E28

Study on Sodium Cavitation for Fast Reactors (III)
Analysis of Cavitation with FLUENT and Erosion Experiment
Teddy Ardiansyah, Minoru Takahashi, Makoto Asaba, Kuniaki Miura AESJ Annual Meeting Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki March 27, 2010

Background
• For the development of economic (SFR), reactor vessel and components are made compact, which leads to fast flow of a coolant. • Cavitation is possible to occur due to fast flow and low static pressure. • Cavitation could lead to a severe damage of the inner part of the sodium loop system, neutronic and hydrodynamic problems.

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Purpose
• To analyze cavitation in water and liquid sodium using CFD code as well as erosion phenomena caused by cavitation in liquid sodium for 600 hours.

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Venturi test section
Cavitation coefficient

K = cavitation coefficient ρ = water/sodium density P0 = downstream static pressure Pv = water/sodium vapor pressure V1 = velocity in venturi region V0 = velocity in downstream region

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Experimental conditions
• Sodium
– T: 200-400°C – Pstag: 0.06-0.18 MPa-a

• Water
– Room temperature – Pstag: 0.06-0.12 MPa-a

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Developed cavitation observed by high speed camera (8,000 fps), Vinlet: 1.514 m/s, Pds: 0.124 MPa-a, 13oC, K: 0.98 6

Numerical calculation of cavitation
• Assumptions
– The working fluid is liquid and gas phase (vapor and non-condensable gas). – The formation and collapse of bubbles are taken into account in the model. – The mass fraction of non-condensable gas is known in advance.

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Numerical calculation (1)
• Equations used in the calculation
– Continuity equation for mixture model
∂ (ρ m ) + ∇ . ρ m υ m = 0 ∂t

(

)

– Momentum equation for mixture model

∂ ⎡ μ ⎛ ∇υ + ∇υ T ⎞⎤ ρ mυ m + ∇. ρ mυ mυ m = −∇p + ∇.⎢ m ⎜ m m ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ∂t ⎣ ⎝ ⎛ n ⎞ + ρ m g + F + ∇.⎜ ∑ α k ρ k υ dr ,k υ dr ,k ⎟ ⎝ k =1 ⎠
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(

) (

)

Numerical calculation (2)
• Equations used in the calculation
– Energy equation for mixture model
n ∂ n ∑ (α k ρ k Ek ) + ∇.∑ α k υ k (ρ k Ek + p ) = ∇.(k eff ∇T ) + S E ∂t k =1 k =1

(

)

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Numerical calculation (3)
• Based on full cavitation model by Singhal, et al.
– Transport equation of vapor mass fraction, f ∂ (ρmf ) + ∇ ρmvv f = ∇(γ∇f ) + Re − Rc ∂t

(

)

– From generalized Rayleigh-Plesset equation for bubble dynamics with limiting bubble size, Re and Rc are derived 2 pB ( t ) − p∞ ( t ) d 2 R 3 ⎛ dR ⎞ 4υ L dR 2 S =R 2 + ⎜ + ⎟ + ρL dt 2 ⎝ dt ⎠ R dt ρ L R
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Numerical calculation (4)
• When
Re = Ce

p < pv
k

σ

ρl ρ v

2( pv − p ) (1 − fv − f g ) 3 ρl

• When
Rc = Cc

p > pv
k

σ

ρl ρ v

2( pv − p ) fv 3 ρl

• empirical coefficient

Ce = 0.02

Cc = 0.01
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Calculated condition
• No slip velocity (vl-vg=0) • Non-condensable gas fraction:
– Sodium: 1, 3, 9 ppm (argon) – Water: 9, 15 and 45 ppm (air)

• Boundary condition:
– fixed inlet velocity and fixed outlet pressure (based on experimental measurements)

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Experiment
1.3 1.2 K(-)
K(-)
No cavitation (experiment) Cavitation (experiment)

Calculated
1.3 1.2 1.1 1
Beta: 1 ppm 0.9 Sodium 400°C No cavitation (calculated) Cavitation (calculated)

1.1 1
Sodium 400°C 0.9 Pstag: 0.141 MPa-a (exp)

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13 14 15 Venturi velocity (m/s)
No cavitation (experiment) Cavitation (experiment)

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12

13 14 15 Venturi velocity (m/s)
No cavitation (calculated) Cavitation (calculated)

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3 K(-) 2 1

3 K(-) 2 1

Water 10.8-13.0°C Pstag: 0.062 MPa-a (exp)

Beta: 45 ppm Water 10.8-13.0°C

0

0

10 15 Venturi velocity (m/s)

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10 15 Venturi velocity (m/s)

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Contours of void fraction in sodium for K: 0.92; T: 400°C; and 3 ppm of non-condensable gas. 15

Erosion experiment
• Temperature of sodium: 200°C • Flow rate: 27~28L/min • Pressure: 0.05~0.1Kg/cm2 (at expansion tank) • Total: 600 hours • K: 0.59~0.51 (developed cavitation)

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X-ray of venturi test section (left) and cutted parts of test section (right).

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No.6 x 50

No.7 x 100

No.6 Outlet

100μm

No.6 Outlet

100μm

30μm

No.6 Outlet

Optical micrograph (up) and SEM of the test section 18 (bottom).

Conclusion
• Onset cavitations are influenced by noncondensable gas. • Non-condensable gas fraction in liquid sodium is lower than in water because of the different solubility. • Erosion occurred at downstream of the test section in sodium cavitation for 600 h.

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Thank You for Your Attention.