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Definition/Define

www.roanestate.edu/owl
To write a definition essay, youll need to define a word that:
1. has a complex meaning
2. is disputable (could mean different things to different people)
It wouldn't be wise to choose a word like "cat" for a definition essay. The word,
"cat" has a pretty simple meaning, so we'll have trouble writing an entire essay
about it. Similarly, not many people disagree over the definition of the word
"cat," which means our definition will be short and ordinary.
What about choosing to define the word, family? Lets check it out!
Does it have a complex meaning? Yes, I could discuss the different
types of families that exist in my community.
Is the word disputable? Yes, I could explain that even though the other
women on my sports team aren't blood relatives, they are a kind of family.
Optional: Could I discuss the word's origin in a meaningful
way? Yes, look up the words origin in the Oxford English Dictionary for
additional essay ideas!
An Extra-Large Editorial (Subjectively Speaking)
by Ben Turner, Writing Tutor, Co-Editor, The Roane State Review
What does the word "large" mean these days? No, not that, ya pervert! I'm
referring to the diminishing use of it in proper context. Ordered a large Coke
lately? You probably wound up with the one that was one size smaller than the
biggest they had. To me, large means if there are three sizes, it's the biggest one.
Apparently there are those in the retail industry who disagree with me.
Sometime, without my knowledge, small was renamed as "regular," medium
became "large," and large came to be considered "extra large."
I guess sooner or later the word "regular" will be abandoned by the wayside for
its mediocre overtones and substituted in its place will be the word "large." Of
course, since there has to be a distinction between sizes, the next size up will
become "Big 'Un," and the biggest of all will don the name "Behemoth."
Try this--go to a fast food restaurant of your choice and ask for a "large" order of
fries. Take notice of what size container is used. I'd just about be willing to bet
that the biggest container they have isn't the one they reach for. More than likely,
you'll get what's really the mid-size carton of fries. This works with pizza, too.
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Try and order a medium pizza from Papa John's. The response I get is "we don't
have medium, only small, large, and extra large." What's this nonsense? Is it
supposed to make me feel better about my purchase of a large as opposed to a
medium? I just want a pizza that's not too big, but isn't going to leave me hungry
either. To me, that falls under the category of "medium." That's marketing for
you. Just gimme a medium-sized pizza, as in, not the smallest, but not one that
occupies its own zip code either.
Every restaurant has a different qualifier. Hardee's refers to their combo as a
"Jumbo Size." At the Huddle House, it's a "Hearty Helping," and McDonald's
calls it "Super Size." How many synonyms for large can we come up with? The
English language contains a finite number of words. Sooner or later when every
company has trade-marked a variation of big or large, words will start being
made up. Wendy's has already started the trend. Last time I checked, "Biggie"
isn't in the unabridged dictionary.
I wonder when the trend will stretch to other industries as well. Will the
automotive industry start calling the Miata a "regular-sized" car? Does that make
everything else "large?" That means the Escort would be called a "large" car,
and sport-utilities like Ford's Excursion and the Chevy Suburban will be
reclassified as "Extra Extra Extra Large" cars.
Thank God this trend seems to be limited to the commercial sector. I've never
heard of anyone calling the direction "extra south." Or maybe "southest." Picture
someone giving you these directions: "Turn extra-left at the first fork, then go
the southest you possibly can for about 3 miles. Turn mega-north and then make
an extra-small right."
Maybe that's the trend--everything from here on out will be classified as a grade
of large. The terms "small" and "regular" will be phased out, since no one wants
to own anything that's small or regular. We can do away with the whole "good,
better, best" identification, too, since good is merely average, and better implies
that it's inferior to at least one other product. John Wayne-style toilet paper
(rough, tough, and, er, you know the rest) will be the "best"; standard Charmin
won't be able to handle just being "better," so they'll have to start calling it
"more best," or maybe "extra best." Maybe even "galacta-mundo" for the really
good stuff. Yeah, I just made that word up, but relax. I'll give you an example so
you can be sure you use it correctly: "After that night of drinking Tabasco sauce
and eating jalapenos, the extra-best toilet paper wasn't cutting it, so I reached for
the galacta-mundo Charmin. That did the trick."
Here are some more usage examples of the upcoming classification system. For
instance, a trip to the movies:
"I'd like a large Coke, please"
"Would you like the large or our Bladder-Cup?"
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"Umm, bladder-what?"
"It's called a Bladder-Cup sir, we named it that because it's not possible to drink
the whole thing without exploding your bladder."
"Just gimme a slightly-larger-than-average-sized Coke. I'm not really big on
doing myself bodily harm when consuming beverages."
Or maybe the purchase of a new television set:
"Hi, I'm looking for something in a big screen."
"Big as in 'barn door,' or big as in 'side of a Buick?' "
"I'd say more to the effect of 'side of a Honda.' "
"Right this way, sir, are our assortment of 'bigger' televisions. The big screens
are anything up to 36 inches. Bigger screens are 36 to 48 inches, and the
eyeball-burners are anything over 48 inches."
I consider myself to be a medium-sized guy. My 165-pound frame fits nicely in
medium-sized chairs, cars, and other objects still subjectively classified
correctly. But when I buy a T-shirt, I wear an extra large. Not because I like
baggy clothes, that just happens to be the size that I fit in without looking like a
skinny version of James Dean trying to wear a T-shirt one size too small for me
and show off muscles I don't have. I can't imagine why the clothing industry
would classify people as being "large" inadvertently. Large by what standard? Is
it supposed to make me and other scrawny weaklings feel better about ourselves
since we fill out "large" shirts? Ever intimidated anyone by showing them your
shirt label? "Hey man, don't mess with me! See this Haynes Beefy Tee? Extra
Large, baby! You don't want none of this!" Somehow I doubt they teach that in
self-defense class.
Call a spade a spade, for crying out loud! The purpose of having words that
distinguish relative size is to be able to have something at the extremes to set the
standard. If it's the smallest you make, call it "SMALL." If it's the one that fits
the majority, call it "MEDIUM," and if it's the biggest that is possibly available,
call it LARGE. I see no need in qualifying things that are the biggest, best, or
longest with words like "Extra" or "Mega."
Now if you'll excuse me, my Extra-Grande-Size Mega Coffee Pot is done
brewing.
From The Roane State Review, February 2000
Narrative/Descriptive
To write a narrative essay, youll need to tell a story (usually about something
that happened to you) in such a way that he audience learns a lesson or gains
insight.
To write a descriptive essay, youll need to describe a person, object, or event so
vividly that the reader feels like he/she could reach out and touch it.
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Tips for writing effective narrative and descriptive essays:


Tell a story about a moment or event that means a lot to you--it will make
it easier for you to tell the story in an interesting way!
Get right to the action! Avoid long introductions and lengthy
descriptions--especially at the beginning of your narrative.
Make sure your story has a point! Describe what you learned from
this experience.
Use all five of your senses to describe the setting, characters, and the plot
of your story. Don't be afraid to tell the story in your own voice. Nobody
wants to read a story that sounds like a textbook!
How to Write Vivid Descriptions
Having trouble describing a person, object, or event for your narrative or
descriptive essay? Try filling out this chart:
What do you smell?

What do you taste?

What do you see?

Remember: Avoid simply telling us what something looks like--tell us how


it tastes, smells, sounds, or feels!
Consider this
Virginia rain smells different from a California drizzle.
A mountain breeze feels different from a sea breeze.
We hear different things in one spot, depending on the time of day.
You can taste things youve never eaten: how would sunscreen taste?
Using Concrete Details for Narratives
Effective narrative essays allow readers to visualize everything that's happening,
in their minds. One way to make sure that this occurs is to use concrete, rather
than abstract, details.

What do you

Concrete Language

Abstract Language

makes the story or image seem clearer and more


real to us.

...makes the story or image difficult to vi

gives us information that we can easily grasp and leaves your reader feeling empty, disc
perhaps empathize with.
and possibly confused.
The word abstract might remind you of modern art. An abstract painting, for
example, does not normally contain recognizable objects. In other words, we
can't look at the painting and immediately say "that's a house" or "that's a bowl
of fruit." To the untrained eye, abstract art looks a bit like a child's fingerpainting--just brightly colored splotches on a canvas.
Avoid abstract languageit wont help the reader understand what you're
trying to say!
Examples:
Abstract: It was a nice day.
Concrete: The sun was shining and a slight breeze blew across my face.
Abstract: I liked writing poems, not essays.
Concrete: I liked writing short, rhythmic poems and hated rambling on
about my thoughts in those four-page essays.
Abstract: Mr. Smith was a great teacher.
Concrete: Mr. Smith really knew how to help us turn our thoughts into
good stories and essays.
Leandro
by Joan Kendrick
Student Sample: Short Narrative
I'll never forget the day I began to suspect that there was an advantage to being a
white Anglo-Saxon Protestant.
The incident that I'm relating occurred on a hot, humid May morning in 1947. I
was a first-grade student in Miss Butler's class at Fanning Elementary School in
San Antonio, Texas. The disturbance was over in a matter of moments, but the
memory of it is imprinted forever in my mind.
Miss Butler was infamous for her stern discipline. Little hands and minds were
kept busy, and anything that resembled foolishness was quickly curtailed with a
sharp rap on the head or knuckles with the long pointed stick she carried. You
can imagine the horror I felt when, while drawing in a deep breath of air, I
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accidentally whistled. Miss Butler spun around from the blackboard, and seeing
my expression, demanded, "Joan, did you do that?"
I managed to find my voice and pointed to the Mexican boy next to me and said,
"No. Leandro did it." His denial was of no consequence; in a moment the stick
had descended, and Leandro was sobbing into his worn shirt sleeve.
Somehow, I had known she would believe me. After all, I was a nicely dressed
little white girl, and I lived in a pretty white house, and my mother was active in
the PTA. And Leandro, who was he? A fat little Mexican boy who had difficulty
speaking English and whose mother had too many children to care for to attend
meetings. And besides, we all knew how "spicks" lied and stole and then prayed
for forgiveness to idols that smiled down from their candle-lit altars.
Leandro, how I wish that I could ask your forgiveness. I don't remember your
last name, but I'll never forget your face. My sin went beyond the telling of a lie.
I knew that my skin was whiter than yours and that somehow that had given me
an advantage over you.
And I was six years old.
Diller's Dilemma
by Joyce Goodman
Student Sample: Descriptive
As far as I am concerned, the unpardonable sin is someone dropping by our
house before noon on Saturdays.
Since I go to school and work too, Saturday is the only day of the week on
which I can be lazy and sleep late. Therefore, I am late getting my housework
done. By Saturday, my house is completely in ruins; anyone who is blessed with
a six-year-old boy can understand what I am talking about. As an example, it is
not uncommon to walk into the living room and find an old ragged sheet or quilt
stretched across a couple of chairsthis serves as his tent. This is the exact time
some people decide to come by to see us. As the visitors come in, I hurriedly
snatch the tent down, but immediately wish that I hadn't for under it are
Chewbacca, Hans Solo, Luke Skywalker, C3PO. And R2D2. Trying
nonchalantly to push these Star Wars creatures aside with my bare foot, I
suddenly stop. My foot has come in contact with some unknown substanceit
is oozing up between my toes. I look down and silently blaspheme the makers of
Green Slime. As I gently remove my foot from this green wad, some of it
continues to cling between my toes. Pretending that it doesn't bother me, I lead
our guests into the dining room, hoping it will be more presentable. Much to my
dismay, it does not look any better, for there, on the table, are the remains of my
daughter's midnight snack. The remains include a black banana peeling that
looks like a relic from The Dark Ages; an empty glass with a dried milk ring;
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two stale blueberry pop-ups; and a pile of orange-red carrot peelings. My


daughter is a border-line vegetarian, so the latter does not surprise me.
Having removed the residue from the table and seated our early birds, I am
brought to the second reasons why I dislike having company on Saturday
mornings. Remembering my in-bred Southern manners, I ask if I can get our
guests something to eat or drinkwhen it hits me like a two-by-fourI have
nothing to offer. This is grocery shopping day. I scrounge around the kitchen and
find a piece of molder cheese and a box of stale Ritz Crackers. As I humbly set
this before my guests, I am wondering if they like grape Kool-Aid. I fix a
pitcherfullall the while limping along and hating the slime that ha "set up,"
like concrete, between my toes. Finally, I sit down with my friends and try to
start a conversation, wondering why they are staring at me.
As their gawking continues, I take a quick inventory. No wonder they are staring
at meI would finish in first place in a Phyllis Diller look-alike contest. A slow
red begins creeping up my neck as I realize that I'm still in my gown and
housecoat, hair in disarray, no makeup, and green slime between my toes. Yet, I
have no alternatives but to sit and endure, because my children are still asleep,
and my husband left early to make hospital rounds (or was it to get away from
home?). My company doesn't stay longthey have already seen enough. I smile
and say, "y'all come back now, hear?"
Since the morning is already ruined, I think I'll finish up the cheese and crackers,
drink another glass of Kool-Aid, leave the slime between my toes, and go back
to bed.
Instructor: Howard
Division & Classification
How should I go about choosing my topic?
Begin by reading the explanations below. Examples of each are provided
below!
Division Essay: find a topic that people might tend to underestimate or
over-simplify. In other words, choose something that the average person
might not know much about, and therefore can't really understand how
complex or interesting that topic really is. Your job in the essay will be to
break your topic down into meaningful and important categories.
Classification Essay: think about the categories we place things in
everyday and the characteristics of those categories. The topic you
choose should allow you to argue that something has been misplaced.
How should I organize this essay?
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As you write, keep these guidelines in mind:


1. Your thesis statement and introduction will need to explain why these
divisions/ classifications should matter to your reader.
2. Your thesis statement and introduction MUST define or explain the
category you plan to discuss (i.e. A sport is a competitive, physical
activity therefore cheerleading should be considered a sport.)
3. You should organize your body paragraphs so that each division or
category has it's own paragraph or section. (i.e. cardio exercise is
paragraph 1 and weightlifting is paragraph 2, etc.)
Division Essay Examples
If you want to lose weight, simply saying that you're going to "exercise"
everyday may not be the most effective way to do so. Exercising is more
complex than many people realize--attaining your goals will involve
understanding how different types of exercise can help you achieve your goals.
Types of Exercise
cardio: burns calories and strengthens your heart (running, using an
elliptical or stair-stepping machine, etc.)
weight lifting: tones muscles, increases physical strength, burns fat (using
weights or weighted machines)
recreational/sports: depending on the sport, can provide both cardio and
toning benefits (cycling, tennis, kayaking)
We could also narrow this topic down a bit further and write about the important
differences between different types of cycling.
Types of Cycling: stationary (exercise) biking, road biking, mountain biking,
recreational biking
Classification Essay Examples
To write this type of essay, we'll need to think about things that should or should
not be placed in a particular category.
Example: Batman (that's our topic!) is not a superhero (category people place
him in), but is simply a local vigilante (category he belongs in).
Ask yourself: Why do I think that...?
Does not possess super powers (powers most humans don't possess).
Chooses to be a hero, rather than being "chosen" by others/other forces.
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Example: Cheerleading (That's our topic!) should be considered a sport (It


belongs in the category, "sports").
Ask yourself: Why do I think that...?
cheerleaders go to "practice" and must be in good physical shape
cheerleaders work together toward a common goal
cheerleaders must "try out" for their squad and often compete against
other squads
Shades of Character
by Michelle Watson
Anyone who has spent time with or around children will notice that each one has
a special personality all of their own. Children, like adults, have different traits
that make up their personalities. Experts have researched this phenomenon in
detail and classified children into different categories. Some experts have named
more than three categories, but Peter L. Manigone has chosen three that most
experts agree with. These categories have been named flexible, fearful, and
feisty. Children generally may have similar interests, but the way they interact
and deal with these interests displays their personality type.
The first personality type is called flexible. This is the most common of the three
types. About 40 percent of all children fall into the flexible or easy group
(Mangione). These children usually handle feelings of anger and disappointment
by reacting mildly upset. This does not mean that they do not feel mad or
disappointed, they just choose to react mildly. These actions mean the flexible
child is easy to take care of and be around. According to Mangione, they usually
adapt to new situations and activities quickly, are toilet-trained easily, and are
generally cheerful. Flexible children are subtle in their need for attention.
Rather than yelling and demanding it, they will slowly and politely let their
caregiver know about the need. If they do not get the attention right away, they
seldom make a fuss. They patiently wait, but they still make it known that
they need the attention. These children also are easygoing, so routines like
feeding and napping are regular (Mangione).
Flexible children may be referred to as good as gold because of their cheerful
attitudes. Since these are well-behaved children, the caregiver needs to make
sure the child is getting the attention they need. The caregiver should check in
with the flexible child from time to time (Mangione). By checking in with the
child regularly, the caregiver will be more knowledgeable about when the child
needs attention and when they do not.
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The next temperament is the fearful type. These are the more quiet and shy
children. This makes up about 15 percent of children (Mangione). They adapt
slowly to new environments and take longer than flexible children when
warming up to things. When presented with a new environment, fearful children
often cling to something or someone familiar. Whether it be the main caregiver
or a material object such as a blanket, the fearful child will cling to it until they
feel comfortable with the new situation. This can result in a deep attachment of
the child to a particular caregiver or object. Fearful children may also withdraw
when pushed into a new situation too quickly (Mangione). They may also
withdraw when other children are jumping into a new project or situation they
are not comfortable with. These children may tend to play alone rather than with
a group.
In dealing with fearful children, caregivers find they need more attention than
flexible children. A good technique for helping these children is having a
sequence of being with, talking to, stepping back, remaining available, and
moving on (Mangione). The caregiver can also help the fearful child by giving
them extra soothing combined with an inch-by-inch fostering of independence
and assertiveness (Viorst). One of the most effective techniques is just taking it
slow and helping the child become more comfortable with the surroundings.
The third temperament type is called feisty. About 10 percent of children fit
into this category (Mangione). A feisty child expresses their opinions in a very
intense way. Whether they are happy or mad, everyone around them will know
how they feel. These children remain active most of the time, and this causes
them to be very aggressive. Feisty children often have the tendency to have a
negative persistence and will go on and on nagging, whining and
negotiating (Facts About Temperament) if there is something they
particularly want. Unlike flexible children, feisty children are irregular in their
napping and feeding times, but they do not adapt well to changes in their
routines. They get used to things and wont give them up ("Facts About
Temperament"). Anything out of the ordinary could send them into some type of
fit. If these children are not warned of a change, they may react very negatively
(Mangione). Feisty children also tend to be very sensitive to their surrounding
environment. As a result, they may have strong reactions to their surroundings.
When dealing with feisty children, the caregiver should know strategies that
receive positive results when different situations arise. Mangione supports the
redirection technique to calm feisty children. This method helps when the
child is reacting very negatively to a situation. To properly implement the
redirection technique
begin by recognizing and empathizing with the feelings of the feisty child and
placing firm limits on any unacceptable behavior. This response lets the child
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know that both his or her desire for the toy and feelings of anger when denied
the toy are acceptable to the caregiver. At the same time, the caregiver should
clearly communicate to the child that expressing anger through hurtful or
disruptive behavior is not acceptable. The child will probably need time to
experience his or her emotions and settle down.
Then offer an alternative toy or activity that may interest the child, who is
then given time to consider the new choice and to accept or reject it. (Mangione)
Caregivers should consider that these children generally do not have regular
feeding and napping times. The caregiver should be flexible when working with
these children, and try to conform more to the child (Mangione). If there is
going to be a change in a childs routine, the caregiver has an easier time with
the child if the child has been warned of the change.
Generally speaking, children can be divided into three groups, but caregivers
must not forget that each child is an individual. Children may have the traits of
all three of the personality groups, but they are categorized into the one they are
most like. Whatever their temperament, children need to be treated according to
their individual needs. When these needs are met appropriately the child will be
happier, and those around the child will feel better also. Knowing the general
personality types and how to react to them will help to make the caregivers job
much easier and aid in the relief of unnecessary stress.
Works Cited
Facts About Temperament. Temperamentproject n.d.
<http://www.temperamentproject.bc.ca/ html/facts.html> 25 Oct 2000.
Mangione, Peter L. The Different Temperaments of Infants and Toddlers. J.
Ronald Lally. Dir. Janet Poole. Media Services Unit, California Department of
Education. California Department of Education.
Viorst, Judith. Is Your Childs Personality Set at Birth? Tennessee Electronic
Library. (Nov. 1995) Online. InfoTrac OneFile, A17618832.
Rehabilitative Therapies: Physical, Occupational, and Speech
by Rebecca Patton
When many people hear the word "therapy," they think of something that has
caused a problem and has to be fixed. In most cases, that is true. Most people
think the problem may be an injury that has to be rehabilitated or an extreme
mental problem where the person needs serious help. However, therapy does not
always deal with injured or mentally troubled people. Three types of therapy that
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help a wide range of people with their problems are physical, occupational, and
speech therapies.
Physical therapy is the one that deals mostly with injuries and their
rehabilitation. According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook, "Physical
therapists provide services that help restore function, improve mobility, relieve
pain, and prevent or limit permanent physical disabilities of patients suffering
from injuries or disease" (205). Disabling conditions such as lower-back pain,
cerebral palsy, arthritis, heart disease, and fractures, as well as physical injuries,
are among the cases physical therapists often evaluate and treat. This therapy
often includes strength-building exercises. Therapists in this field work on the
person's flexibility, endurance, strength, balance, and coordination. Most therapy
is done in specializing clinics or hospitals by a licensed physical therapist who
has a bachelor's degree ("Physical").
Physical therapy is a fairly new practice of rehabilitation. The treatments were
not widely practiced until after World War I when soldiers returned home with
injuries that were able to be rehabilitated by this therapy. The profession
immediately began to grow and has been popular in the U. S. since that time.
The vocation is also expected to continue growing for several more years. But
physical therapy is not the only type of therapy that involves the rehabilitation of
injuries (The Princeton Review).
The other type of therapy that may deal some with injuries is occupational
therapy. Enhancing fine motor skills is the focus of this therapy. Occupational
therapists set a goal for their patients which enables them to have more
"independent, productive, and satisfying lives" by teaching them how to perform
daily functions without the aid of others. Some of these functions may include
eating, getting dressed, or using the bathroom. Exercises that improve balance,
coordination, trunk control, dexterity, and basic muscle movement are used
towards a person's road to an easier lifestyle. Occupational therapists work
mainly with people who have disabilities. These may include people with spinal
cord injuries, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or people who have had a
stroke ("Occupational").
Occupational therapy is my current major of study, so I am doing volunteer
work for several therapists right now at Parent-Child Services in West
Knoxville. It is very interesting to sit and observe each session. I am presently
observing a four-year-old victim of near drowning who was thought to be dead,
but was brought back to life. His focus is on balance and coordination right now.
I am also observing a child with cerebral palsy. He is one of my favorite children
to work with. He is working on strengthening his muscles in his trunk and legs
while continuing to work on balance and coordination. Most patients are treated
with therapy in clinics, hospitals, or schools. An occupational therapist must
have a bachelor's degree and be licensed by the state in order to practice. As well
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as physical and occupational therapy, speech therapy is another type of therapy


that works with some disabilities and injuries.
Speech therapy is usually grouped with the other two but does not involve as
much physical injury. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists help
people who have speech and hearing defects. They identify the problem, then
use tests to further evaluate it. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists
also try to improve the speech and hearing defect by treating the patient
("Speech" 551). These therapists also treat patients with communication, voice,
or swallowing problems. The person's problem may be a result of hearing loss,
brain deterioration, stroke, or mental retardation. Speech therapists help a person
with pronunciation of words, making sounds, or pitch control. For those who are
hearing impaired, therapists may teach them sign language to help them better
communicate with others. A great deal of this type of therapy takes place in
specializing clinics while some takes place in schools, teaching children how to
relate to others. All licensed speech therapists are required to have a master's
degree to practice therapy ("Speech").
These three types of therapy--physical, occupational, and speech--are just a few
that are offered to those with disabilities or injuries. Even though these are
totally different in their realm of patients, problems, and solutions, the main goal
of each therapist is to work with the patient to help them recover and live an
easier lifestyle. Some people cannot fully recover, but all the help they can
receive is a step forward. The job market for these services is continually
growing as more and more people are beginning to need these treatments and
services. These therapies have been very beneficial to an abundance of people
over the years. The outlook for therapists in these fields looks good as
employment is expected to increase at a rate faster than average through 2008.
Works Cited
"Occupational Therapists." Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2000-01 ed. U. S.
Department of Labor, Jan. 2000. 202-03.
"Physical Therapists." Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2000-01 ed. U. S.
Department of Labor, Jan. 2000. 206.
The Princeton Review. "Physical Therapist." Review.com. 2000.
<http://www.review.com> 26 Oct. 2000.
"Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists." Encyclopedia of Careers and
Vocational Guidance. 10th ed. Vol. 4 Chicago: J. G. Ferguson, 1997. 551.
---. Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2000-01 ed. U. S. Department of Labor,
Jan. 2000. 215.

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