Introduction

A light emitting diode (LED) is semiconductor device that converts electricity into light. LED has been in market for a long time since 1960’s but the potential home market for space lighting is just being explored. Initially LEDs were available only in 3 colors-Red, Green and Blue. The use of LED technology in the lighting industry started recently. Now high intensity LEDs are available which can sway the lighting in two major areas which are : Illumination and Effects. LED lamps use light emitting diodes (LED) as the light source. Currently LED is widely used in light strips, rope lights, street lights, flood lights, spotlights. LED lighting has revolutionized energy efficient lighting. Earlier they were limited to single LED bulb use in electronic gadgets, instrumental panels, pen lights etc. LED’s are very small compared to the conventional lights that are used hence to produce bright light, multiple diodes are now clubbed together and encased in diffuser lenses which can spread the light the in wider beams. LED’s are the next generation Home and Commercial lighting. The present market for the white LED lamps is constituted by the enthusiasts and early adopters but the efficiency and cost effectiveness will definitely drive demand for LED lamps to a greater extent.

History
Jerry Laidman of Sound Chamber company was the first to implement the concept of mixing the light output of LED’s in 1979. The product was named ‘Saturn’ with a propeller which had three wings constructed of circuit boards on which were fitted red, green and yellow LED’s. The first blue LED was invented by Nichia from Japan in 1993. In 1994 Artistic Licence prototyped the first colour mixing design using red, blue and green LED’s. The principle worked but the LED brightness was too low and the cost was too high so this could not be made practical.

By 1997 Nichia produced green and blue LED’s and Hewlett Packard produced red LED of very high brightness. This year the brightness to cost ratio increased and it become feasible to produce products using this concept.

Benefits of LED Lamps
1. High Energy Efficiency The key strength of LED lamps is their low power consumption. If properly designed then it will reach 80% efficiency, ie, 80% of the electricity is converted to light energy. In case of incandescent bulbs there is only 20% efficiency. 2. Eco-Friendly The LED lamps do not produce any ultra violet or infra red output. Also they don’t contain lead and mercury. The ultra-violet output of the incandescent bulb can cause damage to fabrics. 3. Low Heat Dissipation Heat build-up for these lamps are very low. LEDs dissipate only 20% of the electricity consumed as heat while the incandescent bulbs dissipate 80% as heat. This also cuts down on air conditioning costs in the home. Also, they can be touchable when working. 4. Long Lifespan LED lamp lasts up to 10 times as long as the compact fluorescent lamp and far longer than the typical incandescent bulb.

5. Design Flexibility Because LEDs are very small in size they can be easily designed according to our requirement.

6. Durable LED lamps do not have a filament hence it will not be damaged under conditions where conventional bulbs would be broken. Also, they are solid so they can survive jarring and bumping. 7. Maintenance and Replacement Costs are Low Initial set up expenses for LED lamps are very high but it is recouped with the long life span and in battery savings. For tall buildings the maintenance and replacement cost is very high for incandescent bulbs. This issue is eliminated with LED lamps. 8. No Starting Delay They are lighted as soon as the supply is provided and excel the fluorescent lamps with this feature. 9. Silent Operation They do not produce noises and are very silent when compared to other lamps. 10. Can be Easily Dimmed The LED lamps can be easily dimmed by controlling the voltage supply provided to it. 11. Low Voltage Power Supply Because of low power requirement for LED lamps, solar panels would be a better option for lighting them than using the electric line to pull the supply.

12. Range of Colours A wide range of colors are available in LED lamps, including white, warm white, red, blue, yellow, green and so on. The colours are easily controllable due to

which RGB colors are achieved and hence jumpy changing and gradual changing colors can be produced.

Major Players of LED Lamps in the Market
The 4 major players in the Indian market today for the LED lamps are:-

A brief of the above mentioned LED lamp producers is given below:-

Philips India
“Philips is No.1 in the global lighting market, a position supported by leadership in innovation combined with a systematic approach to seeking out new market opportunities.” Their ambition is produce creative and cost-effective lighting solutions.

Schneider Electrics
Schneider’s Strategy is to use natural resources productively and efficiently which would be both profitable and better for the environment. They provide lighting solutions for residential markets, industry, infrastructure and buildings with energy efficient solutions thereby leading to growth.

OSRAM India
Mission: ‘Light up life through efficient, innovative and environment friendly lighting solutions.’ They provide high quality and safe products at an affordable price. OSRAM is a group company of Siemens AG Germany. They are extensively working on LED and intelligent light management systems.

Lucifer Lights
“Saving energy for India” as their tagline goes here is an innovative company one of its kind in the lighting industry with a mission to take measures for global warming, and to uplift the Nation as whole by providing eco friendly lights. “Lucifer “means jugnu a firefly which emits lights without consuming any energy just like the products Lucifer lights strive to offer. Founded in the year 2008 by Rajesh Purohit, Lucifer lights is a manufacturing company engaged in the manufacture and export of LED based lights for various applications. Their products exemplify Quality, Technology, Innovation and Service. Having a capacity of 15, 00,000 units of lights for various applications. They products are known for their stable performance, conventional designs and their enormous energy saving capability. Lucifer Lights conducts its business on the principles of ‘Sincerity, efficiency, excellence and innovation’ to continue delivering robust, reliable, energy saving lighting. What sets

their products apart is that they create lights that can save up to 90% of the nation's expenditure on electricity. Business Description Lucifer lights are manufacturers of functional (general lighting) LED lights, the first company in India to do so. Their main aim is energy efficiency and their products are not only are energy efficient but also environment friendly. Lucifer lights are well accepted in the market, having a long list of prospective clients SBI and L&T to name a few. The wide range of products emphasizes Lucifer's commitment towards energy saving, cost cutting and better lighting in general. This is further underlined by the fact that a large number of corporate outfits have now turned to LED lighting. Their indoor and outdoor lights have made them pioneers in the LED industry which is still at a nascent stage in terms of making its presence felt in the Indian light market. Constant re-invention of product designs tries to push the circuits to approach 90% efficiency which means 90% of electrical energy is converted by them to light energy. The business has a manufacturing capacity of 15, 00,000 units of lights for various applications ,undertaking various market research like road trips to cities all across India. First hand client evaluation has helped Lucifer build remarkably lasting business relationships. Rajesh Purohit-the man behind the scenes Rajesh Purohit is an innovative entrepreneur, and committed CEO of Lucifer Lights. He started the organization in 2008 with a vision to replace every light and bulb in India with their eco friendly products so as to save energy .he holds a bachelors degree from Shivaji University. Though with little technical background Mr. Purohit was able to introduce innovative products and due to his tireless efforts the company has grown in a short span of time introducing variety of products and has achieved many benchmarks in the lighting industry. The Company is headquartered in Pune. Products Lucifer Lights provide a wide range of products which literally measures the depth of their commitment towards energy saving, cost cutting and better lighting for the entire

populace. The lights are meant to survive for minimum 50,000 hours which is 5 to 10 times higher than conventional lighting products. Unlike conventional lights there are no emission of gases and rays. They have products operating on universal input range and sustain voltage fluctuations as well as battery operated thus, making it suitable for global use. The products are a cluster of LED's that come with fixtures and reflectors required to hold the clusters and illuminate an area. Installing these lights is very easy as existing fixtures used since long are used for fixing our light appliances. The products will find replacement for Halogen lamps, tube lights, CFL's, Sodium lamps, high wattage products such as street lights, high bay, mid bay, flood lights etc. An in house team of experienced specialists in Lucifer puts the products through a series of quality control tests using advanced international testing equipment. The Key product features stated by Lucifer are as follows • • • • • • • • • Low electrical consumption as compared to conventional lighting products. Pollution free due to non emission of infra red or ultraviolet rays, mercury gases or other harmful rays. Do not have ballasts thus, no interference. Existing fixtures used since long are used making installation of our lights easy. Operates on universal input range. Due to long shelf life no maintenance is required. Lasts 5 to 10 times longer than other conventional lighting products virtually eliminating the need for frequent replacement. Reduces Carbon Footprints at large scale making it viable to earn carbon credits. Suitable for all types of applications.

Lucifer offers a variety of led, around 134 products with different features. Their product line is broadly Classified into:Indoor Commercial and consumer 1. Recess/False Ceiling Fittings 2. Holder Fitting Lights 3. Surface/Pendant Fitting Indoor Industrial 1. Hazardous (Flame Proof) Fitting 2. Clean Room fittings Area Lights 1. Flood / Facade Light 2. Road Lights Miscellaneous lights 1. Path Light 2. Spot Light DC Operated 1. Lamps 2. Drivers

Each of the product lines have a number of products under them given below is a brief description of the products under Road lights category LLSL-1 20 W Equivalent to 200 W GLS. This is Suitable for low height poles and priced at 146 USD

LLSL-2 30 W Equivalent to 150 W. This is Sodium. Suitable for Pole height of 7mtrs with Pole distance of 20 mtr, priced at 146 USD. LLSL-3 40 W Equivalent to 150 W. This is Sodium. Suitable for Pole height of 8 Mtrs and Pole distance of 25 mtrs. priced at 236 USD LLSL-4 50 W Equivalent to 250 W .Sodium. Suitable for Pole height of 12 mtrs and Pole distance of 30 mtrs..This product is priced at 300 USD LLSL-5 60 W Equivalent to 250 W MetalHalide.It is suitable for Pole height of 13 mtrs. Pole width of 30 mtrs. It is priced at 331 USD LLSL-6 70 W Equivalent to 700 WGLS and is Suitable for Pole height of 15mtrs with a Pole distance of 30 mtrs. Priced at 336 USD LLSL-7 80 W Equivalent to 1000 W.Halogen. it is Suitable for Pole height of 16Mtrs and Pole distance of 30 mtrs. This is priced at 400 USD LLSL-8 90 W Equivalent to 450 W Sodium, which is Suitable for Pole height of 18mtrs and Pole distance of 35 mtrs. This is priced at 428USD Clients With a range of innovative products Lucifer Lights have created an excellent client list of over 53 reputed firms across various industries .Tata Power-mumbai, L&T, Jhonson &

Jhonson, SBI(ATMS),Apollo Hospitals Delhi, Indian Airforce are one of the many companies which use their products.

Competitors Philips India, Osram, and Schneider are other players in the market. Philips etc focus more on domestic lights when compared to Lucifer. Competitive Strategy Lucifer keeps ahead of the market by innovating and renewing their products. They have introduced a couple of more product.

Project Details
This project was done for Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore. It is a 330acre campus which is illuminated mostly by sodium vapour lamps, CFL and mercury lamps. This project studies the current electricity consumption of the street lamps in the campus and an analysis of how the usage of LED lamps would help in cutting down the energy consumption. From the discussion with the Mr. Anil Kumar of Electrical Department of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, we came to know that they have made use of LED lamps from OSRAM India Limited many times. However they were not satisfied with the implementation as the major concern they raised was that few of the LED bulbs in the cluster burn out gradually soon before their expected life span. This leads to decrease in the intensity of the light. This study is conducted in conjunction with Lucifer Lights Limited and their products. An interview with a personnel from the sales team of Lucifer, Mr. Ashish gave us more insights about the company and their products which proved to be helpful in our study. He told us that Lucifer supplies their lightings to Indian Air Force which is the

benchmark that they set for themselves to distinguish their product capability from their competitors.