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M424/MP4J02
NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
SEMESTER 2 EXAMINATION 2005-2006
M424/MP4J02 Marine and Offshore Structural Integrity
Time Allowed: 21/2 hours

April/May 2006
INSTRUCTIONS

1. This paper contains FOUR (4) questions and comprises FOUR (4) pages.
2. Answer all questions.
3. All questions carry equal marks.
___________________________________________________________________________
1(a)

A 60 m long box-shaped barge is loaded with gravel as shown in Figure 1. The


interior of the barge is uniformly loaded up to the deck. The combined weight of the
barges internal load and structure is 8 T/m.
20 m

20 m

20 m

30 T/m
Gravel
WL

Deck
Structure + Gravel = 8 T/m

WL

L = 60 m
Figure 1
(i)

Calculate the barges distributed buoyant force.


(5 marks)

(ii)

Draw the load diagram.


(5 marks)

(iii)

In calm water, will the barge experience sagging or hogging?


(2 marks)

(iv)

At which sections will the barge experience significant shear stress?


(3 marks)

(v)

What is the maximum bending moment at the midship section?


(3 marks)

Note: Question 1 continues on page 2.

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M424/MP4J02
(b)

Discuss the appropriateness of assessing the fatigue life of a welded component using
the S/N curve derived from data obtained from small polished specimens, and
applying a geometric stress concentration factor or fatigue strength reduction factor
associated with the weld profile.
(7 marks)

2.

A panel used in ship construction can be idealised as a rectangular plate simplysupported along three edges and free on the fourth. The plate is subjected to a uniform
compressive force Nx in the x-direction as shown in Figure 2.
The plate deflection is assumed to be given by

x
w = cy sin
a

where c is a constant.

(a)

Show that the displacement function satisfies the boundary conditions.


(3 marks)

(b)

Show that the strain energy stored in the buckled plate is

U=
(c)

Dc 2 2 b 2 b

+ 6(1 )
12 a a

(10 marks)

Using the Raleigh-Ritz method, show that the buckling load of the plate is

D 2
N xc = 2
b

6(1 ) b 2
+

2
a

(12 marks)

The strain energy stored in the deformed plate is

D
S .E. =
2 A

2 w 2 w 2
2 w 2 w 2 w 2
dx dy

2 + 2 2(1 ) 2
2

x
y

x
y
x
y

All symbols have their usual meanings.

Note: Question 2 continues on page 3.


Figure 2 appears on page 3.

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M424/MP4J02

x
SS
b

Nx

SS

SS

Nx

Free
a
y
Figure 2

3(a)

The fatigue endurances from the S-N curve for a certain steel are:
Stress (MPa)
350
380
410

Fatigue endurance (cycles)


2,000,000
500,000
200,000

If the component manufactured from this steel is subjected to 800,000 cycles at


350 MPa and 200,000 cycles at 380 MPa, determine how many cycles can the
material be expected to withstand at 410 MPa before fatigue failure occurs, assuming
that Miners cumulative damage theory applies.
(3 marks)
(b)

Three fracture toughness samples of an aluminium alloy have identical external


dimensions and a thickness of 25 mm. The following information was obtained after
three tests were carried out on the samples.
Test
1
2
3

Sample crack length (mm)


20
19.5
20.5

Applied Load (kN)


185
120
120

Sample elongation (mm)


Sample fractured
0.26
0.263

If the Youngs modulus and the Poissons ratio for the aluminium alloy are 70 GPa
and 0.3, respectively, calculate the fracture toughness of the material.
(10 marks)

Note: Question 3 continues on page 4.

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M424/MP4J02
(c)

A cylindrical steel pressure vessel with a yield strength of 360 MPa is subjected to a
tensile hoop stress of 140 MPa. A tensile residual hoop stress of 80 MPa can also be
assumed to be present. The lowest service temperature of the vessel is -25C. Under
this condition, KIc is 44 MPa m1/2.
The vessel will be designed according to a leak before break philosophy in which
the detectable leak will occur before brittle fracture could occur. Determine the
thickness of the pressure vessel based on fracture mechanics considerations.
(12 marks)

4(a)

List three basic methods of fatigue analysis. Compare the characteristics of these
three techniques and indicate their relative strengths and limitations. What are the
typical applications for each of these fatigue analysis approach?
(9 marks)

(b)

A splined shaft drives a large centrifugal pump. Its loading history consists of both
high and low cycle stresses. Each start-up includes an overload peak stress due to
motor overshoot. During steady operation, the shaft vibrates at 1 Hz due to gear
misalignment which produces a 10 percent variation around the mean torque. The
pumping system operates for 8 hours a day throughout the year with a single start-up
and shutdown each day. The start-up overload stress is 20% greater than the mean
stress. Using the local strain-life approach, predict the fatigue life of the shaft.
The cyclic fatigue properties of the alloy steel for the shaft are as follows:
Cyclic strength coefficient, K' =1300 MPa
Cyclic strain-hardening exponent, n' = 0.12
Fatigue ductility coefficient, 'f = 1.06
Fatigue strength coefficient, 'f = 1310 MPa
Fatigue strength exponent, b = -0.08
Fatigue ductility exponent, c = -0.66
Elastic Modulus,
E = 205 GPa
The start-up overload stress is 1350 MPa
(16 marks)

End of Paper