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Psalm 22

a. [Psalmus David] Dominus regit


me, et nihil mihi deerit: in loco
pascuae ibi me collocavit. Super
aquam refectionis educavit me:
animam meam convertit. Deduxit
me super semitas iustitiae, propter
nomen suum.

a. [A psalm for David] The Lord ruleth me: and I


shall want nothing. He hath set me in a place of
pasture. He hath brought me up, on the water of
refreshment: he hath converted my soul. He hath
led me on the paths of justice, for his own name's
sake.

b. Nam et si ambulavero in medio


umbrae mortis, non timebo mala,
quoniam tu mecum es. Virga tua et
baculus tuus, ipsa me consolata
sunt: parasti in conspectu meo
mensam
adversus
eos
qui
tribulant me. Impiguasti in oleo
caput meum: et calix meus
inebrians quam praeclarus est.

b. For though I should walk in the midst of the


shadow of death, I will fear no evils, for thou art
with me. Thy rod and thy staff, they have
comforted me. Thou hast prepared a table before
me against them that afflict me. Thou hast
anointed my head with oil; and my chalice which
inebriatheth me, how goodly is it!

c. Et misericordia tua subsequetur


me, omnibus diebus vitae meae. Et
ut inhabitem in domo Domini in
longitudinem dierum.

c. And thy mercy will follow me all the days of my


life. And that I may dwell in the house of the Lord
unto length of days.

a. Psalmista supra in persona Christi


dixit de sua tribulatione multa; hic
autem dicit de remedio quo in ea
sustentatur. Et primo commemorat
beneficia
quibus
sustentatur.
Secundo potentiam sustentationis,
ibi, Domini est terra.

a. Previously, the Psalmist spoke in the person of


Christ concerning his many tribulations. Here, he
speaks of the assistance by which he is preserved in
these (tribulations). He remembers, first, the
kindnesses by which he is preserved, and second,
the strength of (his) preservation, at, The earth is the
Lord's (Psalm 23).

Psalmus iste non habet novum


titulum, sed videtur designare aliquos
in via ambulantes: unde potest
significare
reditum
populi
de
Babylone, et signat reditum Christi de
mundo ad caelum.

This psalm does not have a new title, but seems to


describe those walking upon a path: whence it can
signify the return of the people from Babylon, and the
return of Christ to heaven from earth.

Circa
hoc
duo
facit.
Primo
commemorat beneficia praeterita.
Secundo commemorat beneficia
futura, ibi, Et misericordia tua. Circa
primum duo facit. Primo commemorat
beneficia
quae
consistunt
in
consolatione bonorum. Secundo ea
quae consistunt in adiutorio contra
mala, ibi, Nam et si ambulavero.
Circa primum tria tangit. Primo
commemorat sufficientiam divinae
promissionis.
Secundo
eius
abundantiam, ibi, In loco pascuae.
Tertio eius effectus, ibi, Animam
meam convertit.

Concerning (the present psalm), he does two things.


First, he brings past kindnesses to mind, and then
future ones, at, And thy mercy. Concerning the first
he does two things. He brings to mind those
kindnesses which consist, first, in the comfort of
goods, and secondly in aid against evils, at, For
though I should walk. Concerning the first, he does
three things. He calls to mind, first, the sufficiency of
the divine promise, second, its fullness, at, In a place
of pasture, and third, its effect, at, He hath converted
my soul.

Ponit
ergo
primo
divinam
provisionem: unde dicit, Dominus
regit me.
Hieronymus, Dominus
pascit me. Et idem est; quia qui
pascit, regit. Et intelligitur in persona
ecclesiae, dici de Christo qui est
pastor noster: Ioan. 10: Ego sum
pastor bonus: Matth. 6: Respicite
volatilia caeli etc. quia Deus dicitur
pastor noster: ipse enim pascit etiam
volatilia caeli, ut dictum est Mich. 7:
Pasce populum tuum in virga tua,
gregem hereditatis tuae: Rom. 15:
Qui exurget regere gentes. Et
sufficienter pascit; unde dicit, Nihil
mihi deerit: scilicet de eo quod est
necessarium ad salutem: et in
temporalibus Luc. 22: Quando misi
vos sine sacculo et pera etc.
numquid aliquid etc.. Matth. 6:
Primum quaerite regnum Dei, et haec
omnia adiicientur vobis. Tum in futuro
omnem sufficientiam habebimus,
q u i a Nihil deerit nobis, quoniam
habebimus Deum.

Therefore, he first sets forth the divine providence:


whence he says, The Lord ruleth me. Jerome('s
version has), The Lord shepherds me. And this
(amounts to) the same (thing), for he who shepherds,
rules. And this is understood on the part of the
Church, (and is) to be said of Christ who is our
shepherd: John 10:11: I am the good shepherd;
Matthew 6:26: Behold the birds of the air etc.; for God
is called our shepherd: He Himself shepherds even
the birds of the air, as (His shepherding) is spoken of
at Micheas 7:14: (Feed) Shepherd thy people with
thy rod, the flock of thy inheritance: Romans 15:12:
He that shall rise up to rule the Gentiles. And he
shepherds sufficiently; whence (the psalmist) says, I
shall want nothing: namely concerning that which is
necessary for (his) salvation; and in temporal
matters, there is Luke 22:35: When I sent you without
purse, and scrip, and shoes, did you want any thing?
But they said: Nothing etc.; Matthew 6:33: Seek ye
first...the kingdom of God...and all these things shall
be added unto you. At that time in the future, we will
have every sufficiency, since I shall want nothing, for
we will have God.

Abundantiam
omnem
designat
metaphorice per abundantiam cibi et
potus. Quia si pascit, habet se ad nos
sicut pastor ad oves; quae duobus
pascuntur, scilicet herbis et aqua.
Quantum ad primum dicit, In loco
pascuae ibi me collocavit, idest
pascuoso, ubi est abundantia
herbarum. Haec abundantia sunt
sacra documenta divinae scripturae
et spiritualium abundantia: Ezech.
34: In herbis virentibus et in pascuis
pinguibus pascentur. Quantum ad
secundum
dicit, Super aquam
refectionis educavit me.

He describes every abundance metaphorically


through an abundance of food and drink. For if he
pastures us, he is related to us as a shepherd to (his)
sheep, who are nourished in two ways, namely by
grass and water. With respect to the first, he says, He
hath set me in a place of pasture, that is, fit for
pasture where there is an abundance of grass.
These abundances are the sacred writings of divine
scripture and spiritual things: Ezechiel 34:14: ...on
green grass, and be fed in fat pastures... With
respect to the second, he states, He hath brought me
up on the water of refreshment.

Et dicit Collocavit, quia sermo divinus


duo facit: scilicet incipientes instruit,
et perficientes firmat. Propter primum
d i c i t , In loco pascuae. Propter
secundum dicit, ibi Me collocavit.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Super
aquam refectionis educavit me. Haec
est aqua baptismi: Ezech. 36:
Effundam super vos aquam mundam
etc.

And he says He has set, because the divine word


does two things, namely it instructs beginners, and
strengthens the accomplished. With respect to the
first, he says, In a place of pasture. With respect to
the second, he says, He has set me there. As for the
second he says, He hath brought me up on the water
of refreshment. This is the water of baptism: Ezechiel
36:25: I will pour upon you clean water etc.

Vel est aqua sapientiae sacrae


doctrinae; quae quidem et est cibus,
quia confortat; et aqua, quia
refrigerat: Eccl. 15: Aqua sapientiae
salutaris potavit illum.

Or, it is the water of the wisdom of holy scripture;


which is certainly food and water, because it
strengthens much and refreshes respectively:
Ecclesiasticus
15:3: The water of wholesome
wisdom to drink.

Animam meam convertit. Hic est


effectus
pascuae,
quia animam
meam convertit. Vel dicit, quae sint
haec pascua; quia conversio animae.
Est autem duplex effectus spiritualis
doctrinae. Primus est interior, in
conversione animae ad Deum,
quando totaliter se a rebus mundi
trahit.
Psal.
18: Lex Domini
immaculata
convertens
animas,
testimonium etc. Et conversio fit
virtute Dei. Thren. ult.: Converte nos
Domine ad te.

He hath converted my soul. Here is the effect of


pasture, that it Hath converted my soul. Or, he says
what these pastures are that (effect this) conversion
of soul. There is a twofold effect of spiritual teaching.
The first is interior, in the conversion of the soul to
God, when it draws itself completely from the things
of (this) world. Psalm 18:8: The law of the Lord is
unspotted, converting souls, the testimony (of the
Lord is faithful, giving wisdom to little ones). And
conversion is effected by the power of God.
Lamentations 5:21: Convert us, O Lord, to thee.

Alius effectus est exterior, ut opera


exteriora exequatur; unde dicit:
Deduxit me super semitas justitiae;
haec autem sunt bona opera. Isa. 40:
Rectas facite semitas Dei nostri.

The second effect (of spiritual teaching) is external,


that he carry out external works; whence he says, He
hath led me on the paths of justice; these are good
works. Isaiah 40:3: Make straight...the paths of our
God.

V e l semitae sunt consilia. Prov. 4:


Deducam te per semitas aequitatis;
et hoc, Propter nomen tuum, idest
gloriam nominis tui. Psal. 43: Propter
gloriam nominis tui libera nos.

Or, the paths are counsels. Proverbs 4:11: I will lead


thee by the paths of equity; and this, For his own
name's sake, that is, for the glory of your name.
Psalm 78:9: For the glory of your name...deliver us.

b. Nam. Hic ponit beneficia contra


mala. Et primo in generali; secundo
in speciali, ibi, Virga tua. Et loquitur
ad similitudinem hominis euntis per
loca periculosa, cui necesse est
securitas; et haec beneficia ponit hic,
Nam et si ambulavero in medio
umbrae mortis, non timebo mala,
quoniam tu mecum es, tamquam dux
et protector; et sic securus ero.
Umbra mortis dicitur praesens
tribulatio:
est
enim
umbra
praesagium corporis subsequentis.
Col. 2: Lex umbra futurorum, corpus
autem Christi; sic tribulatio est quasi
mortis indicium. In medio, idest in
intimo sive vehementia tribulationis.
Psal. 137. Si ambulavero in medio
tribulationis vivificabis me etc. Sed
Umbra mortis dicitur praesentis vita
caligine peccatorum obscura. Iob 3:
Occupet eum caligo etc.

b. For. Here he sets forth the kindnesses (which aid


him) against evils, first in general, and then,
specifically, at, Thy rod. He speaks like a man going
through a dangerous place for whom security is
necessary; and he sets forth these kindnesses here
(at), For though I should walk in the midst of the
shadow of death, I will fear no evils, for thou art with
me, as guide and protector; and thus I will be secure.
The shadow of death signifies present trouble: for a
shadow is a presage of the body which follows.
Colossians 2:17: Which are a shadow of things to
come,but the body is of Christ; thus tribulation is a
sort of sign of death. Psalm 137:7: If I shall walk in
the midst of tribulation, thou wilt quicken me etc. But,
The shadow of death, signifies the present life,
obscure, full with the mist of sins. Job 3:5: Let a mist
overspread it.

V e l Umbra mortis dicuntur facta


haereticorum portantium in se
imaginem diaboli. Iob 28: Lapidem
caliginis et umbram mortis dividit
torrens etc. Dicitur autem Umbra
mortis, quod non infert malum Deo
praesente. Iob 17: Pone me juxta te
etc. Isa. 43: Cum transieris per
aquas, tecum ero, ne flumina
operiant te: cum ambulaveris in igne,
non combureris.

O r , The shadow of death, signifies the deeds of


heretics bearing within themselves the likeness of a
devil. Job 28:3: (He hath set a time for darkness, and
the end of all things he considereth,) the stone also
that is in the dark and the shadow of death etc. It is
said, however, that The shadow of death does not
bring evil to those present to God. Job 17:3: (Deliver
me, O Lord, and) set me beside thee etc.; Isaiah
43:2: When thou shalt pass through the waters, I will
be with thee, and the rivers shall not cover thee:
when thou shalt walk in the fire, thou shalt not be
burnt, and the flames shall not burn in thee.

Sed praeter dictam securitatem ponit


tria beneficia quae Deus facit in eis.
Primo sustentat: unde dicit, Virga tua
et baculus tuus. Et hoc potest
dupliciter intelligi. Uno modo, ut per
Virgam intelligamus directionem
viae. Ps. 44: Virga directionis, virga
regni tui. Per Baculum intelligamus
sustentaculum. Tob. 5: Baculum
senectutis nostrae. Littera Hieronymi
h a b e t , Fulcimentum: quasi dicat,
ostensio et sustentatio ipsa me
consolata sunt; idest dederunt mihi
consolationem in via. 2 Cor. 1: Deus
totius consolationis qui consolatur
nos. Alio modo, ut exponatur hoc
pertinere ad correctionem, quia virga
fit correctio. Prov. 13: Qui parcit
virgae etc.

But in addition to the aforesaid security, he sets forth


three kindnesses which God does in these
conditions. First, he supports: whence he says, Thy
rod and thy staff. And this can be understood in two
ways. (In) the first way, by Rod, let us understand
guidance of life. A rod of direction is the scepter of
thy kingdom (Hebrews 1:9).
By Staff, let us
understand a prop. Tobias 5:23: The staff of our old
age. Jerome's version has Support: as if to say, "
(Your) manifestation and sustenance themselves
have comforted me;" that is, they have given me
comfort along the way. 2 Corinthians 1:3-4: (Blessed
be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the
Father of mercies, and) the God of all comfort. Who
comforteth us (in all our tribulation). In the second
way, that this may be shown to pertain to correction,
that the rod corrects. Proverbs 13:24: He that spareth
the rod (hateth his son: but he that loveth him
correcteth him betimes).

Et baculus tuus, scilicet senioris


disciplinae; quasi dicat, mitis et dura
correctio
tua
dedit
mihi
consolationem: Prov. 3: Quem diligit
corripit, et quasi pater in filio
complacet
sibi. Quantum
ad
secundum dicit, Parasti in conspectu
meo mensam, duplicis quidem
doctrinae.
Prov.
9: Proposuit
mensam, misit ancillas suas vocare
ad arcem: ubi sunt diversa fercula,
scilicet diversa documenta spiritualia.
Et hoc, In conspectu meo, q u i a In
lege meditatur die ac nocte (Ps. 1).

And thy staff, namely of the discipline of an elder; as


if he were saying, "Your gentle and also firm
correction gave me comfort;" Proverbs 3:12: For
whom the Lord loveth, he chastiseth: and as a father
in the son pleaseth himself. With respect to the
second, he says, Thou hast prepared a table before
me, of a twofold doctrine. Proverbs 9:2-3: She set
forth her table. She hath sent her maids to invite to
the tower: where there are diverse dishes, namely
diverse spiritual writings. And this, Before me,
because, On his law he shall meditate day and night
(Psalm 1:2).

Vel, Mensam sacramentalem, scilicet


altaris. Triplex enim mensa legitur in
sacra scriptura. Prima est mensa
veteris legis. Exod. 25: Facies
mensam de lignis setim: et pones
super mensam panes propositionis.
Alia est novi testamenti. 1 Cor. 10:
Non potestis mensae Domini esse
participes, et mensae daemoniorum;
et haec mensa fuit res et figura. Tertia
mensa est in patria. Luc. 22: Ego
dispono vobis regnum, ut edatis et
bibatis super mensam meam in
regno meo.

Or, the sacramental Table, namely of the altar. Table


is found in holy scriptures in three ways. First, there
is the table of the old law. Exodus 25:23, 30: Thou
shalt make a table...of setim wood...And thou shalt
set upon the table loaves of proposition. Next, there
is the (table of the) New Testament. 1 Corinthians
10:21: You cannot be partakers of the table of the
Lord, and of the table of devils; and this table was
both an actuality and a symbol. Finally, there is the
table in our homeland. Luke 22:29-30: And I dispose
to you...a kingdom; that you may eat and drink at my
table, in my kingdom.

Et utraque mensa pugnamus contra


inimicos
nostros;
unde
dicit,
Adversus eos qui tribulant me; quia
per mensam, quae est sacra
scriptura, expellimus tentationes.
Eph.
ult.: In omnibus sumentes
scutum fidei, in quo possitis omnia
tela nequissimi ignea extinguere.

And with each table, we fight against our enemies;


whence he says, Against them that afflict me; for by
the table, which is holy scriptures, we drive away
temptations. Ephesians 6:16: In all things taking the
shield of faith, wherewith you may be able to
extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one.

Item corpus Christi contra inimicos


tuetur, ut dicit Chrysostomus Super
Ioan.

Again, the body of Christ defends against enemies,


as Chrysostom says (in his Homilies) upon the
Gospel of John.

Impinguasti in oleo, idest laetitia,


caput meum. Hoc autem per duo
signatur, scilicet per oleum inungens,
et vinum inebrians. Et hoc dicit ad
similitudinem antiquorum orientalium
qui in festis ungebant capita oleo.
Isa. 61: Ut daret eis coronam pro
cinere, et oleum gaudii pro luctu.

Thou hast anointed my head with oil, that is with joy.


(One's head) is marked by two things, namely by
anointing oil, and inebriating wine. And he says that
this is similar to the eastern people of old who on a
festive day used to anoint (their) heads with oil.
Isaiah 61:3: To give them a crown for ashes, and the
oil of joy for mourning.

Caput
meum, idest Christum,
i m p i n g u a s t i , idest
replesti
abundanti ssi me , oleo
spiritualis
gratiae, ut ex eo ad nos gratia
diffunderetur.
1
Cor.
8: Unus
Dominus Iesus Christus per quem
omnia, et nos per ipsum. Psal. 44:
Unxit te etc.

My head, that is Christ, Thou hast anointed, that is,


you have filled most abundantly, With oil, (that is)
with spiritual grace, so that grace may pour out upon
us from him. 1 Corinthians 8:6: One Lord Jesus
Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. Psalm
44:8: (God, thy God,) hath anointed thee etc.

V e l , Caput meum, idest mentem


meam. Matth. 6: Tu autem cum
ieiunas, unge caput tuum, idest
mentem
oleo,
idest
spirituali
devotione,

O r , My head, that is, my intellect. Matthew 6:17:


When thou fastest anoint thy head, that is, (your)
intellect, With oil, that is, with spiritual devotion,

Et calix tuus, vel meus, idest mihi


datus, vel tuus, idest a te datus. Hic
calix est donum divini amoris qui
inebriat: quia ebrius non est in se,
nec secundum se loquitur, sed
secundum impetum vini; sic ille qui
est plenus divino amore, loquitur
secundum Deum: est enim in extasim
factus. Cant. 5: Comedite amici, et
i n e b ri a mi n i . Isa.
55: Quomodo
descendit imber et nix de caelo, et
inebriat terram, et germinare eam
facit; sic erit verbum quod egredietur
de ore meo. Hier. 23: Factus sum
quasi vir ebrius, et quasi homo
madidus vino a facie Domini.

And your chalice, or My (chalice), that is, having


been given to me, or Your (chalice), given by you.
This chalice is a gift of divine love which inebriates.
For the person who is drunk is not in control of his
faculties, nor does he speak according to himself,
but (rather) according to the impulse of the wine; in
such a manner does the one who is filled with divine
love speak according to God: for he has been
enraptured. Canticle of Canticles 5:1: ...eat, O
friends, and drink, and be inebriated. Isaiah 55:101 1 : As the rain and the snow come down from
heaven...and inebriate the earth...and make it to
spring; so shall my word be, which shall go forth from
my mouth. Jeremiah 23:9: I am become as a drunken
man, and as a man full of wine, at the presence of
the Lord.

Vel calix dicitur sanguis Christi, quia


debet
inebriare. Et hic quam
praeclarus est, idest maxime clarus.

Or, Chalice, is said of the blood of Christ, because it


ought to inebriate. How goodly is it, that is, most
glorious.

c. Et misericordia etc. Hic ponit


beneficia futura. Et primo quantum ad
participationem divinorum donorum;
secundo quantum ad fruitionem
ipsius Dei.

c. And thy mercy etc. Here he sets forth the future


kindnesses. First, with respect to (our) participation
in the divine gifts, and second to the enjoyment of
God Himself.

Dicit ergo, Haec omnia praedicta


mihi fecisti; sed rogo ut, Misericordia
tua subsequatur me. Alias petivit ut
praeveniat, hic quod subsequatur: et
utraque
est
necessaria:
quia
praeveniens est necessaria, quia
inspirat animum, subsequensque
iuvat ut efficiatur.

Therefore he states, "All these things of which I have


spoken, you have given to me; but I pray (now) so
that Your mercy will follow me." He asks for other
things so that he might anticipate this which follows.
And both are necessary, anticipating, because it
arouses the soul, and following, (because) it
supports (the soul) so that it may be effective.

Ut inhabitem in domo Domini, hoc est


in ecclesia, In longitudinem dierum,
idest semper per gratiam, et in caelo
per gloriam. Psal. 26: Unam petii a
Domino etc. Isa. 65: Gaudebitis et
exultabitis usque in sempiternum.

And that I may dwell in the house of the Lord, that is,
within the Church, Unto length of days, that is,
always by grace, and in heaven by glory. Psalm
26:4: One thing I have asked of the Lord (...that I may
dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life);
Isaiah 65:18: You shall be glad and rejoice for ever
in these things.

Latin Text according to the Venice Edition of MDCCLXXV


The Aquinas Translation Project (http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)