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BASIC ELECRICAL& ELECTRONIC ENGG

ASSIGNMENT 2015 - 16

Submitted this Assignment in partial fulfillment of the


requirements of the degree of

B.TECH in CSE
By

1. (AJAY CHOWDARY CH)


(31)

Subject Lecturer
Arpitha
Professor in BEE

Advantages of Coal Fired plant:


1. The steam turbine is having far less moving and sliding parts compare to a
diesel engine.
2. During oil starvation it is seen that the piston and the oil ring seizes, and that
will be a nightmare (My friend use to tell that). But in steam turbine the problem
is very rare, or if the oil starvation happens, the machine trips and atmost the
bearings get damaged.
3. A steam turbine is self-starting. But an ICE can not start itself and requires a
means to get it going (an electric motor of several horsepower rating).
4. The vibration issues with a steam turbine comparatively less. As Power
impulses are delivered by the pistons in an ICE are by violent explosion. The
explosions rock the whole engine and must be damped out by mounting
arrangements.
5. Crankshaft , flywheel and other heavy imbalance weights are absent in steam
turbine, which makes the operation smooth.
6. A steam generator (Boiler ) will burn nearly any liquid fuel; gasoline, kerosene,
diesel fuel, fuel oil, aviation (jet) fuel, etc. No additives or other modifications to
the fuel supply are required. The internal combustion engine is a single fuel
engine and that fuel must be refined to a tight set of requirements. Additionally
the fuel for an internal combustion engine requires additives to improve
combustion and eliminate knocking.
Advantages of Diesel Engine power plant (ICE):
1. An ICE can be started immediately from a cold state (provided the support
systems like electrical system, fuel system, and other auxiliaries are available )
and deliver power to its load. The steam turbine/ Boiler requires a Start up/ light
up delay before the turbine/Boiler can deliver power. IMO this is the major
drawback.

Advantages of Diesel Power Station


1. This is simple in design point of view.
2. Required very small space.
3. It can also be designed for portable use.
4. It has quick starting facility, the small diesel generator set can be started within few
seconds.
5. It can also be stopped as when required stopping small size diesel power station,
even easier than its starting
6. As these machines can easily be started and stopped as when required, there may not
be any standby loss in the system.
7. Cooling is easy and required smaller quantity of water in this type power station.
8. Initial cost is less than other types of power station.
9. Thermal efficiency of diesel is quite higher than of coal.

10. Small involvement is less than steam power station.

Disadvantages of Diesel Power Station


1. As we have already mentioned, the cost of diesel is very high compared to coal. This
is the main reason for which a diesel power plant is not getting popularity over other
means of generating power. In other words the running cost of this plant is higher
compared to steam and hydro power plants.
2. The plant generally used to produce small power requirement.
3. Cost of lubricants is high.
4. Maintenance is quite complex and costs high.

Different Components of Diesel Power Station


In addition to diesel generator set or DG set there are many other auxiliaries attached to at
diesel power station. Lets discuss one by one.

Fuel Supply System


In fuel supply system there are one storage tank, where oil in stored.
Strainer : This oil then pump to dry tank, by means of transfer pump.
During transferring from main tank to smaller dry tank, the oil passes through strainer to
remove solid impurities. From dry tank to main tank, there is another pipe connection. This is
over flow pipe. This pipe connection is used to return the oil from dry tank to main tank in
the event of over flowing.
From dry tank the oil is injected in the diesel engine by means of fuel injection pump.

Air Intake System


This system supplies necessary air to the engine for fuel combustion. It consists of a pipe for
supplying of fresh air to the engine. Filters are provided to remove dust particles from air.

Exhaust System
The exhaust gas is removed from engine, to the atmosphere by means of an exhaust system.
A silencer is normally used in this system to reduce noise level of the engine.

Cooling System
The heat produced due to internal combustion, drives the engine. But some parts of this heat
raise the temperature of different parts of the engine. High temperature may cause permanent
damage to the machine. Hence, it is essential to maintain the overall temperature of the
engine to a tolerable level. Cooling system of diesel power station does exactly so. The

cooling system requires a water source, water source, water pump and cooling towers. The
pump circulates water through cylinder and head jacket. The water takes away heat from the
engine and it becomes hot. The hot water is cooled by cooling towers and is re-circulated for
cooling.

Lubricating System
This system minimises the water of rubbing surface of the engine. Here lubricating oil is
stored in main lubricating oil tank. This lubricating oil is drawn from the tank by means of oil
pump. Then the oil is passed through the oil filter for removing impurities. From the filtering
point, this clean lubricating oil is delivered to the different points of the machine where
lubrication is required the oil cooler is provided in the system to keep the temperature of the
lubricating oil as low as possible.

Starting System
For starting a diesel engine, initial rotation of the engine shaft is required. Until the firing
start and the unit runs with its own power. For small DG set, the initial rotation of the shaft is
provided by handles but for large diesel power station. Compressed air is made for starting.
Diesel power plant has some of the following advantages,
1) Mobility as the prime mover is I.C Engine.
2) Able to use for peak load.
3) Less start up time & easily can be located near the load centre.
It has also some of the disadvantages
1) Higher maintenance & lubrication cost.
2) Comparing to coal fired thermal powerplant, Diesel power plant capacity was
limited. India had a largest plant, maximum combined capacity of 200 MW in
Tamilnadu. In the world level Jordan secures the largest of a combined capacity
of 573 MW.
3) Noisier in operation.
Diesel power plant

Applications of diesel power plant


1. Diesel power plants is in the range of 2 to 50 MW capacity. They are used as central
station for small or medium power supplies.
2. They can be used as stand-by plants to hydro-electric power plants and steam power
plants for emergency services.
3. They can be used as peak load plants in combinations with thermal or hydro-plants.
4. They are quite suitable for mobile power generation and are widely used in
transportation systems such as automobiles, railways, air planes and ships.

5. Now-a-days power cut has become a regular feature for industries. The only solution
to tide over this difficulty is to install diesel generating sets.

Layout diesel engine power plant:

Diesel engine:
Diesel engines or compression ignition engines as they are called are generally classified as
two stroke engine and four stroke engines. In diesel engine, air admitted into the cylinder is
compressed, the compression ratio being 12 to 20. At the end of compression stroke, fuel is
injected. It burns and the burning gases expand and do work on the position. The engine is
directly coupled to the generator. The gases are then exhausted from the cylinder to
atmosphere.

Engine strating system:


This includes air compressor and starting air tank. The function of this system is to start the
engine from cold supplying compressed air.

Fuel system:
Pump draws diesel from storage tank and supplies it to the small day tank through the filter.
Day tank supplies the daily fuel need of engine. The day tan is usually placed high so that
diesel flows to engine under gravity.
Diesel is again filtered before being injected into the engine by the fuel injection pump. The
fuel is supplied to the engine according to the load on the plant.

Air intake system:


Air filters are used to remove dust from the incoming air. Air filters may be dry type, which is
made up of felt, wool or cloth. In oil bath type filters, the sir is swept over a bath of oil so that
dust particles get coated.

Exhaust system:
In the exhaust system, silencer (muffler) is provide to reduce the noise.

Engine cooling system:


The temperature of burning gases in the engine cylinder is the order of 1500 to 2000C. to
keep the temperature at the reasonable level, water is circulated inside the engine in water
jackets which are passage around the cylinder, piston, combustion chamber etc. hot water
leaving the jacket is sent to heat exchanger. Raw water is made to flow through the heat
exchanger, where it takes up the heat of jacket water. It is then cooled in the cooling tower
and recirculates again.

Engine lubrication system:


It includes lubricating oil tank, oil pump and cooler. Lubrication is essential to reduce friction
and wear of engine parts such as cylinder walls and piston.
Lubricating oil which gets heated due to friction of moving parts is cooled before
recirculation. The cooling water used in the engine is used for cooling the lubricant also.

Advantages of diesel power plant:


1. Plant layout is simple. Hence it can be quickly installed and commissioned, while the
erection and starting of a steam power plant or hydro-plant takes a fairly long time.
2. Quick starting and easy pick-up of loads are possible in a very short time.
3. Location of the plant is near the load center.
4. The load operation is easy and requires minimum labors.
5. Efficiency at part loads does not fall so much as that of a steam plant.
6. Fuel handling is easier and no problem of ash disposal exists.
7. The plant is smaller in size than steam power plant for same capacity.
8. Diesel plants operate at high overall efficiency than steam.

Disadvantages of diesel power plant:


1. Plant capacity is limited to about 50 MW of power.
2. Diesel fuel is much more expensive than coal.
3. The maintenance and lubrication costs are high.
4. Diesel engines are not guaranteed for operation under continuous, while steam can
work under 25% of overload continuously.