It is certified that this project report and project entitled: Worker¶s Participation in Management in BEL - GAD (Defense & Commercial). has been completed by Ms. Alka Choudhary, a student of Institute of Management & Research (IMR), Ghaziabad in MBA Department in our concern under our guidance. The period of training was from June 18, 2007 to July 28, 2007 for the partial fulfillment of the award of MBA. During her stay with our association, we found her to be a hardworking, sincere and well mannered. We wish her all the success in her life.

With the ongoing revolution in electronics and communication, where innovations are taking at the blink of eye, it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an attitude that whole of human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in inculcating a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between the student an industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the actual Industrial Environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this, the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology, which immensely helps them in building their career. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which boosted my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and was also interfaced to many instruments. And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Ltd.

My sincere thanks to the people at the Bharat Electronic Limited (BEL), who supplied me in the completion of this project. I am grateful to the Institute of Management & Research Ghaziabad, UP Technical University, Lucknow for providing me this academic tenure at this reputed center of learning. I convey my gratitude to Mr. Rakesh Kumar Sharma (IR & ADJ MGR.), Mr. Mahesh Chandra Tyagi (ASS. Personal MGR. IR), Mr. Khushi Ram (Personal Officer ADJ & IR), Mr. Shiv Kumar (JUN. Personal Officer, ADJ & IR) without whose guidance this project could not have been presented in this way. They have been constant source of inspiration and encouragement.

Alka Choudhary MBA (HR & Marketing)





The objective of the study during 8 weeks training was to Analysis the HR Policies. So as to evaluate the HR Position of the company. These HR Policies indicates the following factors. Scope of HR Workers¶ conditions of the Company Role of HR Workers¶ Participation in Management


Information Regarding the Organization¶s Profitability, Financial Position and Shareholding Pattern with past year Performance of the Share of BEL.SS Secondary Sources I. II. Annual Report (2006-2007) Internet  Based on the Information obtained from the above sources concepts have developed on which analysis could be made.  Other sources including consulting with the employees.


The main objective of establishing public sector unit was scheduling social obligation of the government towards the people in some critical area in which private sector units cannot be trusted. BEL. Falls under the later category. Bharat Electronic Limited (BEL) is a professional electronics company of India with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievement. BEL was established in 1954, to meet defense needs of government of India. Since then, BEL has grown to multi-product, multi-unit, technology driven company. Today BEL¶s infrastructure is spread over ISO-9001/9002 certified modern manufacturing units countrywide. Product mix of the company includes a broad spectrum ranging from tiny semiconductor to large Radar system. Their manufacturing units have special focus towards the product range like Defense Communication, Radar, Optical and Opto-electronics, Telecommunication, Sound and Vision Broadcasting, Electronic Component etc. In the past fifty year this unit has augmented into an organization having nine units. Employing about 25,000 employees. In addition to manufacturing a number of products, BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom Consultancy, Contact Manufacturing, calibration of test and measuring instruments etc. R&D has been major strength of BEL with a strong base of more than 800 engineers. It has it¶s own a number of national & international awards for productivity, quality, safety, standardization etc. The culture & philosophy at BEL can be described in its motto ³Quality, Technology and Innovation´

SINCE 1954 With over four decades of manufacturing experience Bharat Electronics Limited has pioneered the professional electronics movement in India. With continuous upgradation of technology, commitment to quality and constant innovation, BEL has grown into a multi product, multi unit, multi technology company. BEL has set up impressive infrastructure and manufacturing facilities in their nine ISO certified production units around the country. BEL has also established two joint ventures - with General Electric Medical Systems, USA for X-ray tubes and Multitone, UK for paging systems and has a subsidiary company BEL Optronic Devices Limited for the manufacture of Image Intensifier tubes.

BEL has nurtured itself to be known as one of the best public sector units in the nation. A peep into Bharat Eectronics's Archives section, gives an idea of the progress at BEL.

2003 2002 2002 2001 2000 1999

BEL celebrates its Golden Jubilee Year BEL acquires Category -I Mini Ratna status Foundation Stone laid for BEL's new corporate Office Building in Bangalore BEL bags National R & D Award in electronics Industry sector Bangalore Unit of BEL implements Rain Water Harvesting on an industrial basis Bharat Electronics Quality Institute 1998 - Hyderabad unit gets ISO 9002

1998 1996 1994 1993

Kotdwara unit gets ISO 9001 Joint venture with Multitone and GEMS ISO-9001 Accreditation ISO-9002 Accreditation 1992 - Central Research Laboratory, Ghaziabad

1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1983 1982

SATCOM EMI/EMC Test Facilities & Computer Software Telecom - Switching & Transmission System and Mass Mfg. Facility Central Research Laboratory, Bangalore Naval Equipment Division Kotdwara, Taloja & Hyderabad Units. Klystrons & Traveling Wave Tubes. Madras & Panchkula Units, Broadcast & TV, Digital Communication Equipment Divisions, Vacuum Interrupters (ASCO) Machilipatnam Integrated with BEL Space Electronics Division 1979 - Pune Unit

1974 1972 1971 1970 1968 1967 1966 1962 1961 1956 1954

Ghaziabad Unit B/W TV Picture Tubes Integrated Circuits & Hybrid Microcircuits X-Ray Tubes & Magnetrons HF & Broadcast Equipment, Silicon Semiconductors Transmitting Tubes Radars Germanium Semiconductors receiving Valves Equipment Production started at Bangalore (present LPE Division) Incorporation of BEL

To be a world-class enterprise in professional electronics.

To be a customer focused, globally competitive company in defense electronics and in other chosen areas of professional electronics, through quality, technology and innovation.

We put our customer first. We are proud of being a part of the organization. We work with transparency, honesty & integrity. We trust and respect individuals. We foster team work. We strive to achieve high employee satisfaction. We encourage flexibility & innovation. We endeavor to fulfill our social responsibility.

To be a customer focused company providing state-of-theart products & solutions at competitive prices, meeting the demands of quality, delivery & service.

To generate internal resources for profitable growth. To strive for self-reliance through indigenization. To attain technological leadership in defence electronics through in-house R&D, partnership with defence/research laboratories & academic institutions.

To give thrust to exports. To create a facilitating environment for people to realize their full potential through continuous learning & team work. To give value for money to customers & create wealth for shareholders. To constantly benchmark company¶s performance with bestin-class internationally. To raise marketing abilities to global standards.

We are committed to consistently deliver enhanced value to our customers, through continual improvement of our products and processes.

Effective and Efficient design and development process, Considering the present and future needs of customers. Enhanced customer satisfaction by on-time delivery of defect free products and effective life cycle support. Continual upgradation and utilization of infrastructure and Human resources. Mutually beneficial alliances with suppliers. Continual improvement of processes through innovation, Technology and knowledge management.

Bharat electronic Ltd., (BEL), a premier Professional electronic Company of India, has establish and nurtured a strong in house R & D base over the years to emerge and remain as a market leader in the chosen area of business in professional electronic. Each of the nine manufacturing units of BEL is having its own in-house R & D Division to develop new products in its field of operations. Beside, there are two central research laboratories (CRL) located at Bangalore and Ghaziabad, to address futuristic technology of interest to BEL. Area of R & D Activity Main area of R & D activity at BEL include development of Military Radar, Naval System, Military Communication Products, Electronic Warfare System, Telecommunication products, Sound and Vision Broadcasting equipment and systems, opto Electronic Products, and Electronic components. CRL perform the dual role of carrying out blue sky research for the development of future technologies and supporting the D&E Divisions of BEL¶s nine units with state-of-the-art core technology solutions in areas like Embedded Computers and applications, Radar Signals Processing, VLSI design, RF & Microwave Communication Technologies, Software modules etc. Resources and Investment BEL¶s R&D Units have state-of-the-art R&D infrastructure, facilities, and manpower with relevant technical expertise for product development. There are about 1000 engineers working in BEL on various D&E projects. BEL spends around 5% of company turnover for the year on R&D every year. HRD Divisions

of BEL take adequate initiatives for all round development and expertise up gradation of R&D human resources. State of the art infrastructures, test equipment, computers & workstations, Software packages etc. are augmented every year for the R&D divisions. BEL R&D units are recognized by the Department of Scientific & Industrial Research under the Ministry of Scientific & Technology, Govt. of India. R&D Units of BEL have close interactions with other National Design Agencies like DRDO, CSIR, C- DOT and a number of Technical Institutes. BEL jointly works with them to tap suitable indigenous design for commercialization. Technological Collaborations with some of the multinational Companies and subsequent absorption of these technologies also has enhanced the technological base at BEL. On an average about 67% of BEL¶s turnover is from indigenous design, and 33% of it is through foreign technology transfer.

57 % developed by BEL 33 % Developed by Collaborators 10 % Jointly Developed

Break-up of Product Manufactured

List of world class companies with whom BEL has technological collaboration for different start-of-the-art products are as given below: Company Oerlikon Contraves, Switzerland Nocontrol, Norway Northrop Grumman, USA ELTA, Israel Products Naval FC Systems Radar Scan Convertor Airport Radars, BFSR (Battle Field Surveillance Radar)

INROS, Russia Sonobouys Matra Defense Equipment Electric Drive System for Tanks &Systems, France Sextant, France ELBIT, Israel Ericsson, Sweden Elopotro, South Africa Signal, The Netherlands Thompson Tube Electronic, France LCD display unit Stand alone communication unit Radio Relay System Laser Relay System Fire Control Radar TWT

R&D Divisions of BEL have been receiving number of National R&D Awards. A list showing the various R&D awards received by BEL since 1990 is as below.

List of R&D Awards received by BEL since 1990


Details of the Award

FICCI Award for Research in Science & Technology (for the corporate initiative of R&D) DSIR National R&D ( for the successful commercialization of Public Funded R&D) (for D&E project handled at BEL-GAD) DSIR National R&D Award (for in house R&D efforts under Electronics & Electrical Industries sector) DSIR National R&D Award (for in house R&D efforts under Electronics Industries Sector) (For D&E projects handled at BEL-Bangalore & Ghaziabad) DSIR National R&D Award (for the successful commercialization of Public Funded R&D) (for D&E projects handled at BEL-Bangalore & Punchkula)

BEL received the Award During the Year 1990





Defense Technology Absorption Award¶98 (Sponsored by DRDO) (for D&E projects handled at BELHyderabad) Award for Excellence in R&D for the 1998 (Sponsored by Ministry of Information Technology, GOI) (for BELGhaziabad¶s development of various IFF system) Award for Excellence in Professional Electronics for the year 1998 (sponsored by Ministry of Information Technology GOI) (for BEL-KOT¶s excellent performance in Production, R&D & its commitment to Quality & service) Awards for contribution in areas of Defense R & D to Col.(Retd.) H.S Shankar, Director (R & D) for the year 2001-2002. ( Sponsored by Society for defense Technologist - SODET BEL received STAR PSU award for Professional Electronic Sponsored by Hon¶ble Finance Minister Sh. P Chidambram Scope Award for Best Quality in Electronic Products given by Hon¶ble P.M Dr. Man Mohan Singh. BEL received Navratna Award for best performance & best Quality.



2001 2002-2003





Manufacturing Units Manufacturing Year of Focus Area Unit Establishment 1954 Military Communication, Bangalore Electronic Components, Naval System, Export Manufacturing, Radar Telecommunication & Broadcasting System. 1974 Radar, Antennae, SATCOM Ghaziabad (Defense), Microwave Components. 1979 Radar, Antennae, SATCOM Pune (Defense), X-Ray Tubes, Batteries & Electro-optics. Optical Products, Medical Machilipatnam 1983 Electronics. 1985 Tank Electronics, Optical Fire Chennai Control System. 1985 Tactical communication Panchkula Equipment. 1986 Telecommunication. Kotdwara 1986 Shelter For Electronic Taloja Equipment, Train Actuated Warning System, Electronic Equipment Assembly. 1986 Electronic Warfare Hyderabad Equipments.


Defense       Military Communication Land based Radars Opto-Electronic Tank Electronics Electronic Welfare Simulators

Non ±Defense Telecommunication Sound & Vision Broadcasting Solar Photovoltaic Systems Electronic Components Niche Products Defense:Defense Radars (Land Based, Airborne or Ship borne) are used for guarding the defense forces against enemy targets. BEL has the distinction of manufacturing all the above types of Radars. Naval System The need to communicate between ships, ships and aircraft and shore stations is ever increasing as sensor and weapon systems become more sophisticated. The commanders of individual

ships or group of ships need to communicate with each other so that the Naval Forces can function effectively as an integrated entity. BEL has a dedicated strategic Business Unit to cater to these needs of Naval Defense Force. It is involved in the design and manufacturing of a wide variety of control, command and communications systems as well as Radars, SONARS DECOYS and SONOBUOYS. SONARS (Sound Navigation and Ranging) products from BEL cover the range of under water applications for surface ships, submarines and Naval aviation. BEL also offers Naval systems in user defined configurations for different types and classes of ships, submarines other platforms and applications. Opto-Electronics Opto-Electronics is the art of imaging. It is know-how focused on fine-turning combination of optical techniques. It offers unmatched capabilities when it comes to seeing at ever increasing distances or identifying and guiding with pin-point precision, be it day or night. BEL manufactures high performance surveillance equipment that can look through dark nights and aid the defense forces in round the clock operations. Passive, accurate and high performance optronic systems manufactured by BEL provide the effectiveness, in many cases, the extra edge required to prevent or minimize confrontations. Tank Electronics The requirement of Defense Electronics and communications is not limited to the transceivers in various frequencies. Modern

Armaments like Battle Tanks are fitted with a lot of modern stateof-the-art electronics equipment which facilitate communication among the crew within the tank as well as with the outside army installations. The computer systems fitted in the tanks facilitate the gunner to aim at the targets much more accurately than before thereby increasing the kill rate and the efficiency of the tank as main fighter equipment with the armed forces. One of the strategic business units of BEL has engaged in providing the latest and most modern electronics aids within the tank for the Indian Defense Forces. Some of the equipment like Tank fire control system, Tank stabilizers and communication equipment by BEL. Electronic Warfare In modern warfare, electronically guided weapon systems have a kill probability close to unity while command, control and communication systems ensure effective co-ordination of the available resource. This makes undefended vital installation easy targets for destruction. Improper operation of the electronic circuits would make the weapon systems as well as the command, control and communication infrastructure totally infective. It is, hence seen that if counter-electronic systems are used to reduce the effectiveness of the electronic circuits, the end result of the battle could be different. The technique and technology that result in the manufacturing of systems is called ³ELECTRONIC WARFARE´.

Effective use of Electronic Warfare is only possible if sufficient knowledge of the electronic equipment used by the enemy is

available. BEL has the know-how for designing and developing Electronic Warfare System in the areas of signal Intelligence, Electronic Counter Measure and Electronic Support Measure. Simulators Training is a very important aspect of learning and that is where BEL has stepped in with its learning aids called SIMULATORS. Simulators are product which aid learning by providing a real life experience under various simulated external condition that a person may experience. The purpose is to equip learner with the basics of the real life equipment, its features, functionality and various dos and don¶ts that need to be observed while handling the equipment. BEL has developed simulators to train people who operate the modern battle tanks, drive heavy vehicles and the commanders of the ship. None-defense:Telecommunications The need to communicate by voice, exchange of data or both of them is the most important aspect of a social human being. Different technologies have evolved over the years which have provided different media to the customer to choose from telephone lines(PSTN), (ISDN), wireless, satellite etc. Wide experience of BEL is providing communication solutions to the defense forces enabled BEL venture into manufacturing

some civilian telecommunication products like multiplexers/demultiplexers, digital cross connects, exchanges/switches and TDMA/PMP Radio system.

Sound and Vision Broadcasting Radio and television has become a part of every man¶s life. It is a major source of information, knowledge and entertainment. BEL has kept pace with the growth of radio and television broadcasting in India. It has been the forerunner in providing the transmitters and other associated equipment to enable national radio and TV broadcasters to reach the nook and corner of India ever since 1973. BEL has also developed expertise in providing total turnkey system solutions covering radio and TV broadcasting systems in FM/SW/MW and VHF/UHF frequency bands respectively. Solar Photovoltaic Systems BEL has setup a full fledged plant to manufacture a wide range of Round and Pseudo square Mono crystalline Silicon photovoltaic cells and modules. BEL offers customized solar photo voltaic system for different applications to meet the requirements of the customer. The solar power devices provided a safe and clean energy source for wide ranging applications in industrial, domestic and agricultural fields. Solar energy is the most economical, non-conventional energy source gaining interest throughout the world. The photovoltaic systems designed by BEL to tap the solar energy, can be installed for any applications quickly and easily.

Electronic Components Components are the building blocks of any product. BEL has the distinction of manufacturing not only the products but also the components for these products thereby bringing in a lot of indigenization and cost reduction. Manufacturing of components has also helped BEL serve the customers by providing them with component level repair and sales maintenance facility thereby providing not only customer satisfaction but also customer. BEL has setup state-of-art manufacturing facilities to manufacture a wide range of components. Volume production of the above components has also enabled BEL to sell these components in the local as well as international market. BEL has setup impressive network of distribution in India for marketing and also has offices in New York and Singapore for assisting International Marketing Division of BEL. Niche Products:Decades of experience in the design and manufacturing a plethora of products in diverse fields for both defense and non defense sectors has aided BEL in designing and manufacturing some products catering to very specific market segments. These products are very hot selling products in their respective markets and hence have given BEL tremendous boost to continue its efforts in serving the community with products of such nature.

BEL ± MULTITONE BEL and Multitone, UK, offers state-of-art Mobile communication products for the workplace. Multitone invented paging in 1956 when it developed the world¶s first system to serve the ³life or death´ environment of St. Thomas Hospital, London. With the strength of Bharat Electronics in the Radio Communication field and the technology of Multitone in the field of Radio paging, the joint venture company is in position to offer tailor made solutions to the mobile communication needs at workplaces in various market segments. The joint venture offers one of the most comprehensive on-site product ranges ± from small, easy to use pagers to practical, durable private mobile radios and the latest technology, digital cordless communication systems. Brief details of the products are: Access 700 one way speech paging system which supports 100 pagers.  Access 1000/3000 radio paging system which supports 1500/5000 users.  Computer radio integration units. Digital cordless communication systems.


BEL OPTRONIC DEVICES LTD BEL Optronic Devices Ltd is a subsidiary company of BEL for conducting research, development and manufacture of image intensifier tubes and associated high voltage power supply units for use in military, security and commercial systems. The 1440 I series, GEN II 18 mm image intensifiers are designed and produced to international quality standards. Inspection and tests, conducted throughout the manufacturing processes, verify and ensure that the final product meets MIL-I-49052 D and customer specification with enhanced parameters. New series of image Intensifier Tubes from BEL Optronic Devices ³Also, High Voltage Power Supply Units like PS-12 for 18 mm I.I. Tube and PS-42 for 25 mm I.I. Tubes are also manufactured. APPLICATIONS   Night vision goggles and binoculars   Night vision weapon sights   Low light level input applications Company also undertakes manufacturing of GEN Plus, Glass Input I.I. Tubes and Custom built High Voltage Power Supply Units.


INDIAN MARKET BEL is a major supplier of products and turnkey systems to the Indian Defense Services. Over the years, BEL has diversified into manufacturing many civilian products as well. Large turnkey telecommunication solutions are also being offered to civilian market. A brief list of the Customers in the defense and civilian market segments and the products and services offered to them is given below: Products and services Defense communication Radars & SONARS Customers Indian Defense Services, Paramilitary forces. Indian Defense Services, Civil Aviation, Meteorological Department, Space Department.


Department of Telecommunication, Para-military forces, Power sector, Oil Industry, Railways. Broadcasting Equipments All India Radio, Doordarshan, and Studio Systems (National Radio & TV Broadcasters). Electronic Voting Machine Election Commission of India. Solar Products & Systems Individuals, Private and Government organizations. Turnkey Systems, E- Police, State Government, Public Governance Networks sector undertakings.


All India Radio and Doordarshan the National Radio & TV Broadcaster Telephone.

EXPORTS Export plays a key role in BEL¶s strategic perspective. The ranges of products and services exported have been increasing over the years. A number of international companies are using the facilities at BEL for contract manufacturing. The broad list of products and services being exported is given below: Products and Services Defense Communication Countries Algeria, Botswana, Brazil, France, Germany, Malaysia, Mauritius, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK. Brazil, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, Vietnam. Austria , Australia, China, Finland, France, Hong-Kong, Malaysia, Netherlands, Philippines, Germany, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, UAE, UK, USA.

Civilian Communication

Semiconductor Devices

Sound & Vision Broadcast Equipments Radar and Sub-systems Batteries, Energy Saver and other products

Vietnam, Brazil, Middle East. Switzerland, Ukraine. Australia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Mauritius, Malawi, Nepal, Oman, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, UAE, USA. Nepal, Kenya.

Turnkey Systems


3D Mobile Radar(PSM 33 Mk II)
3-D mobile radar employs monopulse technique for height estimation and using electronic scanning for getting the desired radar coverage by managing the RF transmission energy in elevation plane as per the operational requirements. It can be connected in air defence radar network. The Radar is configured in three transport vehicles, viz., Antenna, Transmitter cabin, Receiver and Processor Cabin. The radar has an autonomous display for stand-alone operation.

FEATURES:Frequency agility Monopulse processing for height estimation Adaptive sensitivity time control Jamming analysis indication, pulse compression,plot filtering / tracking, data remoting Comprehensive BITE facility

Integrated Secondary Surveillance radar

Technical Specifications:GENERAL Transmission band ANTENNA Primary antenna Cylindrical paraboloid as reflector with linear phase array as feed for electronic elevation scanning. Circular 39.5 dB (Typical) azimuth 1.5°; low elevation 2° 26° in surveillance mode 32° in burn through and designation mode 6 rpm in every 5.6° azimuth sector 200 MHz in S band

Polarization Gain (low elevation) 3 dB beamwidth Elevation coverage

Rotation speed Programmable tilt TRANSMITTER TWT and CFA Transmitter average power Peak power Pulse duration Pulse repletion period

10 kW 660 kW 3 x 13 µs 930 µs and 3690 µs according to operating modes and elevation sectors

RECEIVER AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Intermediate frequency 30 MHz Pulse compression filter Output pulse width at 3 dB 0.2µs 20 ns Logarithmic dynamic range > 75 dB Noise figure 2.2 dB uantisation range 0.2 µs (=30m) Azimuth 360° / 4096 Elevation 0.38 mrad 

Low Flying Detection Radar ( INDRA II)
The low ± level radar caters to the vital gap filling role in an air defence environment. It is a transportable and self ± contained system with easy mobility and deployment features. The system consists mainly of antenna, Transmitter cabin and display cabin mounted on three separate vehicles.

SYSTEM CHARACTERSTICS:Range up to 90 km Height coverage 35m to 3000m subject to radar horizon Portability of detection: 90% (Single scan) Probability of false alarm: 10E-6 Track While Scan (TWS) for 2D tracking Capability to handle 200 tracks Association of primary and secondary targets Automatic target data modem/networking of radars transmission to a digital

Deployment time of about 60 minutes FEATURES:Fully coherent system Frequency agility Pulse compression Advanced signal processing using MTD and CFAR Techniques. Track while scan for 2-D tracking Full tracking capabilities for ispatch or targets Multicolor PPI Raster Scan Display, presenting both MTI and Synthetic video. Integral IFF

Ease of transportation and fast deployment

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION:y PRIMARY ANTENNA Frequency Reflector Gain Beam width (Azimuth) Elevation Side lobes Polarization y SECONDARY ANTENNA Frequency Gain Side lobes Beam width (azimuth) Control pattern D band (formerly L band) Shaped parabolic (5m x 3.3m) Better than 29 dB 3° Covers upto 17° Better than 23 dB Horizontal (IFF) 1030 and 1090 MHz Better than 25 dB Better than 23 dB 4.5° To provide effective 3 pulse SLS

y TRANSMITTER Frequency Peak power output Pulse width PRF FM Noise

D band (L band) 100 kW 12 µs 3 x 2 PRFs staggered burst-toburst and scan-to-scan Below 50 dB

y RECEIVER Noise figure MSTC MTI improvement y DISPLAY Monitor y IFF y POWER SUPPLY

Better than 3 dB R4 law 55 dB

Colour Raster Scan for raw and Synthetic Presentation Mk-X system (fully solid-state) 415V, 50 Hz, 3 phase ± 60 KVA Generator provided

Operating temperature range Storage temperature range Relative humidity Wind speed

0°C to +55°C -40°C to +70°C 95% maximum at +40°C 100 Kmph (operate) 140 Kmph (non-operate 

Tactical Control Radar

This is an early warning, alerting and cueing system, including weapon control functions. It is specially designed to be highly mobile and easily transportable, by air as well as on the ground. This Radar dispatch mutual interference of tasks of both air defenders and friendly air space users. This will result in an increased effectiveness of the combined combat operations. The command and control capabilities of the RADAR in combination with an effective ground based air Defense provide maximum operational effectiveness with a safe, efficient and flexible use of the airspace. FEATURES:y y y y y y y y All weather day and night capability 40 km range, giving a large coverage Multiple target handling and engagement capability Local threat evaluation and engagement calculations assist the commander¶s decision making process, and give effective local fire distribution Easy to operate, and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under severe conditions Highly mobile system, to be used in all kinds of terrain, with short into and out of action times (deployment/redeployment) Clutter suppression High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and allows accurate tracking

SALIENT PERFORMANCE FEATURES:y Frequency / band width X band / 300 MHz Range Height coverage Range Resolution Azimuth resolution 40 km (4 SWMT target) 3000M 150M 1.5°

Tracking Display IFF Scan rate Polarization ECCM

Power supply Data transmission Configuration Deployment time

Manual initiation max 20 tracks colour raster scan 14´ diagonal Integrated 48 RPM Horizontal / circular fast / auto frequency switching staggered PRF video correlator jam strobe indication 115V, 400Hz, 19 KVA by Road / line broadcast mode Single vehicle 10 minutes (with crew of 2 persons)

The All weather low-level Air Defence weapon Control system is a combination of Radar, Computer and display that deals with the threat of hostile ECM protected air missions at tree top level. It is a highly Mobile Land based Autonomous search cum track radar which meets the ever increasing threat from low flying high-speed aircrafts. It has all weather capability with timely detection, very accurate and unambiguous tracking, and fast prediction of lead angles and built in counter measures.

FUNCTIONS:y y y y y y y y y Air Search in I band and acquisition in I & Ka band Dual Band I and Ka ± tracking Moving target indication in PPI for I search Automatic interrogation of the tracked target Fast and accurate lead angle computation of tracked target Gun assignment and firing initiation Track while scan upto 3 targets ³METEO´ mode to generate a ballistic meteo message Presents the target being tracked on a TV monitor to help the operator in visual target identification , threat assessment and engagement monitoring. y Communication between system operator and gun.

FEATURES:y Early detection and fast Acquisition

y Automatic and highly accurate tracking y Two band technique y Computer assisted parallax calculation and ballistic data generation y Colour Raster Scan display with PPI and TV picture y Gun assignment and firing initiation y Tactical map presentation through Data Input Unit. y All weather capability y Built in ECCM TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:DATA SUMMARY:All weather point and area defence with AA Functions guns against medium to very low-level air attacks. I band search and I / Ka tracking radar. Sensors Up to three weapons, being either all Weapons medium ispatc guns or two guns one missile optional (command line-of-sight or semi-active homing):parallax distance up to 1000 m. Up to 20 km Search while track. Search coverage PPI display, north-oriented, clutter and Air picture interference-free, scales 10/20 km. Joystick Indication ,automatic acquisition Target Engagement and tracking while scan for additional targets Simultaneous with clutter rejection details ECCM classified. 4.3 sec average Reaction time System design Container construction, retractable antennas,

diesel-driven power microminiaturized solid state


ANTENNA:I band slotted waveantenna guide with IFF dipoles 1.1° Horizontal / circular selectable 44 rpm Monopulse for I band, Conical scan for Ka band 2.4° for I band, 0.6° for Ka band

Search type Horizontal beam width Polarisation Rotational speed Tracking antenna type Beam width

Slewing speeds and accelerations (typical) Traverse 120°/s and 260°/s² Elevation 60°/s and 300°/s² Up to 20 km (1 m² Search coverage target) search while track TRANSMITTER:Search / tracking transmitter power (peak) Frequencies PRF Ka band transmitter power (peak) 220 kW for I band 6 fixed frequencies in the I band (at choice) 4800 ± 6000 Hz 15 kW


10 Khz in burst mode / 2400 ± 3000Hz in continuous mode 

BFSR-SR is a man portable, battery powered surveillance and acquisition radar, capable of detecting and displaying a diversity of moving targets such as pedestrians, vehicles, tanks, etc. The radar can be carried in three man packs for deployment to any location.

APPLICATIONS y y y y y y Border surveillance Battlefield surveillance Intelligence gathering Protection of Sensitive sites Protection of Industrial facilities, power plants, etc Prevention of infiltration and illegal immigration

FEATURES y Light Weight, Man portable and fast deployment y Operates 24 hours a day and under all weather conditions y Easy to use and menu driven user interface based on windows NT y Operates on two 24 Volts batteries y J-band pulse Doppler radar with Built in Test Equipment (BITE) y Low probability of intercept with low peak power y High resolution, coloured, north oriented radar picture on portable colour PC display y Track while scan of 50 targets y Classification of targets based on Audio Doppler signature y Provision to overlay geographical maps y Inbuilt Global Position System for self-location of the radar y Built in Digital Magnetic compass for North alignment y Light weight standard 2-wire rugged field cable for communication between radar and Control and Display unit y Provision to Network various radars for wider area coverage y Built in training Simulator.

SPECIFICATIONS Detection Range - Crawling Man 500 meters - Single walking man 2 Kms - Moving group of people 5 Kms - Moving light vehicles 8 Kms - Moving heavy vehicles 10 Kms Instrumental range 18 Kms Range Accuracy 20m rms Range Resolution 50 m Azimuth scan sector 30° to 180° Azimuth Accuracy 0.5° rms Azimuth resolution Better than 4° Elevation coverage (remotely -40° to +15° settable) Modes of operation Target Identification Frequency band Transmitter Type Receiver Type Antenna Type Rotation Rate Control and Display unit Display type Display modes External interface Power supply Power consumption Surveillance and tracking Using Doppler tones J-band; 21 frequencies Solid state Super heterodyne Micro-strip Patch array Low, Medium, High Customised, portable, IBM PC Compatible with Windows NT operating system 10.4´ LCD colour PPI or B-scope RS232C, LAN 24 Volts DC nominal 80 Watts

Weight of system (excluding 30 Kg accessories) MTBF 1500Hrs Operating temperature -20°C to +55°C

WARRANTY (a) The equipment manufactured and supplied shall be guaranteed to be free from defects in workmanship and material. Any equipment which proves to be defective within 15 calendar months from the date of ispatch to the consignee or 16 ½ months from the date of acceptance by the Inspector whichever is earlier shall be repaired or replaced free of charge provided the indentor sends notice of defects and ispatch ory proof thereof and also establishes that the equipment has been properly maintained and operated within the limits of the rated capacity and normal usage as specified by the supplier. Freight charges for the return of the defective equipment will be borne by the purchaser. Equipment ( parts of products ) not manufactured by the supplier do not carry the warranty mentioned above. Warranty in respect of such equipment or parts or products is limited to extending the same warranty as given by the original supplier of such equipment or parts or products/for six months after the expiry of the original warranty given by the supplier, if the original warranty expires before is patch. In respect of parts manufactured by the supplier and incorporated in the



equipment, suppliers standard warranty terms for such manufactured parts shall apply. Suppliers, upon request will provide the standard warranty terms for such parts
manufactured at its works.


The above warranty terms shall not apply for components incorporated in the equipment including but not limited to Electron Tube devices, Semiconductor Device, Batteries and articles made of glass and other fragile materials. Supplier shall not however be liable for the purchaser not being able to use any equipment or damage due to misuse, negligence or accident. Obligation for repair/replacement under the above provisions shall cease after the expiry or warranty period.




CONTEXT The logic behind employee participation in management is quite simple: by involving workers in those divisions that affect them and by increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives, employees will become more motivated, more committed to the organization, more productive and more satisfied with their jobs. The topic unfolds the mystery surrounding employee involvement in a clear way, keeping the peculiar Indian work environment in the background.

CONTENT y y y y y Introduction Objectives Problems and Limitations Forms of Participation Workers¶ Participation Schemes in India A) Works Committees B) Joint Management Councils C) Shop / Departmental Councils and Joint Councils D) New scheme

y Evaluation

INTRODUCTION Through the concept of workers¶ participation in management has become very popular, it is very difficult to define it clearly, for there are various forms and levels of participation, ranging from the role of workers limited to making suggestions on certain matters which are not very important to active involvement in decision-making and administration. As the International Institute of Labour Studies remarks, ³the participation results from practices which increase the scope for employees¶ share of influence in decision-making at different tiers of the organizational hierarchy with concomitant assumption of responsibility´ We should hasten to add here the apt remark of group of practicing managers that ³workers¶ participation in management is involvement of workers only in such areas of activities of the enterprises where they can make some positive contribution´ If the workers¶ mental and emotional involvement in decision-making and execution of programmes should be substantial, workers¶ participation may be defined as a ³principle of ensuring industrial democracy through mutual understanding, faith, trust and co-operation of workers and managements by establishing an effective communication system for attaining the whole-hearted involvement of each worker in the area of his competence and concern with a view to maximizing results in regard to the achievement of the organizational goals and individual well-being. How, as mentioned earlier, the form and extent of workers¶ participation in management varies widely. In some cases, it is limited to making suggestions on certain matters¶ whereas, at the other extreme, workers are represented on the Board of Directors so that they are a part and parcel of decision-making and administration. In some cases, even the whole management of the enterprise is vested in the workers.

The implications of workers¶ participation in management have been summarized by International Labor Organization thus: y Workers have ideas which can be useful. y Upward communication facilities sound decision-making. Workers may accept decisions better if they participate in them. y Workers may work more intelligently if they are informed about the reasons for and the intention of decisions that are taken in a participative atmosphere. y Workers may work harder if they share in decisions that affect them. y Workers participation may foster a more cooperative attitude amongst workers and management thus raising efficiency by improving team spirit and reducing the loss of efficiency arising from industrial disputes. y Workers participation may act as a spur to managerial efficiency.

OBJECTIVES The objectives of workers¶ participation in management may vary from country to country and from enterprise to enterprise. However, the various objectives may be listed as follows. y y y y y y y y y y To promote industrial peace To promote industrial democracy To give due recognition to the personality of the workers To safeguard the interest of workers To regulate the self-centered actions of the capitalists To give a social orientation to the business To ensure the best utilization of the human resources To improve employee morale To satisfy workers¶ urge for self-expression To improve industrial productivity.

PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS Workers¶ participation in management, however, poses certain problems and has some limitations. y Workers may not be competent enough to understand and appreciate the managerial aspects of the enterprise. This is particularly so in developing countries. y It has been argued that workers are more bothered about labor welfare and the like than about the growth, dynamics and challenging problems of the enterprise. y It is possible that the workers¶ representative in the management may be an outsider ± a politician or a trade union leader. To that extent, the ³real´ participation or involvement of the workers is limited. y The possibility of the workers¶ representative on the Board falling in line with the capitalists against the interests of the workers cannot be completely ruled out. y The worker-management collaboration may sometimes turn against the interest of society. The capitalist may get the support of labor to exploit the consumers. Labor may lend its support to the capitalist in this respect if it can also share the enlarged cake.

FORMS OF PARTICIPATION As mentioned earlier, the forms and levels of labor participation in management may vary widely between enterprises. The nature of participation depends on a factors, such as the socio-political attitudes and situation, the attitude of management and labor, labor-management relations, the relative strengths of labor and management, the peculiarities of the industry or enterprise, etc., there could be various forms of managerial decisions in social, personnel and economic matters which have an impact on the work force of an enterprise. Some decisions, especially economic ones, can be taken only at the higher level where basic policies are decided. There are also some decisions at the middle and lower levels concerning the formulation and execution of policies, especially in the area of social and personnel matters. ³Accordingly, ³workers¶ participation in management will have to be at different levels and in different forms. Workers may be given an opportunity to influence or take part in managerial decisions at the higher level through their representatives on Supervisory Board or the Directors or through Work Councils. Participation may also be at lower levels at which workers are given some authority to plan and take decisions about their work, like job-enrichment, job-enlargement, delegation, etc. Workers may participate in management decisions through collective bargaining. They may also participate informally through the participative style of supervision. Some consider that workers¶ participation in ownership is also a form of participation. However, it has to be realised that participation in the result of an enterprise through profit sharing or some schemes does not, in the real sense mean participation in management.´ The common forms of workers¶ participation in management are the following: A): COLLECTIVE BARGANING:- It is common to decide certain matters, especially those which have direct economic significance for

workers, on the basis of collective bargaining. The growth of trade unionism, the workers¶ awareness of their rights and strength and the recognition of the importance of negotiations by labor and management have contributed to the growth of collective bargaining. Some of the common subject matters of collective bargaining are wages, bonus, working conditions and welfare matters. B): JOINT CONSULTATION:- The functions of joint bodies, comprising representatives of the management and employees, may range from decision making on some issues to merely advising the management as consultative bodies. Joint consultation as a form of WPM is common in countries like India and Britain. The essential features of the Joint Management Councils in India are the following. y The Council is entitled to be consulted on certain specified matters. y In some others, the management is expected to share information with the Council and in a set of functions, administrative responsibilities have to be given to it. Through the Joint Management Councils/Committees have been tried in some countries, they have generally, ³not been found effective.´ There is a certain amount of lack of clarity of objectives. Moreover, being advisory or consultative bodies, neither the management nor the workers take them seriously. Often, they merely work as forums. Where workers and management freely vent their complaints and grievances without solving them. Some consider that unless these joint committees are vested with power to take binding decisions, they will remain ineffective. There are others who feel that such joint committee should not be given authority to take decisions on such issues as are normally the concern of the management. In such a case, joint management committees would be accused of shedding their advisory role and becoming a kind of management body instead and no sooner

does Committee become managerial, there would be need for a new consultative body. C): JOINT DECISION- MAKING AND ADMINISTRATION for the purpose of joint decision making and administration, the workers are represented on the Board of Directors. Sometimes the worker representative¶s role is limited to participating in decision-making but the actual execution of the programs is the responsibility of the management. In the area of joint administration, workers and management share the responsibility and power of execution. In India, the scheme of worker-directors has been introduced both as a statutory arrangement in nationalized banks as well as voluntary one in selected Central public enterprises. As Virmani observes, though ³legally the workers¶ representative on the Board may have all the rights and obligations like the other members of the Board, his ability to participate in managerial decision-making, to a large extent, will depend on his quality, his ability, his knowledge of company affairs, his educational background, his level of understanding and also on the number of worker representatives on the Board. Most of the decisions in which the workers are interested are normally made at the lower levels of management.´ D): COMPLETE CONTROL OF MANAGEMENT: In some cases, like the system of self-management in Yugoslavia, workers have complete control over the management of the enterprises. Under the system in Yugoslavia, the workers have the option to influence all the decisions taken at the top level but in actual practice the Board and the top management team assume a fairly independent role in taking policy decisions for the enterprise, specially on economic matters. The system of complete control of management cannot obviously fit into a capitalistic system. A potential danger of complete control of management by the workers is that, like capitalists, the workers might try to maximize their benefits even at the expense of the consumers or society.

E): WORKERS¶ PARTICIPATION IN SHARE CAPITAL:- As the Sachar committee observes workers¶ participation in equity and in management are in some sense inter-related from the point of view of attaining the ultimate goal of co-partnership in industry. In favor of the workers¶ participation in share capital, it has been said that, besides giving them a sense in the company¶s future prosperity while holding out promises for improved industrial relations and steady growth of internal finances for the company¶s operations. It has also been said that the improved performance of industry and harmonious industrial relations pave the way for the ultimate gain of the community as well as the state. The majority view of the Sachar committee was that in all future issues of shares by the companies, they should reserve a portion of new shares about 10 to 15 percent, exclusively for the workers to be called workers¶ share. These shares in the first instance must be offered to the existing shareholders or to the public. It may be noted that several private enterprises, particularly in the IT sector, in India have introduced employee¶s stock option scheme (ESOP) to attract and retain talented people and many employees have become multi-millioners thanks to the appreciation of the stock prices.

WORKERS¶ PARTICIPATION SCHEMES IN INDIA The Government of India is of the view that, at the enterprise level, workers¶ participation in management should become an integral part of the industrial relations systems to serve as an effective instrument of modern management and that it should be made a vehicle for transforming the attitudes of both employees and workers with a view to establishing a co-operative culture which may help in building a strong, self- confident and self-reliant country with a stable industrial base.

The Directive Principles of State Policy, enshrined in the Indian Constitution, down that ³the State shall take steps by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishment or other organizations engaged in any industry´ (Article 43A). Some of the Five-Year Plan documents and industrial policy statements have also mentioned the importance of labor participation in management. Various measures have been tried in India to promote workers¶ participation. Starting with the limited scheme of statutory Works Committees, voluntary arrangements were made in the form of joint management councils, the schemes of worker-directors both as statutory arrangements in nationalised banks as well as a voluntary schemes of workers¶ participation in the manufacturing/mining industries introduced in 1975 and in commercial and service organizations in the public sector introduced in 1977. WORKS COMMITTEES / JOINT COMMITTEES The Industrial Disputes Act 1947, provides for the setting up of a Works Committee, consisting of representatives of management and employees, in every undertaking employing 100 or more workmen ³to promote measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employer and workmen and, to that end, to comment upon matters to their concern and endeavour to compose any material difference of opinion in respect of such matters.´ The representatives of the workers, whose number shall not be less than the number of representatives of the employer, are to be chosen from among the workmen engaged in the establishment and in consultation with their recognized trade union, if any. The usefulness of the Workers Committees as a channel for joint consultation and the need for strengthening and promoting this institution was stressed in the labor policy statements in the successive Plans. The legal requirement and encouragement given by the

Government led to the setting up of works committees in a number of undertakings. The Works Committees, however, have not proved effective. The vagueness in the legal definition of the scope and functions of the Committees was a major reason for this ineffectiveness. To remedy this defect, the Indian Labor Conference in 1956 draw up an illustrative list of items which Works Committees would normally deal with, and a list of items which would be beyond their scope. The items which Works Committees would normally deal with consultation on:1. The conditions of works, such as ventilation, lighting, temperature and sanitation, including latrines and urinals. 2. Amenities, such as drinking water, canteens, dining rooms, rest rooms, medical and health services. 3. Safety and accident prevention, occupational diseases and protective equipment. 4. Adjustment of festivals and national holidays. 5. Administration of welfare and fine funds. 6. Educational and recreational activities. 7. Implementation and review of decisions arrived at in meetings of Works Committees. The items specifically excluded were discussion on:1. Wages and allowances. 2. Bonus and profit-sharing bonus. 3. Rationalisation and matters connected with the fixation of the work load. 4. Matters connected with the fixation of a standard labor force. 5. Programmers of planning and development. 6. Matters connected with retrenchment and lay-of. 7. Victimization for trade union activities.

8. Provident fund, gratuity schemes and other retirement benefits. 9. Quantum of leaves, and national and festival holidays. 10. Incentives schemes. 11. Housing and transport services. In spite of these clarifications, the Works Committees have not generally, proved very successful. Reasons for failure In the evidence before the National Commission on Labor (NCL), State Governments expressed the view that the advisory nature of the recommendations, vagueness regarding their exact scope and functions, inter-union rivalries, union opposition, reluctance of employers to utilize such media etc. has rendered Works Committees ineffective. The employers¶ associations have attributed the failure of Works Committees to factors like inter-union rivalries, union antipathy, and the attitude of members in trying to raise in the Committee discussions extraneous issues. According to the unions, conflict between the Works Committees and the unhelpful attitude of the employers had generally led to their failure. Suggestions The NCL indicated that the effectiveness of these committees will depend on the following factors. 1. A more responsive attitude on the part of the management. 2. Adequate support from unions. 3. A proper appreciation of the scope and functions of the Works Committees. 4. Whole-hearted implementation of the recommendations of the Works Committees.

5. Proper co-ordination of the functions of the multiple bipartite institutions at the plant level. JOINT MANAGEMENT COUNCILS The scheme of joint management councils (Jams) is based on a draft prepared by the tripartite committees appointed by the 15th Session of the Indian Labor Conference, as subsequently modified by two tripartite national seminars on the subject held in 1958 and 1960. Objectives: - The main objectives in the establishment of Jams were:1. To promote cordial relations between management and workers. 2. To build up understanding and trust between management and works. 3. To effect a substantial increase in productivity. 4. To secure better welfare and other facilities for workers. 5. To train the workers to understand and to share the responsibilities of management. Functions:- The essential features of the scheme of JMC are:1. The Councils is entitled to be consulted on certain specified matters. 2. In some others, the management is expected on share information with the Council. 3. In a set of functions, administrative responsibilities have to be given to it. (a) The Councils would be consulted by the management on such matters as:1. The administration of Starting Orders and their amendment, when needed. 2. Retrenchment 3. Rationalisation 4. Closure, reduction in, or cessation of operations.

(b) The Council/Councils would also have the right to receive information, to discuss and to give suggestions on:1. The general economic situation of the concern. 2. The state of the market, production and sales programmes. 3. The organization and general running of the undertaking. 4. The circumstances affecting the economic position of the undertaking. 5. The methods of manufacture and work. 6. The annual balance sheet and profit and loss statement and connected documents and explanation. 7. Long-term plan for expansion, re-deployment. 8. Such other matters as may be agreed to. (c) The Councils would be entrusted with administrative responsibility in respect of:1. Administration of welfare measures. 2. Supervision of safety measures. 3. Operation of vocational training and apprenticeship schemes. 4. Preparation of schedules of working hours and breaks and of holidays. 5. Payment of rewards for valuable suggestions received from the employees. 6. Any other matter. (d) All matters, e.g. wages, bonus, etc., which are subjects for collective bargaining, are excluded from the scope of the Council/Councils. In short, the creation of new rights as between employers and workers should be outside the jurisdiction of the management Council. Individual grievances are also excluded for its/their scope.

SHOP COUNCILS AND JOINT COUNCILS:In October 1975, the Government announced a model scheme for workers¶ participation in management. This scheme, meant for implementation in all manufacturing and mining enterprises employing 500 or more workers, envisaged shop councils at shop/departmental levels and a joint council at the enterprise level. The two councils were to have an equal number of representatives of the employers and employees. The representatives of the workers on the councils were to be nominated by the management, in consultation with the union, from amongst the workers actually engaged in the enterprises. All decisions of a Shop Council should be on the basis of consensus and not be a process of voting, provided that either party might refer the unsettled matters to the Joint Council for consideration. Every decision of the shop council is to be implemented within a month, unless otherwise provided in the decision itself. The main functions of the Shop Council are to help management in achieving production targets, improving productivity, assist in maintaining general discipline in the shop, attend to physical conditions of working, welfare and health measures, and to ensure a proper flow of adequate two-way communication between the management and the workers, particularly on matters relating to production schedules and the progress in achieving the targets. The main functions of the Joint Council are fixation of productivity norms, dealing with the unresolved problems referred to it by the Shop Councils, awarding of rewards for rewards for creative suggestions from workers, ensuring optimum use of raw materials, ensuring the quality of finished products, etc.

The issues thrown up by the working of the scheme of 1975 were discussed at a tripartite labor conference held in May 1977. On the recommendations of the conference, a Committee on Workers¶ Participation in management and Equity, consisting of representatives of central organizations of employers and trade unions, of some of the States and professional institutions of management was appointed in September 1977. The report of the Committee submitted to the Government showed that a majority of the members favored adoption of a three-tier system of participation. (at the corporate level, at the plant level and at shop-floor level). The committee laid down the detailed functions of the various councils at shop, plant and corporate levels. It commended that the workers¶ representatives on the participation forums should be set up both at the Centre and in the States to monitor the implementation of the scheme and review its working. The Government introduced in 1983 a new and comprehensive scheme for the workers¶ participation in Central public sector undertaking. The State Governments have been requested to introduce it in their enterprises and the private sector has also been encouraged to introduce the scheme. The issue of WPM was discussed by the Indian Labor Conference in November 1986 and the conference agreed in principle to the implementation of the scheme of workers¶ participation in public, private and co-operative sectors. THE NEW SCHEME (1984) A new scheme of workers¶ participation in management was prepared and notified in 1984 after reviewing the progress of various schemes in industry. It was applicable to all central public sector enterprises. It was decided that workers would be allowed to participate at the shop level, the plant level and the board level. The mode of representation of

workers¶ representatives was to be determined by consultations with the concerned unions. A wide range of work related issues (personnel, welfare, plant, operations, financial matters, etc.) were brought within the ambit of the councils. The Ministry of labor constituted a tripartite committee to review the working of the scheme and to suggest corrective measures. THE 1990 BILL The existing non-statutory schemes of workers¶ participation have failed to give meaningful participation to workers as the enterprises level. To remedy the situation the Government introduced a bill in the parliament on 25 May, 1990 to:a) Offer meaningful three-tier participation to workers in management at three levels, Shop-floor, enterprise and board level. The proportionate share of worker representatives and the persons representing other workers in the Board of Management in every undertaking is put at 13 and 12% respectively. b) Formulate schemes specifying detailed criteria regarding nomination of representatives from workers. The power of shop floor council and establishment council have also been extended to cover a wide range of production, operational, economic, financial, personal, welfare and environmental methods. c) Provide for the principle of secret ballot for choosing representatives of workers. d) Provide for rules for monitoring the program. e) Extend the coverage of the scheme to all corporate establishments.

EVELUATION The various scheme of workers¶ participation in management have failed to live up to the expectations of employers and employees. After reviewing the literature in this field Zakeer (1980) has provided the reasons for the failure of the concept in India thus:a) Lake of understanding of the concepts. b) Rigid attitude of the employees. c) Vagueness of the legal definitions, scope and functions of these bipartite forums. d) Half-hearted implementation of decisions arrived at these forums e) The suspicion in the mind of trade union leaders that industrial democracy would fragment their authority and weaken their hold over union members. There are some important examples:EMPLOYER-RELATED Employers were not very enthusiastic about schemes of workers¶ participation in management. They feared dilution of their Powers. Participation would take away from them their right to manage. They also felt that workers may not be able to contribute much in discussions relating to matters where they lack a broad perspective. When employers tried to substitute trade unions with the bipartite bodies, conflicting situations developed, vitiating the atmosphere of give and take. WORKER-RELATED By the large, worker¶s representative were not fully equipped to participate in discussion relating to organizational issues. Factors such as illiteracy, lack of knowledge, lack of enthusiasm to update their

viewpoints, have often come in the way of extending wholehearted support to the schemes of workers¶ participation in management. According to Mhetras (1966) and Tanie (1969) the schemes have suffered on account of casual and light-hearted approaches of both management and labor who basically lacked faith in the schemes. In most of the cases the absence of cooperative attitude and the existence of two autonomous centers of interest and motivations in joint management councils in the form of workers¶ representation and management representatives has also been regarded as an important reason for the failure of Jams. This view has been endorsed by National Commission on Labor (1969). Bhatia (1971) also felt that illiteracy among the workers was one of the contributing reasons for the failure of Jams. UNION-RELATED Trade union movement in India is largely fragmented, poorly organised, characterised by intense inter-union rivalry and coloured by various political ideologies. In such an atmosphere, the union representatives are not expected to act in the best interests of workers and the organisations. MACRO LEVEL FACTORS All the schemes of workers¶ participation in India are non-statutory. The different pieces of labor legislation have complicated matter further. There is no central law on the subject. Some of the forms of participation envisaged by the government-like Work committees, Joint management¶s councils appear to be similar in scope and function. The multiplicity of such bipartite bodies with loosely defined structure and purpose, not surprisingly have failed to deliver the goods.

Moreover as pointed put by Sheth (1972) mere creation of institutions and structures does not guarantee success. In some cases even elementary procedures for ensuring the success of the schemes were not clearly laid down such as selection of representatives, recognition of union, procedures for holding meetings, etc. As far as public sector is concerned, Lall (1984) concluded that apart from other factors, absence of genuine bargaining platforms also leads to lack of trust between the labor and management leading to eventual breakdown of meetings. EFEECTIVE WORKERS¶ PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT There are some important certain conditions which should be in workers¶ participation in management:Managerial attitude There is an urgent need to offer training and education to workers and employees to make the participative culture a success. The employers should be willing to share information and shed a portion of their hard-earned authority in favor of workers. Workers are uninformed and lack experience. The employers therefore must make conscious efforts to bring them up to a certain level before drawing them to the negotiating table. To earn their respect and trust, management must involve workers by: Identifying a clear cut agenda where the roles of participants are clearly defined.  Developing guidelines management councils. for decision-making by the joint 

Defining the roles of office bearers as against trade unions.  Keeping employees informed of all decisions arrived at their implementation and the out comes . 

Evaluating the progress of joint councils from time to time. UNION COOPERATION The workers participation schemes to be effective, must be based on mutual trust and confidence between unions and management. Unions must believe that participative forums are not meant to cut their roots. To this end, management must try to define the boundaries clearly. To be fair, they must give due representation to members from the recognized union without playing favorites. In a multiple union situation, this issue assumes added significance in that the employer can influence the election of representatives to the participative forums by aligning with their own yes men¶ from the ranks and file. Not all unions agree now to the election of representatives through secret ballot (INTUC opposes HMS, CITU, AITUC support the move). MEANINGFUL PARTICIPATION If participation relates to only tea, towels and toilets as the Indian experience clearly shows that it does not serve any purpose. To be useful, participation should cover a wide range of issues where workers can openly represent their cases and seek quick solutions on the spot. Further, the participative forums should not be mere consultative and advisory bodies, dealing with peripheral, insignificant routine issues relating to labor welfare. Workers must have a real say¶ in all important work-related matters including grievance handling and then only they begin to participate in these participative bodies with zeal and enthusiasm. WORKERS ATTITUDE Workers must have complete faith in the efficiency of the system. To encourage a participative culture among workers, seminars, conferences, workshops must be held highlighting the usefulness of participation. Workers must have a sense of job security and freedom from reprisals resulting from their participation. The overall working environment must be congenial enough to inspire the workers to give their best to the organisation.


1. Name of the employee _________________________ 2. Staff No __________________________

3. Department/Section _______________________ 4. Years of service in BEL__________________________ 5. Designation 6. Wage Group/Grade __________________________ ___________________________ Yes / No.

7. Are you aware of shop councils in BEL?

8. When was these shop councils started _______________ 9. Do you participate in management schemes Yes / No.

10. What are the functions of shop council (Tick the appropriate):a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Monthly targets and production schedules. Production facilities and capacity. Operational problems. Material storage facilities, material economy and wastage control. Hazards and safety problems. Improvement in quality culture. Cleanliness. Welfare related to particular shop. Any other (specify). Yes / No.

11. Are you cell representative to the shop council

12. If yes, how many meetings have been held till now ____________ (Since last formation of shop council BEL-Ghaziabad). 13. How many meetings you have attended _____________ 14. Reasons for not attending the meeting/meetings. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 15. What matters are mostly discussed in the meetings ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 16. Do you think the matters discussed in the meeting were: (tick the appropriate)

Relevant of workers in general

Specific to few working in concerned areas

Not relevant

Any other 17. For how long do these meetings last:

Less than 1 hour

About 1 about

About 1 to 2 hours

About 2 to 3 hours

About 3 hours & above. 18. How much time is spent deliberating on each matter ______________ 19. Do you consider the frequency of meetings and average time spent is adequate? If inadequate give your suggestion. __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 20. How long does it take to implement the decisions of the shop council? 21. Do the matters takes up in the shop council have the backing of the majority of members of the cell? Yes / No 22. Do you get suggestions from the ³SUGGESTION BOX´ and you have placed for suggestion box? Yes / No 23. How many suggestions you find relevant any action? 24. Do you think the decisions of the shop council have any bearing on the working of BEL? Yes / No

If yes, in what way._________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ If no, why.________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

25. Are you satisfied with the implementation of decision taken in Meetings? Yes / No If no, why _______________________________________________ 26. Do you think the scheme served the objective for which it was initiated (up to____________)? Yes / No If no, why _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

27. Are these meetings helpful for you as well as the organization? Yes / No If no, why _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

If yes, how _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 28. Give your suggestions to improve the schemes of workers¶ participation in management. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

ANALYSES OF QUESTIONNIARE FOR EMPLOYEES:1. Are you (employee) aware of shop councils at BEL?

100 80 60 40 20 0 YES NO

_____________________________________ Analysis The information on workers¶ participation scheme with regard to basic feature was known to majority of the interviewers about 90% of them. 2. Do the employees of BEL represent as cell representatives?
100 80 60 40 20 0 YES NO

________________________________ Analysis To the question of whether the employees represents as cell representatives the answer of the employees about 80% of them

agrees, while rest of them almost 20% is having a notion that don¶t have the right participation in the working of the management. 3. What do you (employee) think about the overall performance of shop Level committees? Do they are providing some solutions to the issues Taken up?

_____________________________________ Analysis Near about 65% of the employees are satisfied with the performance of shop level system but near about 35% employees are not satisfied with the system of solving the issues. So it is desirable to have some modifications in the shop level system especially in the field of workers strategic issues and apart from this parameter for undertaken issues at shop level must be well defined so that workers can be benefited from it. 4. What do you (employee) think about the shop and plant level Committee?

100 80 60 40 20 0 POSITIVE NEGATIVE

_______________________________ Analysis Near about 60% employees have positive attitude towards the working of the shop and plant level committees but near about 40% employees are not satisfied with the working of the shop level and plant level committees. 5. Role of shop councils as an informal channel in conducting committees for employee¶s participation?
100 80 60 40 20 0 YES N

_______________________________ Analysis Company has got very little employees¶ participation that account for only 35% in the work related areas itself but company do not promote or allow to participate employees regarding strategies and policies formulation. Management does not want to employee¶s participation in the areas that has been meant for higher authorities and has got prime concern for the management as a whole.


6. Is the current scenario working towards maintaining a conducive atmosphere for the shop councils to effectively conduct their functioning?

100 80 60 40 20 0 YES NO

_______________________________ Analysis Only 77% of the employee feel that the current scenario is helping and 23% of the employee feel that the need to have a more conducive and more healthy environment for their functioning. 7. Role of shop councils give improved results or have some productive Response?

100 80 60 40 20 0 YES NO

____________________________ Analysis It is felt that the exercise of shop councils meetings were of very useful to employees about 88% of them have a opinion in

favour of these shop councils. But about 12% of them have an opinion that they are not at all productive and not at all committed.

RESULTS OF THE FEEDBACK The questionnaire was launched with a view of examining and evaluating the scheme of workers¶ participation in management to underlines various aspects of the scheme in vogue. The following conclusions were observed:1) The information on workers participation scheme with Regard to basic feature was known to majority of the interviewers about 70%. 2) The meetings are hold more or less within stipulated time. 3) It was felt that the exercise of shop councils meetings were of very useful nature giving improved results on production, safety, housekeeping, etc. 4) It was felt by most of the interviewers (about 65%) that all the relevant suggestions were implemented, through time lapse do occur in case involving financial commitment. 5) Some useful suggestions were forwarded by interviewers. They are produced below:a) Unions are to be informed more about the scheme for Active support. b) The vacancies in shop councils arising out of the transfers are to be filled up immediately. c) Time lapse in account of financial sanction etc. are to be by active cooperation of various divisions.

d) A continuous dialogue of shop council is to be maintained with the top management for the evaluation of programs and quick disposal of issues. e) To generate interest of top management regarding joint decision making. Needless to point out that the questionnaire method along with interview schedule were of immense use in bringing about host of information regarding the scheme as a whole and suggestions to further improve upon the existing process of Employees¶ participation in industry management.

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS As we have already discussed that in this cut throat competition and in the environment, we have shortage of skilled manpower so we have to retain the employee, to avoid the sufferings and to maintain the competitive advantage. In this process to keep the attrition under control and to increase the satisfaction in Employees money is not the only factor but there are other major factor and player like recognition rewards, respect, career development, working environment, empowerment and leadership. So in the present scenario, it is supposed by HR Manager not to work only upon economic expectation of the employee but upon other factor also that play vital role in attrition and satisfaction of employee. Keeping that factor in mind HR Manager has to design the policies in such a manner so that pleasant working environment and positive attitude about the company and management can be included within the employees and a kind of emotional attachment can be established between the two i.e. the management and the employee. 1. PROMOTION OF INFORMAL CHANNEL:- Informal channel for solving the problems and issues are getting relevance now a days and employees feel comfortable to go through this channel so it must be promoted to display the positive attitude of the company. 2. INDUCING THE EFFICIENT FEEDBACK SYSTEM:Effective feedback system can bring a great level of satisfaction in the employees so feedback system specially the appraisal system must be design in way so that appropriate analysis can be done on each and every parameter.

3. CHANGING JOB PROFILE:- Repeated job profile can induce lack of interest in the employees so it is required to change the job and placing them on other related job so they can feel themselves in a learning environment. Self life erosion has been a major problem where employees feel upset because of the repeated job so it is desirable to change the profile. 4. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES:- Recreational activity must be organizes so stress level can be reduced and the interest of the employees can be maintained in the job itself and the voluntary efforts can be expected from the side of the employee. 5. EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION:- Employees participation pertaining to the job related areas must be increased so that employees can feel a part of the decision-making team. This method can bring significance and recognition for the employees and in turn they will have interest in organization. 6. TECHINICAL TRAINING AND PERSONALITY DEVEKLOPMENT:- It must be a part of the organization strategies and the policies so as to introduce skills and knacks in employees and in turn it results into mutual faith, trust, understanding and the performance output of employees increases.

The scheme of worker¶ participation in management has not shown spectacular results but it should be made in the field of increasing production and productivity of labor by giving the worker a feeling for his being a part of the organization and providing him reasonable opportunities to show its worth in contributing his share in production. Joint consultation should form a part of labor management decision in important issues affecting not only production but also they very working lives of the workers. Management should have a constructive attitude and should regard trade unions not as obstruction to be overcome but as highly valuable and powerful instrument which if properly handled can be of very great help in increasing production. Both employer and unions should resolve solemnly to carry on the experiment in proper spirit. The government on its part should take responsibility for the Provision of the satisfactory workers education equips them for the task. The Schemes seems to have a bright future.

Workmen of Bharat Electronics, Ghaziabad have been actively participating in several for such as D.R.F, L.W.F committee etc. and contributing their best towards organizational growth and development. 1) Consequent upon the evaluation of a scheme by Government of India for Employee participation In management for central public sector undertakings, a scheme for ³Employees participation in management was introduced in BEL-GAD vide GM¶s circular dated 15.4.1985 under reference. With a view to utilize our human resources more effectively the scheme has now been reviewed & the subject has been under discussions with the negotiating trade unions and it has now been decided to implement the ³workers participation in management´ in BEL-GAD as indicated in ANNEXURE-I. 2) There would be an Apex council at the unit level consisting of eight representatives from the management and four representatives of negotiating trade unions. Further, there would be seven councils at the divisional levels consisting of six representatives from the management and the three representatives each from the negotiating trade unions. 3) The constitution of Apex council and Shop councils are indicated in ANNEXURE-II & III respectively.

4) It is the earnest hope of the management that implementation of the scheme would enable the workers¶ representatives to further involve themselves and actively contribute towards better production and productivity. 5) The scheme will come into force with immediate effect. (ENCLOSURE TO GM OFFICE ORDER NO. GAD/826/001 DATED 10 JULY, 1999).




Workers are the most important asset and resource of and industry. The prosperity or otherwise of an organization depends upon the values they perceive about it. Therefore, these participative forums are organized :1) To provide for specific and meaningful participation of workers in management so that it would promote better understanding between the two. 2) To inculcate the spirit of co-operation and mutual understanding for effective participation for maximizing production and productivity. 3) Further, the management is committed to promote ³Employees¶ Participation in management of industry´. To create conditions in which an industrial democracy could flourish. This would motivate the workers and give them a greater sense of identity, belongingness, involvement and participation in the production activities:-

I. CONSTITUTION There would be an Apex council at the Unit level and seven Shop councils at the Division level:1) APEX COUNCIL:- will consist of eight representatives from the management and four representatives each from the negotiating trade unions. 2) THE SHOP COUNCIL:- will consist of six representatives from the management and three representatives each from the negotiating trade unions. The concerned AGM/DGM (divisional head) will be the chairman and the secretary/assistant secretary will be from the workers¶ representative. Other members of the council are divisional executives including women wherever necessary. 3) POWER TO CO-OPT:- The councils shall have the right to co-opt a specialist/expert from the unit for any meeting. Such co-opted member shall have the right to actively participate in deliberation. 4) POWER TO REPLACE MEMBERS:- Both the management and the negotiation trade unions will have the right to replace their nominee(s) such as transfer, retirement, resignation and etc. 5) PERIODICITY OF THE MEETINGS:APEX COUNCIL : ONCE IN THREE MONTHES SHOP COUNCIL : ONCE IN A MONTH. However, the chairman in consultation with the secretary / Asst. secretary of the shop councils will have the right to convene a special / additional meeting whenever necessary.

II. FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNCILS The participation will cover the following areas:1. Work practices 2. Productivity 3. Company plans 4. Modernization 5. Storage facility 6. Material economy 7. Operation problems 8. Wastage control 9. Hazardous and safety problems 10. Quality improvement 11. Cleanliness 12. Target and production control schedule 13. Cost reduction program 14. Formulation and implementation of work system 15. Welfare measures relevant to particular shop, Such as cooling and lighting etc. 16. Technology and quality improvement 17. Improvement in machine utilization 18. Absenteeism 19. House keeping 20. Pollution control 21. Environment improvements 22. Developments of new projects etc. 23. Special program for women employee etc. III. SCOPE 1. APEX COUNCIL:- Matters relating to performance, order-book, dispatches, even flow, re-deployment, multi skills and standard hour¶s clearance, inventory control, cost reduction, etc.

2. SHOP COUNCIL:- Discussions of work related issues, shop level cleanliness, productivity, safety, inventory control, absenteeism, utilization of plant and machinery, reduction in wastage, better coordination, work discipline, etc.

IV. TENURE OF THE COUNCILS:- The council¶s tenure would be for two years co-terminus with the recognition of the trade unions after holding the secret ballot. V. QUORUM FOR HOLDING MEETING:- The quorum necessary to conduct the meeting shall be 75% of the total members excluding the chairman. VI. CIRCULATION OF AGENDA AND THE MINUTES:- The agenda for the meeting shall be given to members at least 4 days in advance to provide opportunity for them to consult other employees/management before the actual meeting. Secretary / Asst. secretary shall prepare the agenda and the minutes of the meetings in consultation with the chairman. VII. SCOPE OF DISCUSSION:The scope discussion should be within the frame work of object, functions and scope of the councils discussed above. The discussions should be held in an atmosphere of mutual trust and cordiality. The shop councils should always attempt to arrive at a decision by consensus of any issue and not by the majority of the vote etc. but where no mutually accepted consensus emerges, such issue shall be referred to the apex council. These should not be used as grievance redressal machinery or to raise or discuss individual grievances or collective bargaining issues which would normally be discussed by the negotiating trade unions.

The following areas for example are therefore, excluded from the preview of these councils:1. Wages 2. Salaries 3. DA and perks 4. Promotions 5. Grievances 6. Discipline 7. Increments 8. Pay and anomalies 9. Transfer, etc. SHOP COUNCILS:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. RADAR. COMMUNICATION. ANTEENA. CS & P&M. D&E, MWC & SYSTEMS. MM, QA & T. M & CC, F&A, P&A, MS & PR, GM SECTT.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study has been carried out of field work which involves regular interaction with HR Manager and employees of BEL working within the organization. Primary data has been collected by using the Questionnaire Method. Questionnaire has been used effectively so as to get information about the following points: Employee¶s Perception Management. about workers¶ participation in 

Their expectations about SHOP COUNCILS.  Causes for changes in workers¶ participation in management.  Management policies and participation in management.  Management capabilities.  Employee¶s attitude towards organization.  Recreational activity in organization. Other main points:    Strength of organization => 2600 workers (approx) Sample size => 18 Employee¶s questionnaire => 18 (contains questions) Convenient sampling technique. strategies regarding workers¶

The Methodology for the survey involved a study of quality circles and often informal participative management systems. Semi-structured interview schedule were used for data collection. Interviews were held individually to assess options and attitudes. Data was also obtained through informal meetings and discussions with all levels of employees. The research will be based on systematic research design to meet the objectives of study. RESEARCH DESIGN RESEARCH INSTRUMENT direct person investigation. ::Descriptive research Personal interview in the form of

VIII. RECOMMENDATION AND IMPLEMENTATION Councils will discuss matters within its scope and arrive at decisions. If the decisions are capable of being implemented within the division as per the existing norms and delegation of powers, the same should be implemented after following the laid down procedure. In case such decisions require approval of the higher/competent authorities including finance, the same would be implemented after obtaining their approval by following the laid down procedure.




Bargaining Information Sharing Influence & Issues Safety Work Sharing Production Business and related of gains related policy welfare

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of the study paper via to comprehend evaluate the concept of employers participation in management and relate the concept framework with the actual implementation in a typical industry. The workers participation in management in organization decision making process is crucial for achieving the best results in an economic industrial enterprise. It is not only crucial to evolve a mentioned constructive cooperation between the partners of production and establishing a democratic system of relationship in the economic enterprise. It in not more essential for resolving conflicts within the workers and management. 1. The objective of ³workers participation in management´ is not only economic but also social and political. This activity of worker participation in management is increase the moral of the employees and they work willingly and honestly. The economic objective is to make the enterprise more efficient and effective. Participation improves the status of the workers. 2. The main objective of the scheme is to help increasing production and sharing the gains of productivity through technological practice, more effective management, better wages & incentives and better industrial relations. 3. The social objective of the scheme is to integrate the worker into the undertaking and to give them a sense of fulfillment not only as regards work, but also in regards to their social and political environment. 4. The moral objective is to motivate the workers to work effective and efficient manner so that they can achieve their goals or they can do their work in proper way.

5. The principle of labor participation in management affords a means of self-realization in work. It meets the psychological by needs of men and women at work eliminating any feeling for futility, isolation and consequent frustration that face in normal industrial setting. According, joint management councils were set up in industrial undertakings and at same time a scheme of training workers and trade union leaders launched. The aim is to equip them adequately for the new task on participating in the joint council of management. Government are aware that it is only by providing for such arrangements for such arrangements for workers participation particularly at the shop floor and unit that the involvement of workers in the effective functioning of the unit and improving production and productivity can be ensured. Government have desired that all management, workers and trade unions concerned to take speedy and effective measures for the early adoption of the scheme in their units and for its continued healthy functioning. The main objectives of workers¶ participation in India are as summarized as under:To achieve higher productivity and production. To achieve greater efficiency and job satisfaction. To improve industrial relations. To have better discipline. Development of the human personality and internal leadership. Creation of a sense of belonging and establishment of harmonious industrial relations. These objectives may be achieved as a result of the consequences flowing from the process of worker¶s participation:Challenging work to workers.

Heightened sense of responsibility. Meaningful relations to work. Availability of worker¶s ideas and suggestions to management. Realistic management decisions. Accommodation of change, motivation and commitment to implement decisions. Better two way communication. Better work-supervisor relations.

SAFETY & WELFARE SHOP safety WORK RELATED storage facilities PRODUCTION RELATED production related facilities Monthly targets, schedule reduction, design productivity, schemes, planning and review material shortfalls, storage and inventory quality and technology, and machine utilization.


Material economy, Operational, problems

LEVEL Medical Transport Safety, Sport, Housing.

Wastage, control Hazards, Quality, Cleanliness, work System, group Working, house keeping, productivity improvement, Problems of women employees, absenteeism Suggestion.

Product development Operational perform-ance. PLANT Township, Canteen, Control of Gambling, Shop floor matter remaining un-solved review of shop control finan-cial statements, cost

The government has announced yet another scheme for shop councils and a plant council on 31st December 1983. It was billed as a new comprehensive scheme for the workers participation in central public sector undertakings. The scheme referred to as a three-tier scheme. It had some alterations, from the 1975 scheme. For instance, representation of workers from the shop floor would cover different categories such as skilled and unskilled, technical and non-technical, supervisory categories and women, if they constituted 10 percent or more of the workforce.

CONSTITUTION OF SHOP COUNCILS Though the scheme envisages the representation of the workers at shop level and plant level covering different categories of workers such as skilled and unskilled, technical and non-technical, supervisory categories, etc., to start with the scheme was introduced at shop level in the production area only and based on the experience and benefits gained will be extended to other areas and eventually to the plant level. Keeping in view all the aspects the following five shop councils were constituted in the production areas. The tenure of the shops councils is 2 years from the date of formation. 1. 2. 3. 4. Shop council-I ( works fabrication) Shop council-II (works fabrication-II) Shop council-III (assembly) Shop council-IV (assy. And testing)

Each council consisted of 10 members with equal representation of 5 members elected by workers and 5 members (executives) nominated by the management of the particular area for which the shop council has been constituted. The workers elected their representatives by means of secret ballot and voting for electing a representative of a cell/section done by the employee of that cell/section only.

RULES OF BUSINESS FOR SHOP COUNCILS With a view to avoid any unlikely discord rules of business of shop council has been framed. CONVENER A convener on the shop council is mentioned by the management who is normally senior most management representative in the council. The function of a convener include giving direction to and guiding the working and presiding over the meeting of shop council. His duties also cover to ensure the overall functioning of the shop council and finalization of agenda and minutes of councils meeting in consultation with the secretary. SECRETARY The secretary is elected by the workers of the particular council. The functions of the shop council are:  To prepare agenda and put to the convener.  To inform other members of the council about the time and date of meeting.  To record the proceedings and prepare minutes in consultation with the convener.  Collection of the data and compilation of facts concerning the agenda to be discussed. FREQUENCY OF MEETINGS The meetings are required to be held at least once in a month.

QUORUM There should be a minimum of 6 members, three each from the management and workers to form a quorum. SCOPE OF DISCUSSION The scope of discussions should be within the frame work of the objects of the scheme. The discussions in the shop councils are held in the atmosphere of mutual trust and cordiality. Decisions arrived at the councils are by the consensus of opinion and not by the majority of votes etc. individual grievances are not discussed in the council as other forums like grievances procedure, trade unions etc, are available for such purposes. CIRCULATION OF AGENDA AND MINUTES The agenda for meeting is given to all the members in advance so that the council members can consult other employee¶s management before the meeting. Agenda and the minutes of the shop council are also displayed on the shop notice boards for the information of the employees. RECOMMENDATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SHOP COUNCIL Till such time plant level committee is established a steering committee consisting of 7 senior executives has been constituted by a consensus decision. The steering committee is monitoring the progress of employee participation scheme and also resolving the issue recommended by the shop councils. Secretary and the convener of the shop councils are taken as co-opted members when their matters come up for discussions before steering committee.

ACHIEVEMENTS The shop councils are having discussions in an atmosphere of mutual goodwill and co-operation and formulate its recommendations consensus. The councils have discussions in the matter related to work safety and welfare in an atmosphere of extreme cordiality. The existence of these forums has created a positive feeling among the employees in general. Besides, the following main achievements have been made:  Proper understanding has been developed among the employees.  Decisions are arrived by consensus.  Employees are feeling equal sharing of responsibilities.  Participative culture has been developed.  Tendency to solve the shop problems in constructive way has been developed.  Tendency to solve the shop problems in constructive way has been developed.  Co-ordination among the employees has been developed.  Housekeeping and cleanliness has been improved. TRAINING PROGRAMME The areas where participation in management scheme in operation. According, to educate the employee who formed electorate for shop councils on the several programs have The NPC suggested the need of education and training for workers working in been conducted with the help of NPC & PECCE.

THE GROWTH OF WORKER¶S PARTICIPATION IN INDIA In India, we have accepted the ideas of involving workers in organization decision making processes as an integral part of labor policy for quite some time, and have made several processing and timely efforts to experiment with various forums of participation. Mahatma Gandhi, in his own wisdom mooted out the idea of such a participation by workers to be executed through implementation of his own conception of a worker¶s republic where there should be proper understanding, co-ordination and harmony between finance & labor and both these recognize each other, value and honor each other¶s dignity. Tata iron and steel company has made a modest beginning by setting up a joint works committee as early as 1919. However, this experiment did not succeed. Subsequently as a prelude to joint consultations the corner stone is union and management co-operation was laid in 1938 when the union signed an agreement with the management undertaking to cooperate with each other. This also could not materialize due to intervention of war. The Royal Commission on labor , recommended institution of works committee in the industries in the year 1931, based on the above recommendation the provisions were made in the industrial disputes act for establishing works committee. Section 3 of this act provides for the constitution of works committee is an industrial establishment, where more than 100 workers are employed representing employers and workers to promote measure for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employers and the workers and so that comment upon matters of their common interest or concern or endeavor to compose any material differences in respect of such matters.

Industrial employment (standing order) Act, 1946 sought to give opportunities for trade unions or representatives of employees to be heard during the process of the certification of standing orders Act defining the conditions of employment in the industrial establishment can be considered as yet another land mark for workers participation in Management. Provisions have been made in various other labor legislations also providing for democratic consultation. The Factories Act 1947 has provided for the constitution of the canteen management committee. Association of worker¶s in the administration of provident fund under the Provident Fund Act in establishments where exemptions have been granted is also a statutory feature. Certain establishment has constituted sub- committees under the aegis of works committee for administration of safety and for monitoring the transport facilities provided by the employer. Many organizations have constituted other social security bodies like work¶s welfare Fund Administration, Worker¶s death relief fund administration etc. where the representatives of labor jointly decide various issue. The Government¶s industrial policy Resolution of 1956 introduced the idea of joint management council. It stipulates that labor is a partner in the common task of development and should participate in it with enthusiasm. A firm of worker¶s participation in management was evolved during the second 5 year¶s plan in order to give workers¶ a sense of belonging and to stipulate their interest in productivity by setting up joint management councils. The joint management councils¶ main function is to mutual consultation between the employers and the workers over the important issues effecting industrial relations, through issues such as wages, working hours etc., were kept out of its purview. The study group of labor ministry on workers¶ participation in management consisting of representatives of govt. employees and

workers with Shri Vishnu Sahy (labor secretary) as leader visited to some of the European countries via, U.K., Sweden, France, Belgium, West Germany and Yugoslavia to study the working of similar scheme. The group recommended the joint management councils with 6 to 10 members to discuss regarding working conditions, productivity, suggestion schemes and administration of laws. The recommendations made by the group were considered and accepted at the 15th session of the Indian labor Conference in 1957. In order to give a practical shape to the recommendations a representation of the central, state governments and employers and workers organizations met in a seminar covered in Delhi 1958. The approved scheme is voluntary and allows considerable flexibility in structures and functions. The main ingredients the schemes are as:1) Consultation 2) Right to receive information and 3) Right to administration in certain matters. The scheme for worker¶s participation in industry at the top and plant levels were introduced by the government on the 30th October 1975 vide Government of India¶s resolution No, S 611011(4)/75-Desk I (B) dated the 30th October 1975 and was made applicable to the manufacturing and the mining units in the public, private and co-operative sectors, as well as those run departmentally, employing 500 or more workers as apart of the 20 point economic program another scheme on workers¶ participation was introduced by the government of India¶s Resolution no. L-56025/4/75 Desk I (B) dated 4-1-1977 in commercial and service organization in the public sector, which has large scale public dealings, with view to rendering better customer services. Workers¶ Participation in Management is one of the Directive Principle of state policy and this had already received a significant place in the country, by the 42nd constitution amendment pass in view of the importance being given to the subject it cannot just remain statue book

like in the case of the many other pious wish. In fact, this in the process of implementation in some from or other.

Government has a taken a review of the scheme in the light of this review and experience gained so far as comprehensive scheme was devised by the Govt. vide Ministry of Labor & Rehabilitation (Department of Labor) dated 30-12-1983 on workers¶ participation for central public sector undertakings. The former trade union minister of labor, Mr. Virendra Patil while inaugurating a seminar in October, 1984, said that public sector undertaking have been directed to introduced a scheme. That will ensure a compulsory labor participation in management. In this view, the scheme when put in to practice, would generate a sense of belonging which was now absolutely lacking in labor. Studies on works and nature of these various forums of workers¶ participation in India revealed that they have made a little impact on the industrial relation scene.

PHILOSOPHY OF WORKERS¶ PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT One of the major causes for decelerating industrial growth can be attributed to the inherent conflicts between approaches and attitudes of the traditional management and trade unions. The management for a long period looked upon the working class as cost factor which need to be maximized for achievement of greater productive efficiency and management effectiveness. The working class and the trade unionists in particular. On the other hand, viewed management as anti-union, anti-workers and to a large extent, unreasonable. Hence, there was an urgent need for the resolution of the attitudinal conflicts in order to achieve to ultimate desired objectives of the organization. Over the decades, there have been many attempts by the governments and captain of industry to enlist the whole hearted support of organized labor, as with the passage of time, factories and enterprises are being considered more and more social rather than profiteering institution. Since employees of an institution are dependent for their livelihood on the efficient working of their institution, they feel that they should have some say in the affairs of the enterprise. This is a prerequisite for achievement of the aspirations of both. On the side the employer invests his labor. Thus, making him equal partner. This position if taken into account gives an employee a moral right for having an equal opportunity to participate in the decisions which affect him directly or indirectly.

VARIOUS FORUMS OF WORKERS¶ PARTICIPATION IN BEL-GAD The management is always keen to have consultation committees of employee representatives and management to decide about certain issues such amenities, educational and recreation activities etc. besides, the bipartite committees other statutory committees are also functioning in the organization. I.QUALITY CIRCLES In order to promote proper understanding of the concept and approach in 1982 a number of quality circle were set up in different production areas. The objectives of quality circles were to, (a) improve quality, (b) enhance the involvement of the workers, (c) improve team spirit and group relations. Membership of the circles is voluntary and members elect leader from amongst themselves. Usually, but not invariably the supervisor is selected as the leader. The sectional head is the facilitator of each circle. The problem is searched by the circle and frequent consultation is made. Through these quality circle a participative culture has developed.





Torque is a corporate wide problem solving process improving methodology. It is a disciplined approach from management and employees to manager Quality.

QUALITY OBJECTIVES:1) To identify the needs of our customers. 2) To meet the identified needs to the full satisfaction of the customers. 3) To institute organization, systems and procedures for strengthening the concept of quality. 4) To achieve quality by the involvement and commitment of all our employees and suppliers. 5) To design and develop products and services to meet the requirement of quality, reliability and safety. 6) To build quality into every process we carry out. 7) To ensure that quality comes through prevention rather than inspection. 8) To continuously monitor quality and minimize quality cost. 9) To allocate available resources for futuristic design, infrastructure up gradation and Human Resource Development. 10) To ensure that every individual in the company understands, implements and maintains the quality policy.

II. QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE:Quality Control Circle is a small group activity in which people who work in the first time work place, continually improve the quality of products, services, using quality circle concept and techniques, display creativity and thus, enhance self development. Total participant 6.FACILATOR, LEADER, DY LEADER + 4 MEMBERS

OBJECTIVES OF QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE 1) To encourage employees to make case study presentations 2) To achieve effective team work 3) To build harmony between executives and employees THE QCC ACTIVITY STARTED IN BELBG IN 1981 AND BELGAD IN 1982. THE FIRST INTER-UNIT QCC COMPETITION WAS HOSTED BELBG IN 1988. PHILOSOPHY OF QUALITY CIRCLES 1) Reduce errors and exchange quality & productivity; 2) Inspire more effective work; 3) Promote job involvement & participation; 4) Increase employees motivation; 5) Create problem-solving capability ³QUALITY CONTROL CIRCLE CAN BE ADOPTED ANY NOT ONLY IN PRODUCTION´. WHERE BY



1). To design and deliver products and services that fulfill customers¶ Need. 2). Continuous improvement. 3). Commitment to constant examination of technical and administrative processes in search of better methods. 4). Team work ± collaboration between managers and non-managers, between customers and suppliers.

SEVEN TOOLS OF QUALITY CONTROL 1) BRAINSTROING A technique to bring out ideas into opens and helps improve the group creativity. 2) PARETO ANALYSIS A very powerful tool which helps segregate the defects into vital few¶ and trivial many¶. 3) CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM Also called Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram. This gives the relationship between the Quality Characteristics and the contributing factors. It is a pictorial representation of all possible causes and their effects. 4) HISTOGRAM It is a simple technique of regrouping the data according to size or value and the frequency. Histogram gives an insight into process capability. 5) CONTROL CHART Determines the practical and economic limits within which variations from normal may be permitted before the process is updated. The chart helps decide whether a process is affected by factors worth identifying and controlling. 6) SCATTER DIAGRAM Helps arrive at the correlation between two or more variable.

7) CHECK SHEET It is useful in Quality Planning, in process control and final inspection.