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Summary on the list of BSCSPPD topics in Year 2, Semester 1 of MD Programme

Lee Hau Sen 1001231970

Grieving Process
Grief is a natural response to loss. Its the emotional suffering someone feel when something or someone
he loves is taken away. The stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. We
can communicate with grief persons by first listen to them without giving advice, and be patient, kind
and understanding without being patronizing. Physical and emotional touch can bring great comfort to
the bereaved. We can also offer support in an unobtrusive but consistent manner.
Understanding & Communicating with resistant patients
The most common reason for resistance is fear of the unknown. People who is lack of competence also
prefer connected to the old way. People are also confined to comfort zones thus rejecting a change in
routine. However, changes in lives can make us more flexible, understanding and logical. The idea of
change allows us to become the persons we want to be-- a better listener, be more compassionate, be
more hardworking toward our goal. Changes are inevitable in lives, so accepting them is the way to
Creative thinking and decision making skills
Creative thinking is a way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh perspective that suggests
unorthodox solutions. Creative thinking can be stimulated both by an unstructured process such as
brainstorming, and by a structured process such as lateral thinking. We can encourage creative thinking
by looking for many possible answers, making wild and crazy suggestions as well as those that seem
sensible, and doodling with a theory or suggestion. From that we can learn from what has not worked as
well as what did and refine our ideas.
Personality & the impact on communication
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is based on Carl Jungs theory of psychological type. It
indicates personality preferences in four dimensions:
Where you focus your attention Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I)
The way you take in information Sensing (S) or INtuition (N)
How you make decisions Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)
How you deal with the world Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)

The four letters that make up your personality type can help people to understand themselves and their
interactions with others. By knowing what personality a person has, he can make suitable changes and
may try to adopt new traits consciously to suit his carrer.
Developing confidentiality and trust
Confidentiality is the ethical principle or legal right that a physician or other health professional will
hold secret all information relating to a patient, unless the patient gives consent permitting disclosure.
Confidentiality can be broken if the client is believed to be a danger to him or herself or someone else
(break confidentiality in order to protect the client or the person that they are threatening to harm) or
when the therapists (or other professional) are to report suspected child abuse. When lawyer introduces
doctors state-of-mind in a trial, confidentially is breached when therapy records become an open book
at the trial. In order to establish a sense of trust, doctors need to uncover patients' actual needs. It is
important to respect patients preferences and choices(autonomy) beyond doctors. When
communicating, it is equally important to make eye-contact and appropriate non-verbal gestures to make
the patients feel respected and are willing to disclose more related details. In the primary care setting,
doctors also need to learn to anticipate their patients needs in order to provide them with the best plan of
care possible.
An Overview of Mental Illnesses/Mental health
Mental illnesses are mental or behavioral pattern that causes either suffering or a poor ability to function
in ordinary life. The categories of mental illnesses are anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia
and psychotic disorders, dementia and eating disorders. To minimize occurrence of mental disorders,
having thinking positive changes the perception of the situations and circumstances that come to us.
Positive thinking is very beneficial for our health. When we implement positive thinking into our life,
we Swill notice that success becomes easier. Positive people overcome stress more easily and are more
able to cope with pain and ordeals. Positive attitude will boost our motivation and increase chances of
getting success. We can avoid mental illnesses by valuing ourselves. We must learn to treat ourselves
with kindness and respect, and avoid self-criticism. We can also try to broaden our social network as
people with strong family or social connections are generally healthier. Finally, learning how to deal
with stress and setting realistic goals also help.
Introduction to Human Sexuality
Sexuality may be experienced and expressed in a variety of ways, including thoughts, fantasies, desires,
beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles, and relationships. All civilizations have managed
sexuality through sexual standards, representations, and behavior. Sexuality involves and is shaped by

many things, including values and belief, attitudes experiences, physical attributes, sexual characteristics
and societal expectations. Sexual identity is how one thinks of oneself in terms of whom one is
romantically or sexually attracted to, which may also affect his or her sexual orientation.
Development of Values
There are three major periods during which values are developed. The Imprint Period: up to the age of
seven when we are absorbing everything around us and accepting much of it as true, especially when it
comes from our parents. The confusion and blind belief of this period can also lead to the early
formation of trauma and other deep problems. The Modeling Period: between the ages of eight and
thirteen, when we imitate people, often our parents, but also others. The Socialization Period: between
13 and 21, we are very largely influenced by our peers as we naturally turn to people who seem more
like us at that time. Values are principles, standards or qualities that an individual or group of people
hold in high regard. These values guide the way we live our lives and the decisions we make. Values
affect us tremendously.
Development of lifespan from birth to childhood
During this development stage, babies bodies and brains are learning to live in the outside world. Then
babies are really learning to reach out and manipulate the world around them. Theyre mastering the use
of those amazing tools, their hands. Soon baby will be able to lift his or her head and turn it from one
side to the other while lying on his or her stomach. The baby later might respond to sounds by getting
quiet or smiling. He can also examine more-complex designs, along with various colors, sizes and
shapes. Later, baby might learn to mimic facial expressions. As baby grows older, he might reach for
caregivers when he or she needs attention, security or comfort.
Freuds theory of personality and psychoanalysis
For Freud, the mind is best conceptualized in three distinct components, the conscious, preconscious and
unconscious. Freud developed a more structural model of the mind as three psychic parts comprising the
entities id, ego and superego. Freud stated that the ego employs a range of defense mechanisms, such as
repression, projection, displacement, denial, rationalization, regression and reaction formation. Parts of
the personality develop as we move through a series of psychosexual stages which are five stages of
development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.