ABHISHEK GOYAL B.

TECH FOOD TECHNOLOGY 9999921744 NATURAL FOOD COLOUR: Natural Food Color is any dye, pigment or any other substance obtained from vegetable, animal, mineral, or source capable of coloring food drug, or cosmetic, colors come from variety of sources such as seeds, fruits, vegetables, algae & insect. Ancient Romans used saffron and other spices to put a rich yellow color into various foods. Other natural foods such as carrots, pomegranates, grapes, mulberries, spinach, beets, parsley, and flowers were also used as food coloring agents. CATEGORIES OF NATURAL FOOD COLOURS : 1. Plant: Plant based colours come from various parts of the plant. The leaves, roots, flowers, fruit all provide colouring agents. Turmeric, Chlorophyll, blueberry juice, beetroot juice and so on. 2. Animal: An extremely well known animal based colour is cochineal or carmine. Derived from the body fluid of an insect, it has been widely used over the years. 3. Mineral: Mineral colours in food include Titanium dioxide which imparts an opaque appearance to the food. Natural food colours are available in different forms, as powders, pastes and liquids DIFFICULTIES WITH NATURAL FOOD COLOURS : Unappetizing appearance: Since food is a sensory experience it is only natural that consumers want their food to look good as well as taste great. Natural food colours are by and large less luminous and fluorescent than their synthetic counterparts. Limited usage: Natural colours cannot be used in all products. Beet colour can be used in a Soda but not in cake. In milk it turns blue rather than red It doesn¶t hold up to baking either. Colour Stability and Fading: Natural colours are often extremely unstable. They tend to deteriorate and breakdown quickly. Heat Sensitivity: Natural colours tend to break down with the application of heat more easily. Price and Availability: Natural colours are marginally more expensive and more difficult to find than synthetic colours.

EXTRANEOUS ADDITION OF COLOURING MATTER TO BE MENTIONED ON THE LABEL Where an extraneous coloring matter has been added to any article of food, there shall be displayed one of the following statements in capital letters, just beneath the list of ingredients on the label attached to any package of food so colored, namely : (i)CONTAINS PERMITTED NATURAL COLOUR(S) OR (ii)CONTAINS PERMITTED SYNTHETIC FOOD COLOUR(S OR (iii) CONTAINS PERMITTED NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC FOOD COLOUR(S) OR (iv) CONTAINS PERMITTED NATURAL*/ AND* SYNTHETIC*COLOUR(S) NATURAL COLOURING MATTERS WITCH MAY BE USED Except as otherwise provided in the rules the following natural colouring principles whether isolated from natural colours or produced synthetically may be used in or upon any article of food: 1. CHLOROPHYLL (E-140): FOOD USE: Dairy products/ Soft drinks/ Alcoholic drinks/ Sugars and preserves/ Confectionery/ Vinegars, pickles and sauces/ Decorations and coatings/ Edible ices/ Desserts Appearance: Waxy solid ranging in colour from olive green to dark green depending on the content of co-ordinated Magnesium. Note: Exposure to meat (>65°C) ± particularly if prolonged ± will denature the pigment, with the colour becoming progressively more yellow. PERMITTED DOSAGE ACCORDING TO PFA: Chiku, papaya, pomegranate, custard apple, plums, raspberries- 200ppm max. Candid crystallized & glazed fruits- 200ppm max. Squashes, crushes, fruit syrups, sharbats- 200ppm max. (on dilution) Green chilli paste, ginger paste, onion paste- GMP Cheese/sliced/cut shredded, processed cheese-100mg/kg max.

Legislation: USA: Not permitted unless as a vegetable juice AUSTRALIA: Permitted

UK and EUROPE: Permitted according to European Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC of June 30th 1994 OTHER COUNTRIES Generally permitted in most countries of the world

CANADA: Permitted

2. RIBOFLAVIN(LACTOFLAVIN)(E-); FOOD USE: Confectionery/ Cereal products/ Sauces/ Dairy products Appearance: Yellow to orange-yellow crystalline powder PERMITTED DOSAGE ACCORDING TO PFA: Fruit base beverage mix/powdered fruit based beverages- 200ppm max. Candid crystallized & glazed fruits- 200ppm max. Green chilli paste, ginger paste, onion paste- GMP Cheese/sliced/cut shredded, processed cheese-100mg/kg max. Legislation: USA: Not permitted as Food colour UK and EUROPE: Permitted according to European Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC of June 30th 1994 for Use in Foodstuffs. CANADA: Permitted

AUSTRALIA: Permitted

3. CARAMEL(E-150a); FOOD USE: Baked goods/ Cereal and cereal products/ Dairy products/ Meat and poultry products/ Soft drinks/Alcoholic drinks/ Sugars and preserves/ Confectionery/ Vinegars, pickles and sauces/ Decorations and coatings/ Edible ices/ Desserts/ Seasonings Appearance: A dark-brown black viscous liquid or brown powder

PERMITTED DOSAGE ACCORDING TO PFA: Chocolate-white milk, plain, composite, filled-100ppm max. (filled chocolate only) Chewing gums/bubble gums -GMP Fruit base beverage mix/powdered fruit based beverages- 200ppm max. Candid crystallized & glazed fruits- 200ppm max. Squashes, crushes, fruit syrups, sharbats- 200ppm max. (on dilution) Legislation: USA: CANADA: Permitted Permitted UK and EUROPE: AUSTRALIA: Permitted according to European Parliament and Permitted th Council Directive 94/36/EC of June 30 1994for Use in Foodstuffs. 4. ANNATTO(E-160b): FOOD USE: Yellow fats/ Decorations/ Coatings/ Seasonings/ Edible ices/ Liqueurs/ Cheese/ Baked goods/ Dairy products/ Smoked fish/ Desserts/ Confectionery/ Vinegar, pickles and sauces/ Cereals and cereal products. Appearance: Reddish-brown powder, suspension or solution Note: Heat and light-stability are generally good. However, with annatto being a carotenoid, sensitivity to oxidation can be a problem. PERMITTED DOSAGE ACCORDING TO PFA: Table margarine/bakery and industrial margarine/fat spread- 20mg/kg max. Fruit base beverage mix/powdered fruit based beverages- 200ppm max. Candid crystallized & glazed fruits- 200ppm max. Ginger cocktail- 200ppm max. Green chilli paste, ginger paste, onion paste- GMP Legislation: USA: Permitted as non-certified food colour according to 21 CFR 7330, 73.1030, 73.2030

UK and EUROPE: CANADA: Permitted according to European Permitted Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC of June 30th 1994 for Use in Foodstuffs. AUSTRALIA: Permitted

OTHER COUNTRIES: Generally permitted in most countries

5. CURUMIN OR TURMERIC (E-100(i)): FOOD USE: Baked goods/ Cereals and cereal products/ Dairy products/ Smoked fish/ Fish and seafood products/Meat and poultry products/ Egg products/ Fruit, vegetable and nut products/ Canned soft drinks/Snacks/ Soups/ Sugars and preserves/ Confectionery/ Vinegar, pickles and sauces/ Mustard/Decorations and coatings/ Edible ices/ Desserts/ Seasonings. Appearance: Orange-yellow crystalline powder Note: Curcumin is generally used in an emulsified solution, in which case it is water-dispersible. Contact with alkalis should be avoided. The greatest limitation on curcumin is its tendency to fade on exposure to light (photooxidation). PERMITTED DOSAGE ACCORDING TO PFA: Table margarine/bakery and industrial margarine/fat spread- 5mg/kg max. Fruit base beverage mix/powdered fruit based beverages- 200ppm max. Candid crystallized & glazed fruits- 200ppm max. squashes, crushes, fruit syrups, sharbats- 200ppm max. (on dilution) green chilli paste, ginger paste, onion paste- GMP cheese/sliced/cut shredded, processed cheese-100mg/kg max. Legislation: USA: UK and EUROPE: CANADA: GRAS, permitted as non-certified Permitted according to European Permitted food colour Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC of June 30th 1994 AUSTRALIA: Permitted OTHER COUNTRIES: Generally permitted in most countries.

6. BETA-CAROTENE (E-160a(ii)): FOOD USE: Baked goods/ Cereal and cereal products/ Dairy products/ Fish and seafood products/ Meat and poultry products/ Egg products/ Fruit, vegetable and nut products/ Soft drinks/ Sugars and preserves/Confectionery/ Vinegar, pickles and sauces/ Decorations and coatings/ Edible ices/ Desserts/Seasonings.

Appearance: Red to brownish-red crystals or crystalline powder PERMITTED DOSAGE ACCORDING TO PFA: Table margarine/bakery and industrial margarine/fat spread- 25mg/kg max. Fruit base beverage mix/powdered fruit based beverages- 200ppm max. Candid crystallized & glazed fruits- 200ppm max. squashes, crushes, fruit syrups, sharbats- 200ppm max. (on dilution) green chilli paste, ginger paste, onion paste- GMP cheese/sliced/cut shredded, processed cheese-100mg/kg max. Legislation: USA: Permitted as a non-certified food colour. AUSTRALIA: Permitted

UK and EUROPE: Permitted according to European Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC of June 30th 1994 OTHER COUNTRIES: Generally permitted in most countries

CANADA: Permitted