Laboratory Report School of Engineering The College of New Jersey

Experiment Title: IC Oscillator Experiment No. 3 Report Submitted by: Tom DeVito, Dan Chokola Date Performed: 1 March 2010 Section: 01 Date Submitted: 2 April 2010 Instructor: Dr. Allen Katz Course: ELC-373 Class No.: 6 INSTRUCTOR'S EVALUATION Form Procedure Data Calculations Graphs Sketches Comments: For further information, see inside cover. Schematic Analysis Tabulated Results Conclusion Days Late See Me Group: 6

Report Accepted Correct & Return

Grade: Evaluated by:

Resubmission Date Resubmitted: Report Accepted Not Accepted Grade:

Lab Handout Table of Contents Table of Contents
Lab Handout......................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents...............................................................................................................1 Circuit Diagram (DC)..........................................................................................................4 Materials (TD)....................................................................................................................5 Equipment.................................................................................................................5 Parts..........................................................................................................................5 Measured Data (TD)..........................................................................................................6 Sample Calculations (DC).................................................................................................7 Graphical Data (DC)..........................................................................................................8 Tabulated Results (TD)....................................................................................................10 Analysis (TD)...................................................................................................................11 Conclusion (DC)...............................................................................................................14 Appendix A – Original Data Scan....................................................................................15

Lab Handout

Lab Handout

Circuit Diagram (DC)

Figure 1: Schematic of IC oscillator.

Materials (TD)
Equipment
Description 100 MHz Mixed-Signal Oscilloscope1 Make/Model HP 54645D Serial No. US39150205

Four Linear Regulated Power Supplies Elenco Precision XP-581 N/A

Parts
Part Nominal Value2

RA 25 kΩ RB 25 kΩ R 10 kΩ R 15 kΩ R 82 kΩ C 3.3 nF C 0.01 μF

1 This oscilloscope also provided spectral data. 2 No measured values were taken since none of the values are critical.

Measured Data (TD)
Harmonic Sine Triangle Square 2nd 3rd 4th 26.56 24.38 40.05 23.13 40.81 27.61 16.10 9.375 16.10

Table 1: Harmonic suppression of each tested waveform (dB).

Sample Calculations (DC)
Potentiometer values for IC oscillator: R A≃R B= R Frequency of IC oscillator as a function of R and C: 0.3 f= RC Total harmonic distortion: (1)

(2)

∑V2 k
THD=
k=2

n

V

2 1

V 2V 2V 2 2 3 4 V
2 1

(3)

Graphical Data (DC)

Figure 2: 10 kHz sine wave output of the IC oscillator.

Figure 3: 10 kHz triangle wave output of the IC oscillator.

Figure 4: 10 kHz square wave output of the IC Figure 5: 10 kHz sine wave spectrum showing oscillator. the first 9 harmonics.

Figure 6: 10 kHz triangle wave spectrum showing the first 9 harmonics.

Figure 7: 10 kHz square wave spectrum showing the first 9 harmonics and additional spectral energy in between harmonics.

Figure 8: 1 kHz sine wave frequency modulated Figure 9: 1 kHz sine wave frequency modulated with 10 kHz sine wave carrier. The thin traces with 10 kHz sine wave carrier. indicate a peak on the 1 kHz modulating wave, while there are 10 cycles in each dark region, corresponding to the 10 kHz carrier.

Figure 10: Spectrum of 1 kHz sine wave frequency modulated with 10 kHz sine wave carrier showing approximately 10 kHz bandwidth.

Figure 11: Spectrum of 0.1 VRMS 1 kHz sine wave frequency modulated with 10 kHz sine wave carrier showing distinct peaks spaced every 10 kHz.

Figure 12: Spectrum of 1 VRMS 1 kHz sine wave Figure 13: Spectrum of 2.5 VRMS 1 kHz sine frequency modulated with 10 kHz sine wave wave frequency modulated with 10 kHz sine carrier. wave carrier.

Tabulated Results (TD)
Waveform Vp-p Sine Triangle Square Calculated 3rd Measured 3rd Error (%) harmonic (Fourier) harmonic 27.65 mV 281.1 mV 4.312 V ∞ 22.56 19.94

2.781 V 0 4.031 V 363.0 mV 12.69 V 5.386 V

Table 2: Comparison of calculated and measured 3rd harmonics for each measured waveform.

Waveform Sine Wave

Harmonic Distortion (%) Frequency Separation 1.90 1 kHz 1 kHz 1 kHz

Triangle Wave 2.35 Square Wave N/A

Table 3: Harmonic distortion and frequency separation of each measured waveform.

Analysis (TD)
In this experiment, we observed the spectra of different periodic waveforms: sine, square, and triangular. We were also to illustrate basic frequency modulation and note the effects of varying amplitude and frequency. Harmonic distortion and frequency deviation were also explored. RA, RB, and C values were selected to completely construct the oscillator. We found our values to be R A=R B=9090 and C=3.3 nF via equations (1) and (2) to cause the circuit to oscillate at 10 kHz. Two 25 kΩ potentiometers were selected for RA and RB to allow adjustment of the frequency to 10 kHz. The circuit was then constructed and adjusted to oscillate at 1 kHz. We observed the spectra of the sine (Figure 2), triangle (Figure 3), and square (Figure 4) waves, in order.3 We noticed that the spectrum of the sine wave had visible harmonics (Figure 5) with 26.56 dB of suppression that quickly rolled off (Table 1), showing that the harmonics would cause little distortion to the fundamental frequency. We also observed that the triangle wave had a similar spectrum (Figure 6). It had spectral energy at the same frequencies as the sine wave, but with different amplitudes and rolling off less rapidly (Table 1). This difference in harmonic energy accounts for the triangular shape of the wave. The square wave spectrum again showed the same harmonics (Figure 7), but with far less suppression (Table 1), and with additional spectral energy in between harmonics. The wide spread of spectral energy accounts for the square shape of the wave. Each successive wave measured leaks more energy into harmonics, showing why a sine wave is the most efficient carrier waveform in most communications systems. The Fourier series predicts the harmonics for any periodic waveform. Table 2 compares the calculated and measured 3rd harmonic of each waveform. For the sine wave, there should only be spectral energy at the frequency of the sine wave, however 27.65 mV were measured at the 3rd harmonic. Both the triangle and square waves have their spectral energy confined to odd harmonics only. The harmonics of the triangle
3 The referenced figures are actually 10 kHz waveforms, but the 1 kHz waveforms are virtually identical.

wave roll off with the inverse square of the harmonic number 1,

1 1 , 2 , ... , while the 2 3 5

square wave harmonics roll off simply with the inverse of the harmonic number

1 1 1, , , ... . The triangle wave showed a 22.56% larger 3rd harmonic than calculated 3 5

while the square wave 3rd harmonic was 19.94% larger. Additionally, frequency separation and harmonic distortion were calculated (Table 3) using equation (3). Frequency separation is simply the spacing, in units of frequency, between harmonics. This spacing is 1 kHz for all tested waveforms. While harmonic distortion is not relevant for triangle or square waves, it was nevertheless calculated for the triangle wave, showing that a triangle wave is essentially a sine wave with 2.35% harmonic distortion. The sine wave was 1.90% distorted by harmonics. It can be concluded that the 8038 introduces harmonic distortion that is unpredicted by the Fourier series. The circuit was adjusted to oscillate at 10 kHz and a 1 kHz sine wave was input to the circuit to produce a frequency modulated output. The resulting waveform can be seen in Figure 8. It was observed that the carrier signal has 10 cycles for every 1 cycle of the modulating signal (Figure 9). When the modulating waveform was adjusted below 1 kHz, our carrier was seen to have more than 10 cycles for every 1 cycle of the modulation. While increasing the modulation to greater than 1 kHz showed fewer cycles for every 1 cycle of the modulation. Figure 10 shows the associated spectrum and approximately 10 kHz of bandwidth. Holding the modulating frequency constant, the amplitude was varied to 0.1, 1, and 2.5 VRMS. When the signal was modulated with an amplitude of 0.1 VRMS applied, the frequency deviation of 1 kHz was easily discerned (Figure 11). The harmonics were well above the noise floor and the 1 kHz frequency separation was easy to see. At an amplitude of 1 VRMS, the signal became distorted. Additional frequency components made it possible to discern only two harmonics (Figure 12). At an amplitude of 2.5 VRMS, the spectrum became impossible to interpret due to extra frequency components (Figure 13).

Comparing AM, FM, and PM spectra yields interesting results. Using the 10 kHz sinusoidal carrier and 1 kHz sinusoidal modulating waveform above, an AM spectrum would simply consist of a 10 kHz carrier with sidebands at 9 kHz and 11 kHz, 6 dB down from the carrier. In contrast, the associated FM spectrum would consist of a 10 kHz carrier surrounded by an infinite number of sidebands at all harmonics of the modulating waveform. The sideband amplitudes are proportional to J n  , where J n is a Bessel function of the first kind, n is the harmonic number, and  is the modulation index. A PM spectrum has exactly the same magnitude as an FM spectrum and cannot be distinguished with the spectrum analyzer used.

Conclusion (DC)
The IC oscillator built functions with < 2% harmonic distortion and can frequency modulate an input waveform. The result is an easily implemented FM modulator with a bandwidth and frequency deviation that can be controlled with the frequency and amplitude of the modulating waveform.

Appendix A – Original Data Scan