sensitive
windblown
face
observe
his
hair,
standing
Looking
10), we
curly,
(Fig.
long,
on the crown
several
of his head,
like a lion's mane.
head
of hair
The
ruffled
up stiffly
exemplifies
to phy
It is the sign of a poet
in the classical
of David's
characteristics.
tradition
20, but also according
"
leo
a brave
a man
The
ideas
it is a sign of a hero,
of a lion.
is that
sionomie
whose
heart
man,
"
"
"
a
a
David
a
also
had
and
neck.21
nine
in
his
forehead
look
thin,
eyes,
type
threatening
long,
cloudy
a leonine
in that
he tends
to fury;
not
is clearly
literature
type,
concerning
physiognomies
only was
in his paint
had
in the
but Castagno
used
the science
of physiognomies
15th century,
popular
already
in the Uffizi,
in the
Famosi
soldier
Spagno.22
Pippo
type
(now
ings of Uomini
Florence),
especially
The
a lion to protect
Goliath.
encounter
with
to have
killed
his sheep,
his
before
David
is also known
the
of whom
both
him with
later David
in his
face
associates
the
of Michelangelo,
terribilit?
display
Do
are
From
influenced
del Bargello,
of Ira. Both
St. George
traits
Florence).23
(Museo
by Donatello's
The
head
of Goliath
also
took
the severed
with
the frozen,
natello
realistic,
grimace.
painful
Castagno
a flat
in death
streams
of coagulated
surrounded
with
head
of Goliath,
blood,
by
platter-like
pale
on a salver.24
one of the head
to Herod
of John
reminds
the Baptist
rock
formation,
presented
all the
to represent
sum
the Young
To
David
is an extraordinary
work,
up,
aspiring
by Castagno
and
of the hero
in one concentrated
the defiant
David
various
conquering
aspects
image.
epitomizes
of the classical
in the manner
look and open
his victory
gesture
proclaiming
figure
by his stance,
palm
head
feet
orator.
The
of Goliath
under
his
is his
emblem.25
identifying
on later depictions
no direct
of the subject.
this unique
had
influence
David
However,
by Castagno
David
and
the baroque
defiant
David
before
the meditated
is static,
action,
by Bernini
Michelangelo's
in the
are narrative,
and are symbolic
of action.
Both
is in the midst
only
Gallery,
Rome)
(Borghese
wras stylistic
than
rather
sense
David
of Castagno's
The
immediate
that we know^ the outcome.
impact
In
the Desert
in Desiderio
St. Jerome
The
da Settignano's
of the running
figure
iconographie.
acolyte
show
on it.26 A more
was modelled
less specific
direct
influence,
though
Gallery,
Washington)
(National

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180

D.

/ The

Haitovsky

. - ,-* .
8

Pisanello
Ambrosiana,

. ^

J*.

_:__:_.

(School
of), Dioscurus.
10 V.
f. 214
inf.

;;

Young

Dioscurus.

"^
Milan,

David

by Andrea

Rome,

Quirinal.

del

Castagno

i
9

Fra
Ang?lico,
British
Museum,

Dioscurus.
Inv. Nr.

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London,
1-18.

Pp.

D.

Haitovsky

/ The

10

Young

Detail

David

from

by Andrea

Fig.

del

Castagno

181

i.

a landscape
in action
in Antonio
delineated
Pollaiuolo's
is found
Hercules
and The
ing a figure
against
us that
was
Andrea's
Vasari
tells
Piero
Pollaiuolo
but
both
Florence,
Hydra
n).
(Uffizi,
Fig.
pupil,
were
more
brothers
familiar
with
his work.27
much
realistic
both
in figure
and
Although
landscape,
Pollaiuolo
in Hercules'
maintains
the one-plane
action
and
the
legs are a mirror
composition
image
even
of David's,
to the detail
The
of the right
foot
the ground
David
only
lightly.
touching
by An
?
a link
in the
in action
drea
del Castagno
of the human
thus
becomes
the
figure
representation
concern
of Florentine
in the Renaissance
and Baroque
primary
painting
periods.28

NOTES
1

leather
of Art, Wash
National
lower width
shield,
David,
114 x 81 cm.
43 cm.
Young
Gallery
Widener
No.
D.C.,
Collection,
ington,
604.
The
best
and most
recent
Oxford
is in M.
Andrea
del Castagno,
Horsier,
1980,
p. 178.
bibliography
2
The
is raised
Horsier
p. 28.
question
1),
by
(n.
3
see
end of Lipsanotheca,
A.
of
Left
Museo
Brescia.
On
the
the
Grabar,
Civico,
Lipsanotheca
meaning
Christian
Princeton
1980,
p.
Iconography,
138.
4
E. Kitzinger,
110-111.
in the Making,
Art
London
1975,
pp.
Byzantine
5
D.
Norwich
Talbot-Rice,
Art,
1968,
pp.
340-341.
Byzantine
6
see Janson,
On
the
of David
in the Renaissance,
II, pp.
Donatello,
6-7.
iconography
7
M.
David
in Art,
Barasch,
lectures,
p. 69.
1967,
King
Jerusalem
mimeographed
8
di Chrisioforo
Landino
et sculptura,
in: Commento
Fiorentini
excellenti
in pictura
Landino,
Christoforo
r. As
Baxan
la Comedia
di Dante
florentino
p. VIII
sopra
quoted
by M.
Alighieri
1481)
(Florence
118.
and Experience
in Fifteenth
Oxford
dall,
pp.
1983,
Painting
Century
Italy,
9
H.
A History
of Art,
New
York
pp.
Janson,
1964,
328-29.
"
10
a
see the
For
of World
and
shield
Emblem
Art,
", Encyclopedia
similarly
shaped
entry
Insignia
now
a shield
in the Museum
Vol.
di Bartolo
shows
Bardini,
II, pp.
348, which
by Taddeo
painted
In both
the
and
the David.
It is interesting
to note
shield
Florence.
other
similarities
between
this
arm
one
well
is standing
the
with
and
between
raised
and
the proportion
lower,
figure
pointing,
is silhouetted,
of the shield
which
the figure
and
the upper,
filled,
part
empty,
against
comparatively
is similar.
11
E. Panofsky,
New
York
Renaissance
and Renascences
in Western
1969,
Art,
172-174.
pp.
"
"
12On
see E. Pog?ny-Bal?s,
Mo
the history
of the
The
Influence
of Rome's
Tamers
Horse
Antique
n. 7, 12.
on the Great
numental
Masters
of the Renaissance,
90-91,
1980,
pp.
Sculpture
Budapest
13
Janson
(n. 9), p. 329.
The

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182

D.

/ The

Haitovsky

11

Young

David

A.

Hercules
PolJaiuolo,
Uffizi.
Florence,

by Andrea

and

del

Castagno

the Hydra.

14A

on the
to me
made
this paper
theme
of King
who
heard
at a conference
point
by a physician
David,
Jerusalem,
April,
1984.
15On
see Panofsky
other
of the Horse-Tamers
Re
adaptations
Levey,
Early
(n. 11), p. 170, n. 1: M.
Harmondsworth
naissance,
90-92.
p. 85; Pog?ny-Bal?s
1967,
(n. 12), pp.
16 G.
trans.
London
Pisanello,
Carroll,
152.
1973,
p.
Paccagnini,
/.
17
Horsier
41-44.
(n. 1), pp.
18On
see: Panofsky
the discrepancy
A
between
and
174; F. Hartt,
landscape
figure
style
(n. 11), p.
of Italian
Renaissance
London
Art,
225.
1970,
p.
History
19
also
Donatello
II, pp.
idem,
(n. 9), p. 328,
6-7.
20 Janson
Art
and Thought
in the Hellenistic
London
Onians,
1979,
pp.
124-135.
/.
Age,
21
London
in Minor
trans.
W. Hett,
111-12;
99;
Aristotle,
103;
Works,
pp.
1936,
"Physiognomies"
121;
125.
P. Metier,
Physiognomic
Theory
Renaissance2and
Acts
Mannerism,

in
of

the Renaissance
Heroic
of
the 20th
Congress

PP53-69.
22
or
L. Sleptzoff,
Men
Jerusalem
1978,
Supermen,
23
13.
Tolnay,
p.
Michelangelo,
24
me
to
out
M. Barasch,
pointed
by Prof.
25Kindly
as a wray to identify
On
the emblem
the subject
The
in: Symbolic
in the
Studies
Angel,
Images.
26
R. Wittkower,
da Settignano's
Desiderio
St. Jerome
Italian
Renaissance.
London
p.
144.
1978,
27
Vasari-Milanesi
II, p. 682;
III,
p. 286.
28
Hartt
(n. 18), p. 225.

Photo

pp.

Portraits,
the History

et.
in: M. Meiss
of Art,
Princeton,

eds., The
II,
1963,

al.

24-26.

him.
with
while
this
paper
discussing
see E. H.
and
Tobias
of art,
of a work
Gombrich,
London
of Renaissance,
Art
28-29.
1972,
pp.
in the
in : Idea and
Studies
in the Desert,
Image.

Credits:

Soprintendenza

Florence:

Figs,

i,

6,

io,

n.

- KIF:

Figs.

2,

9.

Author:

Figs.

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3-5,

7,

8.