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114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Water Treatment Chemicals for Combined Cycle Plants Is Part of New Gas Turbine and
Combined CycleSupplier Program
We have expanded coverage of water treatment chemicals for combined cycle power plants. Our new
supplier programallows you to interface with end users, identify projects and increase sales. We have
a special section in our market report with the market for chemicals for these applications. Here is
one excerpt:


Supply water for HRSGs in combined cycle gas turbine power plants contains impurities that can
impair the operation of the HRSG, and lead ultimately to permanent damage to the HRSG and other
system equipment including turbines, pumps, condensers and piping. These impurities can be in the
form of minerals, gases such as oxygen and CO2, various other chemicals and microbiological
organisms. The results of these impurities can be corrosion and deposition of scale within the HRSG
and elsewhere. Oxygen attack and carbonic acid (H2CO3) attack are common causes of corrosion.
Deposition of carbonates is a cause of scale buildup. The purpose of water filtration and chemical
treatment is to prevent corrosion and scale buildup.
Water treatment for any given HRSG installation is a complex process that reflects many factors
including the quality of the raw water, the operating pressure and temperature of the HRSG, the
application of the HRSG and the metallurgy of all system components. Usually the water treatment
program consists of complex blends of multiple and carefully balanced chemicals and catalysts. For
larger systems, intermittent or continuous online monitoring of water conditions for conductivity, pH,
ORP, and dissolved oxygen are performed to track the effectiveness of water treatment processes.
Oxygen reduction through the use of oxygen scavengers such as sodium sulfite has been a common
practice for many years. However, water treatment regimes are different for high pressure boilers as
compared to low pressure boilers. As an example, increasing numbers of high pressure utility boilers
make use of oxygenated treatment (OT) to minimize corrosion within the boiler by using small
amounts of carefully controlled and injected oxygen to promote development of a passivation layer
consisting of hematite. This practice is widely used in Europe, and increasingly in the United States
among utility power producers. Also, increasing use of reverse osmosis filtration systems is changing
requirements for chemicals for large utility boilers, and a growing number of lower pressure industrial
process boilers as well.

The following table provides a list of common boiler water treatment chemicals by function:


Specific Function

Oxygen Scavenger

Chemical Agent


Sodium Sulfite

Most commonly used for boilers up to 35 Bar


Rarely used except for high pressure boilers


Organic - used for high pressure boilers up to 85 Bar

(1200 psi)


Organic - used for high pressure boilers up to 85 Bar

(1200 psi)


For injection in feedwater or steam header to

neutralize carbonic acid

Neutralizing Amine (pH Diethyleminoethanal

For injection in feedwater or steam header to



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Film-Forming Amine
(Precipitating Inhibitor)

Passivating Agent
(Anodic Inhibitor)

1st-stage treatment


neutralize carbonic acid


For injection in feedwater or steam header to

neutralize carbonic acid


Usually injected in steam header to protect

condensate piping

Ethoxylated soya
amine (ESA)

Usually injected in steam header to protect

condensate piping


For use with low pressure boilers below 20 Bar


Not commonly used for environmental reasons


Considered more environmentally acceptable than

chromate or zinc


Commonly used for passivating metal surfaces.


For injection in feed water to promote protective

oxide layer

Lime (calcium

Added in the clarifier stage to precipitate calcium,

magnesium, silica

Phosphate (Mono,
Precipitate soft sludge

di- or tri-sodium

Injected after feed pump to precipitate calcium and

magnesium in soft sludge removed in boiler

Form soluble

[Nitrilotriacetic acid
(NTA) and
tetraacetic acid

Injected after feed pump. Removes hardness by

forming soluble compounds that are purged in boiler

Form soluble


Injected after feed pump. Polymers used with

chelates for maximum effectiveness.


Microbiologic control

Bleach, chlorine,
chlorine dioxide,
sodium hypochlorite,
hydrogen peroxide,
quaternary amines,

Primary treatment most commonly uses oxidizing

biocides such as chlorine compounds, with enhanced
protection provided by secondary treatment with
non-oxidizing biocides such as quaternary amines.
Major application is for power plant cooling water.


Precipitate suspended

Aluminum sulfate
(alum), ferric chloride,
ferric sulfate,

Commonly used in raw water treatment, FGD waste

water treatment (ferric chloride and PAM), and ash
slurry waste water treatment (ferric chloride) for
separation of arsenic and selenium


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114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

$700 Million will be spent for Water and Wastewater Treatment Chemicals in Gas
Turbine and Combined Cycle Power Plants this Year
In 2014, the total market for water and wastewater treatment chemicals will exceed $25 billion. Of
this total, $4.9 billion will be spent by the power industry. The biggest segment will be coal-fired
power. The nuclear segment will also be significant. The gas-fired segment will be close in size to
nuclear. More than $700 million will be spent for treatment chemicals in gas turbine and combined
cycle power plants. This includes the generators in the large utility plants, but also those used in oil
and gas extraction and processing, refining and by other industrial operators. These forecasts
segmented by region and then by 80 countries and sub regions are displayed and updated continually
in Water and Wastewater Treatment Chemicals: World Market, published by the McIlvaine
Company. (
Seventy-five thousand MW of new utility electrical generating turbines will be added this year to a
world base of 1,100,000 MW already installed. In addition, a large number of smaller turbines will be
purchased by industrial plants which are generating electricity and steam or are compressing gases
and use gas turbines to provide the compression power.
Many gas turbines are operated in conjunction with a steam turbine in the combined cycle mode.
Treatment chemicals are used to purify the water which will be used to make steam, to prevent
corrosion and scaling in the steam cycle and to treat the raw water which will be used for cooling. The
blowdown from the cooling cycle must also be treated.
Some turbines are operated in the simple cycle mode, so no water is necessary for cooling. However,
even these units require fogging or inlet air cooling systems using deionized water. Hence, water
treatment is necessary. For combined cycle operation dry cooling is becoming more popular.
However, the vast majority of systems use wet cooling towers.Companies such as Nalco and GE have
automated chemistry systems to measure the parameters and add chemicals to maximize the number
of times the water can be recycled.
The cooling water blowdown requires treatment chemicals. Zero liquid discharge systems are
becoming popular. These require various filtration and evaporation steps all with water treatment
chemical requirements.

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OIL & GAS SALES LEADS January 6, 2014

(Listed by most current date)

Smaller Oilsands Firms Investors Seek Better Returns in U.S. Shale Plays (Article Dated: 1/6/2014)

Keystone Opposition Expands Front in Oilsands Fight (Article Dated: 1/6/2014)



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Upgrader Plants Giving Way to New Oil Sands Technologies (Article Dated: 1/6/2014)

Scale and Deposit Formation in Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Facilities (Analysis
Dated: 1/6/2014)

Foster Wheeler to Supply Steam Generating Systems for Alberta Upgrader (Contract Dated:

Imperial Oil Files for Regulatory Approval for New $7 Bln Oilsands Project (Project Dated:

Kinder Morgan Applies to Expand Trans Mountain Pipeline (Project Dated: 1/3/2014)

Shell Cancels U.S. Gas-to-Liquids Plant as Costs Rise (Project Cancelled Dated: 1/2/2014)

Sasol Awards Technip a Service Contract for Louisiana GTL Facility (Contract Dated: 1/2/2014)

Coal Seam Gas Expertise Supports Upstream Activities in Australia (Contract Dated: 1/2/2014)

Alfa Laval Wins Offshore Oil and Gas Order from South Korean Company (Order Dated: 1/2/2014)

California Issues Proposed Well Stimulation Requirements (Article Dated: 1/2/2014)

Honeywell to Automate Systems for Kuwaits Al Zour Refinery (Project Dated: 1/2/2014)

Chinas Guanghui Energy wll Invest $4 Bln in Coal-To-Gas Project (Project Dated: 1/2/2014)

Technology Helps Recycle Texas Fracking Flowback, Produced Water (Article Dated: 1/2/2014)



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Samsung Engineering Signs $770 Mln Deal to Build Gas Terminal in Terengganu (Project Dated:

Omni Water and Dow Partner to Treat 245,000 Barrels of Frac Wastewater (Article Dated: 1/1/2014)

West Virginia Looks to Management of Fracking Water (Article Dated: 1/1/2014)

Water Recycling Minimal but Growing on Texas Oilfields (Analysis Dated: 1/1/2014)

Peregrine Midstream to Rebuild Wyoming's Ryckman Creek Gas Storage NRU (Project Dated:

DOE Awards $84 Mln for Eighteen Carbon-Capture Projects (Project Dated: 12/31/2013)

Alabama Rail Line Reopens after Crude-Oil Train Derailment (Article Dated: 12/31/2013)

CB&I Wins Saudi Arabia Storage Project at Grassroots Refinery (Project Dated: 12/31/2013)

Abu Dhabi's TAQA to Sell Dutch Pipeline Stake in $240 Mln Deal (Sale Dated: 12/31/2013)

ExxonMobil Granted Extension to Work on Shut Pegasus Oil Pipe That Ruptured in Arkansas
(Article Dated: 12/31/2013)

NuStar Approves Phase II of South Texas Crude Pipeline Project (Project Dated: 12/31/2013)

Magellan Extends Arkansas Pipeline Open Season for the Third Time (Article Dated: 12/30/2013)

Russia's Transneft to Start New Pipeline Construction to Feed ESPO (Project Dated: 12/30/2013)

Canada Sets $90 Mln for Quebec Train Disaster Decontamination (Article Dated: 12/30/2013)



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

ONEOK Partners to Invest, Build Gas Plant and Expand Bakken NGL Pipeline in Williston Basin,
Part 1 (Project Dated: 12/30/2013)

ONEOK Partners to Invest, Build Lonesome Creek Gas Plant and Expand NGL Pipeline in Williston
Basin, Part 2 (Project Dated: 12/30/2013)

Williams Wins FERC OK for Transco Expansion (Project Dated: 12/30/2013)

China Considers Pipeline Reform to Boost Gas Supply (Analysis Dated: 12/30/2013)

Kurdish Oil May Be Flowing Through Turkish Pipeline within Weeks (Article Dated: 12/30/2013)

Sun-Canadian Restarts Pipeline in Ontario after September Diesel Spill (Article Dated: 12/30/2013)

House Backs Bill to Speed Natural Gas Pipelines (Article Dated: 12/30/2013)

SPX Awarded Contract to Provide Oil Production Pumps for EnQuest's Kraken Field in the North
Sea (Contract Dated: 12/27/2013)

Cardon IV Awards Valerus Contract for Gas Conditioning and Condensate Stabilization Facility
(Contract Dated: 12/27/2013)

AMEC Awarded Contract for GDF SUEZ E&P UKs Cygnus Operated Field in North Sea (Contract
Dated: 12/27/2013)

ConocoPhillips Announces Production Startup and First Gas from UKs Jasmine Field (Article
Dated: 12/27/2013)

Valerus Awarded EQT Corporation Contract to Provide Compression for Marcellus Shale Facilities
(Contract Dated: 12/27/2013)



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Foster Wheeler Wins Engineering and Procurement Contract for New Coker in Argentina (Contract
Dated: 12/27/2013)

L.A. Turbine to Ship Turboexpander Unit to Russian Gas Plant (Project Dated: 12/27/2013)

Emera Completes Acquisition of New England Natural Gas Generating Facilities (Acquisition Dated:

Vallourec Provides Connection Devices for CLOV Offshore Angola Exploration Project (Project
Dated: 12/26/2013)

Petrobras Signs LOI with Modec for FPSO in Santos Basin (Project Dated: 12/26/2013)

Intermoor Wins Hook-Up Contract with LLOG Delta House Production Semi-submersible (Contract
Dated: 12/26/2013)

HII Technologies Announces Flow Back Equipment Purchase for Its Frac Water Management
Subsidiary (Article Dated: 12/26/2013)

Enterprise Starts up Eighth Mont Belvieu Natural Gas Liquids Fractionator (Article Dated:

OriginOil's EWS Petro to Clean Frac Flowback Water at Monterey Formation via Frac-Back System
(Article Dated: 12/26/2013)

Gazprom Neft Awards Chinas ZPEC Drilling Contract (Contract Dated: 12/26/2013)

Petrofac Awarded $99 Mln Second Phase of Iraq Project (Project Dated: 12/23/2013)

Expro Wins $50 Mln Contract for Further Expansion into Saudi Arabia (Contract Dated: 12/20/2013)

Leighton Engineering Awarded New Contracts in Malaysia (Project Dated: 12/20/2013)



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Foster Wheeler Awarded FEED for Khurais Program (Contract Dated: 12/20/2013)

Stork & Oryx Set up JV for Combined Technical Services Capabilities to Serve MENA Region
(Alliance Dated: 12/20/2013)

Australia Announces $580 Mln New Investment in Offshore Exploration (Investment Dated:

SeaBird Exploration Awarded $16 Mln Seismic Contract in Asia Pacific (Contract Dated:

Dolphin Wins Several 3D Seismic Contracts (Article Dated: 12/20/2013)

Lamprell Delivers Caspian Sea Jackup Rig (Article Dated: 12/20/2013)

Far East Energy Provides Shouyang Block Frac and Pumping Operations Update (Update Dated:

Technip Will Perform Turnkey Contract for FMB Qatar Offshore Project (Project Dated: 12/19/2013)

Petrofac and Italys Bonatti Awarded an EPC Contract over $650 Mln in Algeria (Contract Dated:

Kinder Morgan, MarkWest JV Announce Open Season for NGLs Pipeline from Utica and Marcellus
Shales (Project Dated: 12/19/2013)

Global Implications of Shale Development (Analysis Dated: 12/13/2013)

Technip, Subsea 7 JV Awarded $1.23 Bln Contracts for TEN Project Offshore Ghana (Contract
Dated: 12/13/2013)



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Dart Energy Says Britain Should Consider Shale Gas Development (Article Dated: 12/13/2013)

BP Commits $4 Mln with UT on Shale, Offshore Oil and Gas Technology Solutions (Investment
Dated: 12/13/2013)

MarkWest Announces Completion of Antero Resources Agreements to Expand Sherwood Complex

(Project Dated: 12/13/2013)

Crosstexs Cajun-Sibon Pipeline Expansion to Connect LA Fractionation Facility to East TX Supply

Lines (Project Dated: 12/13/2013)

Frances Fracking Ban to Remain for the Foreseeable Future (Article Dated: 12/13/2013)

Canada Sets New Crude Oil Tests to Improve Rail Transport Safety (Article Dated: 12/12/2013)

Phillips 66 to Expand Midstream Business with Proposed Freeport LPG Export Terminal (Project
Dated: 12/12/2013)

Texas Express Pipeline Begins Operations (Project Dated: 12/12/2013)

Richfield Oil & Gas Increases Production Potential with Addition of Two Submersible Pumps
(Article Dated: 12/12/2013)

Solvay Extends Product Range in Oil and Gas Stimulation Market with New TOLCIDE 4FRAC
(Article Dated: 12/12/2013)

Foster Wheeler Awarded Feed Contract for Master Gas System Expansion Project in Saudi Arabia
(Contract Dated: 12/11/2013)

Baker Hughes Awarded Long-term Contract with PETRONAS Carigali (Contract Dated:

Chinas Sinopec to Acquire $3.1 Billion Stake in Apache Egypt Assets (Acquisition Dated:



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17


ConocoPhillips Announces Production Startup and First Oil from Ekofisk South (Project Dated:

Dresser-Rand's First Small-scale LNG Unit Successfully Produces LNG (Project Dated: 12/11/2013)

FortisBC Announces $400 Mln Delta LNG Plant Expansion to Power Transportation Sector (Project
Dated: 12/10/2013)

Shell, GE to Invest in First U.S. LNG Fueling Stations for Cargo Ships (Investment Dated:

Mitsui Says Long-term LNG Contracts Basic Structure Linked to Oil Prices to "remain standard"
(Article Dated: 12/10/2013)

Spectra Energy Signs Pipeline Services Contract for LNG Production inTexas and Louisiana
(Contract Dated: 12/10/2013)

Keppel Shipyard, Golar LNG in Negotiations for a FSLV Conversion Project (Article Dated:

U.S. Shale Boom Causing Slowdown in LNG Industry (Article Dated: 12/10/2013)

Shell, GDF Suez to be Part of FLNG Terminal Project at Kakinada Deepwater Port (Project Dated:

FLNG Conference to Highlight Spending that will Reach $70 Bln by 2020 (Conference Dated:

Sinopec, Apache in Talks to Invest in Canada LNG Project (Project Dated: 12/6/2013)

Gazprom Projects First LNG Terminal for Kaliningrad Region in Late 2017 (Project Dated:



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17


Chevron Drilling Planned Carbon Dioxide Injection Wells for Gorgon-Jansz LNG Project (Project
Dated: 12/6/2013)

Rosneft and ExxonMobil Award Contracts for Russian Far East LNG Project (Contract Dated:

CCS, SDARI and Wartsila Collaborate to Develop LNG Vessel (Article Dated: 12/6/2013)

QGC Awards Jacobs Contract for CSG to LNG Concept Study, Pre-FEED (Contract Dated:

Russian Energy Minister Says No Call to Break Gazprom's Monopoly on Pipeline Gas Exports
(Article Dated: 12/5/2013)

Putin Approves Amendments to LNG Export Laws to Boost Russia's Global LNG Market Share
(Article Dated: 12/5/2013)

Asia LNG Buyers Meet to Discuss Joint Procurement Deal (Article Dated: 12/5/2013)

Japans Top Shippers to Order Ninety New LNG Tankers Worth $17.6 Bln by 2020 (Order Dated:

Brazil's OGX Maranhao Changes Name to Parnaiba Gas Natural (Sale Dated: 12/5/2013)

Australia's Origin Energy Agrees to Sell Gas to BG Group in 2014 and 2015 (Project Dated:

Tanzania May Build New LNG Export Facility by 2020 (Plans Dated: 12/5/2013)

France's Total Looks for Stake in Gazprom's Baltic LNG Project (Project Dated: 12/5/2013)



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

CNOOC Applies to Canadas NEB for LNG Export License (Article Dated: 12/5/2013)

Cyprus, Total Sign MoU for LNG Terminal (Project Dated: 12/4/2013)

EmiratesLNG to Build 9 mtpa LNG Terminal at Fujairah (Plans Dated: 12/4/2013)

Honeywell UOP To Form Black & Veatch LNG Alliance for Off-Road and Transportation Fuel
(Alliance Dated: 12/4/2013)

These sales leads are part of Oil, Gas, Shale and Refining Markets and Projects, and are issued biweekly. As a subscriber to Water and Wastewater Treatment Chemicals: World Markets you
receive a 30 percent discount for this service.

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UPDATE HEADLINES - December 2013

Agriculture Secretary Announces Projects to Improve Water Quality

Geraldine Moves forward with Wastewater Project



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Request for Proposals issued by Golden Hills to Study WWTP Problem
$49.6 Million for New Paso Robles WWTP
Malibu WWTP Projected to cost $41 Million

$1 Million to Clean up Pueblo Water

$5.5 Million WWTP Improvement Project OKd for Plainfield

Aqua America Sells Water/Wastewater Systems in Sarasota County

$4.109 Million Approved for Quincy WWTP Repairs

Mitchell Hires Donohue & Associates to Update WWTP

Storm Lake Accepts Bid for WWTP Project
Sioux City approves Phosphorous Removal Study

$10.6 Million for New Flemingsburg WWTP

Orleans Explores Options for WWTP



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

Haring Township Planning New WWTP

USDA helps fund Water/Wastewater Projects
Wykoff Requesting Bids for Wastewater Treatment Plant

Hattiesburg to Vote on WWTP Contract

Liberty Planning $95 Million Wastewater Plant

$24.7 Million for Watkins Glen/Montour Falls Regional WWTP Project
Gloversville-Johnstown approves Bids for Equipment and Chemicals
LaRay may Expand New Sewer District Plans

High Point awards $24.9 Million Contract for Westside Plant Expansion

Sunbury Wastewater Plant to Get New SCADA Computer
Ashville Moves Forward with New WWTP
Oregon City OKs $6.2 Million Contract for WWTP

$25 Million for CHJA Expansion



114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

$250 Million for Phase II of Providence Wastewater Project

Timmonsville, Florence Water Deal near Finalization
St. Matthews Gets $4.2 Million Grant to Improve Wastewater Treatment Plant

$24.5 Million for Strasburg WWTP Upgrade
Rivanna Pump Station Construction Bids under Budget
Aqua nears completion of $3.4 Million Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Improvement
Planning Continues for Strasburg WWTP Upgrade

$47.7 Million for Berkeley County WWTP Upgrade

State Board approves nearly $5 Million for Lander Wastewater Project

Bear River Wastewater to Smiths Cove Treatment Plant
Barrie Planning 3 Water/Wastewater Projects
$71.2 Million for Trenton WWTP
Hamilton gets $23 Million for Sewage Plant Project
Victorias Sewage Sludge Plant Bidding Open




114 Water-Wastewater Treatment Chemicals Insights 17

KAI Completes Countrys Largest UV Wastewater Disinfection Plant in St. Louis

Metso introduces First Complete Advanced Optimizing Solution for Sludge Dewatering for
Wastewater Treatment
$3.2 Million in New Contracts for H2O Innovation


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