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# AAE 1760

Lesson 02-4

Flight Dynamics
Neutral Point

0 +

= 0 +

+ 0 +

= 0 + 0 + 0

= + +

+ 0 +

Recap
0 = + 0
=

0 = 0 +

0 = + 0

= + +

+ 0 + 0 +

= + +

+ 1

Total Effects

## On their own nacelles and pylons produce a small destabilizing moment

when mounted on the wing and a small stabilizing moment when mounted
on the aft fuselage

Movement of CG

0 = + 0

+ 0 + 0 +

+ 1

## Stick-Fixed Neutral Point

Let denote the cg location when

= 0 =

## or where the airplane becomes neutrally stable

is called the stick-fixed neutral point
Stick-fixed implies that elevator was held fixed
during angle of attack disturbance

Influence of CG

## Stick-Fixed Neutral Point

Setting equal to zero and solving for the center of
gravity position yields:
=

+ 1
=

+
1

Static Margin
=

+ 1

+

1

+
1

+
1

= =
=

Aerodynamic Center

=

: =

## Neutral point is in essence the aerodynamic center of the entire aircraft

For most aircraft designs, it is desirable to have a stick-fixed static margin
between 5% and 15% of the mean chord

Static Margin
Low Static Margin gives less static
stability but greater elevator
authority, whereas a higher Static
Margin results in greater static
stability but reduces elevator
authority.
Too much Static Margin makes the
aircraft nose-heavy, which may result
in elevator stall at take-off and/or
landing.
Whereas a low Static Margin makes
the aircraft tail-heavy and susceptible
to stall at low speed, e. g. during the
landing approach.

## Static Margin for Canard Configuration

For a better longitudinal stability, the canard should have higher lift coefficient
and stall at lower geometric Angle of Attack than the main wing.

CG Movement
During flight the CG can move substantially:
As CG moves forward the aircraft becomes more stable
The forward limit to CG position is limited by the moment that the tail
can produce
This is a function of tail lift and the tail volume
While stability improves with forward CG movement
Drag increases, this increase is known as Trim Drag
Aircraft maneuverability can suffer, larger control movements are required,
and response becomes sluggish
When CG moves backwards
Aircraft eventually becomes unstable
Trim drag reduces

CG Limits
The absolute limit for forward CG position is
determined by aircraft handling being too
sluggish to control effectively
The absolute limit for rear CG position is the
onset of instability, and aircraft handling being
too sensitive to control
Aircraft Designers and Regulatory Authorities
impose a more restricted CG range in practice

CG Limits

## Example (Nelson 2.1)

If the slope of the versus curve is -0.15 and the pitching moment at zero lift is
equal to 0.08, determine the trim lift coefficient. If the center of gravity of the
airplane is located at = 0.3, determine the stick fixed neutral point.

= 0 +

= 0 + = 0 +
= 0 +

0 = 0.08 0.15

0.08
=
= 0.53
0.15

= =
=

0.3 = 0.15

= 0.45

## Example (Nelson 2.2)

For the data shown in Figure, determine the following:
(a) The stick-fixed neutral point.
(b) If we wish to fly the airplane at a velocity of 125 ft/sec at sea level, what would
be the trim lift coefficient and what would be the elevator angle for trim?

## Example (Nelson 2.3)

Analyze the canard-wing combination shown in the Figure. The canard and wing
are geometrically similar and are made from the same airfoil section.
=
= 0.2 = 0.45
a) Develop an expression for the moment coefficient about the center of gravity.
You may simplify the problem by neglecting the upwash (downwash) effects
between the lifting surfaces and the drag contribution to the moment. Also
assume small angle approximations.
b) Find the neutral point for this airplane.

Solution
Same airfoil section
+
=

=
=
0 = 0

## Neglecting drag and using small angle approximation

=
=

= +
= +

= + = +

= +

= + 0.09

= 0.2
= 0.45

= + 0.09 =
=

= 0 +

+ 0.09 + 0.09

+ 0.09 + 0.2

+ 0.09 + 0.2 0 +

+ =

= 0 +

= +

+0.09 + 0.2 0 + +
0 = 1.09 0

+ 0.2 0 +

1.2
=
+ 0.2
=

1.2
= 1.2 = 0.833
= 0 =
For Np :

H.W. Assignment # 2
Solve problems 2.2 to 2.3 from Nelsons book
Submission date: 7 Apr. 2015
Submit at the start of class on due date (even if
you plan to be absent). No credit afterwards.
Do not copy any assignment.

AAE 1760
Lesson 02-5

Flight Dynamics
Power Effects

## Effect on Static Long. Stability

Direct Effects:
Caused by forces developed by propulsion
units
Indirect Effects:
Caused by propeller slipstream passing over
wing or tail surfaces

Direct Effects
Thrust Effect: Effect on stability from the thrust
acting along the propeller axis.
Normal Force Effect: Effect on stability from a
force normal to the thrust line and in the plane
of the propeller.

## Conclusion: The direct power effects are destabilizing if

the power plant is ahead and below the cg

Indirect Effects
Downwash Effect: Downwash caused by the
jet/propeller makes the tail trim contribution to be
less negative or less stable than the power-off
situation
Slipstream Effect: Increased speed of slipstream
impacting tail increases the tail contribution to
stability

F-4 Phantom

Remarks
The indirect effects mentioned may be
reduced by locating the horizontal stabilizer
high on the tail and out of the slipstream at
operating angles of attack.