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Briefly explain two differences between assessment and evaluation.

Use relevant
examples to support your answer.

Briefly explain two differences between assessment of learning and assessment for
learning. Support your answer with relevant examples
Assessment OF learning involves looking at assessment information at the end of the
teaching and learning process to rank students achievement levels against a standard. It
is summative in nature and typically involves standardized tests. Assessment OF learning
scores are often used to rate teachers or schools ability to move student achievement
based on the results of single, point-in-time tests.
Example: State tests like SPM
Assessment FOR learning embeds assessment processes throughout the teaching and
learning process to constantly adjust instructional strategy. While it can include test data, it
also addresses other quantitative and even qualitative data, and even encompasses a great
deal of anecdotal and descriptive data.
Example: Using the final examination in conjunction with teacher generated daily data to
alter instructional strategy during lesson or unit delivery is an example of assessment FOR
learning in action.

Briefly explain with examples what diagnostic and aptitude tests are.
Aptitude: A test that attempts to predict a students ability to succeed in an intellectual or
physical endeavor by, for example, evaluating mathematical ability, language proficiency,
abstract reasoning, motor coordination, or musical talent. Aptitude tests are forward-looking
in that they typically attempt to forecast or predict how well students will do in a future
educational or career setting.
Example: Language aptitude test like Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT)

Diagnostic: A test that measures students' understanding of a subject area or skills base
and helps identify a student's learning problems so teachers can provide instruction to
remedy those problems.
Example: Diagnostic tests for reading based on their mastery of phonics, blending, word
recognition and text comprehension.

Spolsky (1978) classified the development of language testing into three periods.
Discuss with examples the three periods.

the prescientific period

the psychometric/structuralist period
the integrative/sociolinguistic period

Discuss three major differences between the exam-oriented education system and the
school-based assessment implemented in Malaysia. Support your discussion with
relevant examples.
A new evaluation system known as the School Based Assessment (SBA) was introduced in
2002 as a move away from traditional teaching to keep abreast with changing trends of
assessment and to gauge the competence of students by taking into consideration both
academic and extra curricular achievements.
According to the Malaysian Ministry of Education (MOE), the new assessment
system aims to promote a combination of centralised and school-based assessment.
Malaysian Teacher Education Division (TED) is entrusted by the Ministry of Education to
formulate policies and guidelines to prepare teachers for the new implementation of
assessment. As emphasised in the innovation of the student assessment, continuous

school-based assessment is administered at all grades and all levels. Additionally, students
sit for common public examinations at the end of each level. It is also a fact that the role of
teachers in the new assessment system is vital. Teachers will be given empowerment in
assessing their students.
The current education system in Malaysia is too examination-oriented and over-emphasizes
rote-learning with institutions of higher learning fast becoming mere diploma mills.Like most
Asian countries (e.g., Gang 1996; Lim and Tan 1999; Choi 1999); Malaysia so far has
focused on public examination results as important determinants of students progression to
higher levels of education or occupational opportunities (Chiam 1984).

Explain briefly the importance of reliability in language assessment.

Reliability indicates the consistency or stability of test performance and is one of the most
important considerations when selecting tests and other assessment tools. A test must be
constructed so that examiners can administer the test with minimal errors and can interpret
the performance of students with confidence.
Explain briefly what washback effect is and why it is important.
The term 'washback' or backwash refers to the impact that tests have on teaching and
learning. A test can positively influence what and how teachers teach, students learn; offer
learners a chance to adequately prepare, give learners feedback that enhance their
language development, is more formative in nature than summative, and provide conditions
for peak performance by the learners. Teachers can also provide information that washes
back to students in the form of useful diagnoses of strengths and weaknesses.
Furthermore, it enhances a number of basic principles of language acquisition namely
intrinsic motivation, autonomy, self-confidence, language ego, interlanguage, and strategic
investment, among others.
Design a Table of Specifications for a Year 6 English final exam paper. Justify your
choice of information to be included in the table of specifications.

Discuss the five levels of SOLO taxonomy. Support your discussion with relevant
examples for each level.


Explain briefly two types of test items that can be used to assess your students'
listening skills. Explain briefly two differences between objective and subjective
Norm-Referenced Test

Criterion-Referenced Test


Test Item

A test that measures

students achievement as
compared to other students
in the group

Determine performance
difference among individual
and groups

An approach that provides

information on students
mastery based on a criterion
specified by the teacher
Determine learning mastery
based on specified criterion
and standard

From easy to difficult level

and able to discriminate
examinees ability

Guided by minimum
achievement in the related
Continuous assessment


Continuous assessment in
the classroom


Summative evaluation

Formative evaluation


Public exams: UPSR, PMR,


Mastery test: monthly test,

coursework, project,
exercises in the classroom

Objective: A test that consists of right or wrong answers or responses and thus it can be
marked objectively.
Example of activity:
True/False Items
Multiple-choice Items
Multiple-responses Item
Matching Items

Subjective: A test that is evaluated by giving an opinion, usually based on agreed criteria.
Example of activity:
Extended-response Items
Restricted-response Items

Using specific examples, discuss the difference between discrete point tests,
integrative tests and communicative tests.

Explain briefly two approaches to scoring pupils essays.






Quickly graded

Provide a public standard that is

understood by the teachers and

students alike
Relatively higher degree of rater
Applicable to the assessment of
many different topics
Emphasise the students
strengths rather than their
It provides clear guidelines in
grading in the form of the various
Allows the graders to
consciously address important
aspects of writing.
Emphasises the students

strengths rather than their


The single score may actually mask differences
across individual compositions.
Does not provide a lot of diagnostic feedback

Writing ability is unnaturally split up into


Still some degree of subjectivity involved.

Accentuates negative aspects of the learners
writing without giving credit for what they can
do well.

Design a writing task and explain what you would include in the task.

Explain briefly two types of alternative assessment you can use when carrying out
assessment for learning.
Alternative Assessment
Continuous, longitudinal assessment
Direct tests
Authentic assessment

Group projects
Feedback provided to learners
Power exams
Contextualised test tasks
Criterion-referenced score reporting
Classroom-based tests
Process of instruction
Teacher mediated
Discuss three advantages of using school-based assessment with your pupils.
1. Timeliness of results enables teachers to adjust instruction quickly, while learning is
in progress.
2. Students who are assessed are the ones who benefit from the adjustments.
3. Students can use the results to adjust and improve their own learning
Explain briefly what standard deviation is and its importance.
Standard deviation refers to how much the scores deviate from the mean. The standard
deviation is important because, regardless of the mean, it makes a great deal of difference
whether the distribution is spread out over a broad range or bunched up closely around the
mean. For example, suppose you have two classes whose mean reading scores are the
Discuss with examples what item difficulty, item discrimination and distractor
analysis are
Item difficulty refers to how easy or difficult an item is.
How to calculate: how many students answered an item correctly and dividing it by the
number of students who took this test.
For example, if twenty students took a test and 15 of them correctly answered item 1, then
the item difficulty for item 1 is 15/20 or 0.75.
Item discrimination is used to determine how well an item is able to discriminate between
good and poor students.

Distractor analysis is an extension of item analysis, using techniques that are similar to item
difficulty and item discrimination.

Using your knowledge of the principles of language assessment, suggest ways which
can help Ms Nina be more consistent in the marking of her pupils work.

Checking that my learning objectives are clear and specific, and aligned with the
learning activities and the assessment task. This way students and teachers receive a
consistent message and understand what is required.

Preparing detailed instructions and guidelines for the assessment task. I provide
students with a worked example not a model answer but notes and examples
highlighting and explaining the main issues to consider.

Providing students with comprehensive marking guide.

Meeting with staff and practise marking a few papers together based on all
information provided above. Then we discuss the marking process to get a shared
understanding of what is required by the student to achieve each grade. (Grade descriptors
are helpful and can be drafted based on this discussion).

Checking consistency after marking is completed I look at average marks across

markers and investigate if there is too great a variation and re-mark as appropriate; and

Providing feedback to students on what was done well and what required

Fit in the above under reliability, validity, practicality, washback, and authenticity