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Q. 4.1. (a) Define a cam and a follower.

Ans. Cam is a rotating machine part designed to impart reciprocating or oscillating motion to
another part of machine. The part to which motion is given by cart is called followers.

Q 4. 1 (b) Enumerate various types of cams and draw a line diagram of each type
Ans. Two main types of cams are:
(1) Disc or radial cam It shown in fig 4.1, (2) Cylindrical cam It is shown in fig 4.2

Q 4.1. (c) Classify followers depending upon the type of motion.

Ans. (i) Reciprocating follower. Fig. 4.1 Fig. 4.2
(ii) Oscillating follower. Fig. 4.3

Q. 4.1. (d) Classify followers depending upon the axis of motion.

Ans. (i) Radial follower : The axis of follower intersects the axis of cam shaft. Fig. 4.1
(ii) Offset follower : The axis of follower does not intersect the axis of cam shaft. Fig. 4.4

Q. 4.1. (e) Classify followers depending upon the shape of the contacting end.
Ans. (1) Knife edge follower Fig. 4.1
(ii) Roller follower Fig. 4.5
(iii) Flat or mushroom follower Fig. 4.6
(iv) Spherical shaped follower Fig. 4.7

Q. 4.1. (f) Why a roller follower is preferred to knife-edged follower?

Ans. There is a rapid rate at which the knife-edge wears. Therefore roller follower is preferred to
knife-edged follower because there is almost no wear because in case of roller follower the
relative motion is rolling and not of sliding type
Q 4 1 (g) Define cam profile
Ans. The working contour of a cam which comes into contact with a follower to operate it is
called cam profile. For the cam shown in fig. 4.8, A-B-C-D-A is the cam profile.

Q. 4.1. (h) Define base circle of cam?

Ans. Base circle : It is the smallest circle, drawn from the centre of rotation of a cam,
which forms the part of the cam profile.

Q. 4. 1. (i) Define trace point.

Ans. Trace point: It is the reference point on the follower for the purpose of tracing the cam
profile. It is situated at centre of roller in roller follower and at knife-edge in case of knife-edge

Q. 4.1. (j) Define prime circle of cam.

Ans. Prime Circle: In case of roller follower the radius of prime circle is equal to the sum of the
base circle radius and the roller radius. In case of knife-edge follower and flat faced follower the
prime circle and base circle are identical.

Q. 4.1. (k) Define pitch curve of cam.

Ans. Pitch curve : It is the curve traced by pitch point if we assume that the cam is stationary and
the follower is moving around the cam.

Q. 4.1. (l) Define pressure angle of cam.

Ans. Pressure angIe: It is the angle between the line of motion of follower and the
normal to the pitch curve.

Q. 4.1. (m) Define pitch point of cam.

Ans. Pitch point: It is that point on the pitch curve at which the pressure angle is maximum.

Q. 4.1. (n) Define pitch circle of cam.

Ans. Pitch circle : It is that circle which has centre at cam centre & passes through
pitch point.

Q. 4.1 (o) Define period, of dwell.

Ans. Period of dwell : It is the period during which the follower remains stationary for some
finite rotation of cam.

Q. 4.1 (p) Define lift of follower.

Ans. Lift or stroke : The maximum travel of follower from the lowest position to the highest
position is called lift or stroke of the follower.

Q. 4.1. (q) What are the different types of motions with which a follower can move?
Ans. (I) Simple harmonic motion.
(ii) Uniform acceleration and uniform retardation motion.
(iii) Uniform velocity i.e. modified uniform velocity motion.
(iv) Cycloidal motion
(v) Any desired motion.

Q. 4.1 (r) List some applications of cam.

Ans. Cams are used in:

(i) Internal combustion engine to open and close the valves.

(ii) Automatic machine tools to give motion to the cutting tool.
(iii) Shoe making machines.


Q. 4. 2. Derive expressions for displacement, velocity and acc. of follower moving with
SHM and draw these diagrams.

Q. 4.3. Derive expressions for displacement, velocity and acc. of follower which moves with
cycloidal motion and draw these diagrams.
Ans. Let S stroke of follower
= angle through which cam rotates for outstroke of follower.
w = angular speed of cam.
As motion is cycloidal, therefor radius and speed of rolling of an imaginary circle are:

The circle rolls through angle 13 when cam rotates through 0 and point A on circle moves to A.

Q. 4.4. Derive expressions for displacement, velocity and acc. of follower which moves first
with uniform aoc and then with uniform retardation Also draw the displacement, velocity
and acc the diagrams

Q. 4.5. A follower covers out stroke of 36 mm with S.H.M. in 600 rotation of cam. If the
cam speed is 240 rpm, find the max. velocity and max acc. of the follower.

Q. 4.6. A follower moves with uniform acc. and retardation in 60 cam rotation. The cam
speed is 300 rpm and follower stroke is 40 mm. Calculate the max vel. and max acc of

Q. 4.7 A follower covers stroke of 25 mm with cycloidal motion in 1200 cam rotation Cam
speed is 300 rpm Calculate the maxm velocity and the maxm acc of follower

Q. 4.9 A cam rotatitig clockwise is to give the roller follower of 20 mm diameter the
following motion
(z) Follower to moe outwards 30 mm during 1200 of cam rotation
(ii) Dwell for 60 of cam rotation.
(iii) Return to original position during 90 of cam rotation.
(iv) Dwell for 90 of cam rotation.
The minimumcam is 45 mm and line of stroke is off set 15 mm from the axis of cam. The
displacement of follower is to take place with S.H.M. in outward and return strokes. Draw
the cam profile.

Cam Profile:

Radius of off-set circle = 15 mm.

Draw these two circles.

Draw a vertical tangent to off-set cirde. This is the line of stroke of follower. It meets prime
circle at A.
Joint AO and take OB, OC, OD at 120, 60 and 90 respectively.
Divide AB and CD rn SIX parts at 1, 2, 5, 4 Draw tangents to off-set circle from these points.
Take I a equal to I a of displacement diag. and so on.
With a, h, c h, a, D as centre, drawn arcs of radius of roller of follower.
Draw a smooth curve touching the bations of these arcs. This curve represents the cam profile.

Q. 4.10. Draw a neat sketch of tangent cam with roller follower and derive relationship
among its main dimensions.

EG and H J are straight flanks. They merge with circular nose at G and H, and with the base
circle at J and F.

The fig. 4.21 shows the follower in the lowest position. When the cam rotates through angle 0,
the line OC will become vertical and follower will get displaced through distance x,

Q 4.12 Write the expressions for maximum velocity and maximum acc, when the roller
follower is at straight flank
Ans From (i) and (ii) of previous question it is clear a that z and a increases with 0

When the cam has turned through angle (a. the roller centre is at M, the displacement is x of
roller is x.

Q. 4.14. In a tangent cam with roller follower, the base circle radius is 25 mm, roller dia 25
mm, angle of ascent 600, lift 12.5 mm, cam shaft speed is 100 rad/s. Determine
(i) The main dimensions of the cam
(ii) The yelloew c. of follower at the beginning of lift
(iii) The velocity and acc of follower at the point where flank merges with circular
The acc. at the apex of the circular nose,

Q. 4.15. In a tangent cam with roller follower the base circle dia is 90 mm, roller
diameter 40 mm, Angle bctween tagential faces 9Q0, nose circle radius 5 mm and
speed of cam is 120 rpm. Determine the acc. of roller (i) when roller just leave
contact of the flank on its ascent, (ii) when the roller is at its outer end of its lift

Q. 4.16. Derive expressions for velocity and acc. of flat faced follower in contact with
flank of circular arc cam.

Ans. As shown in Fig: 4.23:

When the cam rotates through angle 9about 0, the contact will be at C and the x will be
the displacement of follower

Q. 4.17. Derive expressions for the velocity and aec. of flat-faced follower when in contact
with nose of circular arc cam
Ans Fig 4 24
Wen the cam turns through angle 0 > 4), the contact of follower is at at nose and displacement of
follower is

Q. 4.18 A cam operating a mushroom ended follower has the following dimensions:
Base circle radius 16 5 mm, lift, 725 mm, nose radius 1 6 mm If the total permitted d of
Opening & closing of the valve corresponds to 1100 of cam rotation, determine the flank
radius and maxm. Velocity, acc., and retardation of follower for 900 rpm cam speed.
Ans. Refer to fig. 4.24 and fig. 4.25

Q. 4.19 The following data relates to circular arc cam and flat-faced follower:
Least radius of cam 30 mm, lift 12.5 mm, ascent angle 55, nose radius 3 mm.
Determine: (i) Distance between can centre and nose centre
(ii) Circular flank radius
(iii) Angle of contact on circular flank.
Ans. Refer to fig. 4.23 and fig. 4.24.

Q. 4.20. A circular arc cam operating a mushroom follower has the following particulars:
base circle radius 31.75 mm, nose radus 8 mm, distance between the two centres 40 mm,
semi-angle of action 75, angle of action on flank 40, speed 500 rpm.
(i) Flank radius
(ii) Acc. of follower at the beginning of lift, at the end of, lift, at the junction of flank and

Q. 4.21. Draw the profile of a cam with a flat faced follower as per following specifications
Cam to rotate in anticlockwise direction. Follower to move outward through 3 cm during
1200 of cam rotation. Follower to dwell for 600 of cam rotation. Follower to return to its
initial position during 120 of cam rotation. Follower to dwell for the remaining period of
cam rotation.
The minimum radius of cam is 1.75 cm. The outward and inward strokes are to take place
with uniform (modified) velocity and SHM respectively.

1. For displacement diagram, take AD = 1200, BC = 60 and CD = 1200 according to scale and
complete the diagram as fig. 4.25.
2. Draw a circle of minimum radius 1.75 cm as given
3. Let OA is line of stroke.
4. Draw radius OB at 1200 to OA radius in clockwise direction because the cam is to rotate in
anticlockwise direction
5. Similarly draw OC at 60 to radius OB.
6. Draw radius OD at 120 to radius OC.
7. Divide arc AB in four parts.
8. Divide arc CD in six parts as per displacement diagram.
9. Set off the displacement of the follower along the corresponding radial lines Beyond the
minimum radius of circle.

10. At each one of these points draw lines perpendicular to the radial lines.
11. Draw a curve touching all these lines. This curve is the cam profile, as in Fig. 4.26.