ENVIRONMENTAL

GEOLOGY NOTES
*

APRIL 1970

NUPBER 34

SULFUR REDUCTION OF ILLINOIS COALS
WRSHQBILITY TESTS
Roy J. Eielfinstine, Jack A . Simon, Heil Fv Shimp, and M. E . Hopkins

I L L I N O I S STATE GEOLOGICAL S U RVEV JOHN C. FRYEs Chief Urbana 61801

SULFUR REDUCTION

OF I L L I N O I S C O A L S

WASHABILITY TESTS

Roy J. Helfinstine, Jack A . Simon, N e i l F. Shimp, and M. E. Hopkins

ABSTRACT
A s s u l f u r i n the coal and o i l burned in power p l a n t s is

the major source of s u l f u r dioxide emitted t o the atmosphere, the removal of s u l f u r from c o a l before i t i s burned would h e l p to reduce a i r p ~ l l u t i o n . To determine how much the s u l f u r c o n t e n t could be reduced by p r e p a r a t i o n techniques, 40 c o a l samples from 35 I l l i n o i s c o a l mines were s t u d i e d a t the I l l i n o i s S t a t e G e o l ~ g lcal Survey.
Only i n those Illinois c o a l s having r e l a t i v e l y low sulf u r c o n t e n t , as mined, could t h e s u l f u r content be reduced t o 1 . 5 p e r c e n t o r less by washing techniques. Most I l l i n o i s coals, as mined, c o n t a i n 3 t o 5 p e r c e n t s u l f u r . Laboratory t e s t s r e v e a l e d t h i s could be reduced ts about 2.5 t o 4 p e r c e n t .

INTRODUCTION

When coal is burned under normal conditions, practically all of the sulfur in the coal is released into the atmosphere as sulfur dioxide ( S O 2 ) . Reduction of suZEur dioxide is a major objective of many current pollution control activities. One obvious way to reduce the emission of sulfur dioxide from coal-burning equipment I s t o reduce the sulfur content of the c o a l t o

the p r a c t i c a l minimum, b u t more information i s needed t o determine what t h a t p r a c t i c a l minimum is. The I n v e s t i g a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n this preliminary report and o t h e r s t u d i e s are b e i n g conducted by t h e I l l i n o i s S t a t e G e o l o g i c a l Survey t o help provide some of the needed i n f o r m a t i o n . Present and p r o j e c t e d needs f o r c o a l as f u e l f o r e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n make i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t w e l e a r n e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e about o u r c o a l s .

Most of t h e c o a l s currently mined i n I l l i n o i s are cleaned before they are s o l d . The term "cleaned" (or "washedi') indicates that the coal, as mined, i s processed i n a c o a l p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t t o reduce the amount of ash and s u l f u r in the c o a l and increase i t s h e a t i n g v a l u e *

The p r e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s i s based on the fact that m i n e r a l matter (impurities) h a s a higher s p e c i f i c gravity t h a n the a s s o c i a t e d coal. Unfort u n a t e l y , some of this mineral matter i s i n t i m a t e l y mixed w i t h the c o a l and cannot b e r e a d i l y s e p a r a t e d .
Washability s t u d i e s are conducted i n a l a b o r a t o r y t o determine the potential r e d u c t i o n of ash o r s u l f u r f o r a c o a l from any given l o c a t i o n . Basically, this i s done by p l a c i n g samples of c o a l i n s o l u t i o n s t h a t have s u i t a b l e specific gravity and determining t h e p e r c e n t a g e of the " f l o a t " and "sink" f r a c t i o n s . Chemical analyses a l s o are made on t h e f l o a t and s i n k fract i o n s . Five s o l u t i o n s w i t h varying s p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s ranging from 1.23 t o 1.60 were used t o determine t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e chemical a n a l y s e s and The r e l a t i o n t h e percentage of sink (commonly called "reject" or " r e f u s e " ) . between the percentage of f l o a t (commonly c a l l e d "recovery") and t h e chemical analyses were determined i n the same manner. Laboratory f l o a t - s i n k data generally p r o v i d e r e s u l t s t h a t r e p r e s e n t the maximum c l e a n i n g c a p a S i l i t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r coal.

This r e p o r t briefly o u t l i n e s t h e f i r s t phase of a c o n t i n u i n g invest i g a t i o n of the washability of I l l i n o i s c o a l s and summarizes results. A more comprehensive r e p o r t w i l l be prepared and p u b l i s h e d a t a l a t e r date. Meanwhile, d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n is available a t t h e I l l i n o i s S t a t e GeologicalSurvey f o r those t h o need i t immediate'ly.

Acknowledgments
The U. S. Public Health Service, Department of H e a l t h , Education arid Welfare, through c o n t r a c t No. PH 86-67-206, provided s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t e f o r t h i s study. W are a l s o i n d e b t e d t o the operating c o a l companies of l l l i n o i s f o r their invaluable a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g samples.

PURPOSES OF THE INVESTIGATION
The primary aim of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s t o study the w a s h a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of I l l i n o i s c o a l s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on t h e q u a n t i t y , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and varieties (forms) of sulfur o c c u r r i n g i n I l l i n o i s coals. The s t u d i e s could p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r determining how much p y r i t i c s u l f u r could be rem6ved from I l l i n o i s c o a l s by c o n v e n t i o n a l c o a l cleaning methods and also f o r e v a l u a t i n g the p y r i t i c and total sulfur c o n t e n t s of coal mine r e f u s e .

The data developed i n t h i s s t u d y supply i n f o r m a t i o n required f o r (1) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of how much s u l f u r can b e removed from c o a l from v a r i a u s seams, or different a r e a s within the same seam, by c o n v e n t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n techniques; (2) e v a l u a t i o n of t h e possibility of recovering p y r i t e from mine refuse t o reduce its p o t e n t i a l as a stream p o l l u t a n t ; and (3) evaluation of the use of I l l i n o i s c o a l refuse as a s o u r c e of p y r i t e f o r s u l f u r recovery o r s u l f u r i c a c i d manufacture.
A secondary o b j e c t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been a comprehensive s t u d y of o t h e r chemical and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of I l l i n o i s c o a l s , including trace elements, coal petrography, palynology, and m i n e r a l m a t t e r other t h a n s d f ur compounds.

PROCEDURE

Samples The 40 c o a l samples d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s r e p o r t were t a k e n from 35 B l l i n o i s c o a l mines Located i n most rnin%ng areas of t h e s t a t e * Coal seams sampled were the B a n v i l l e (No. 7), Nerlrin (No. 6 ) , Harrisburg o r S p r i n g f i e l d (No. 51, Summum (No. 4 ) , Colches t e r (No. 2) , De Koven, Davis, and Rock I s l a n d (No. 1 ) . The number of samples i s greater t h a n the number of mines because several mines produced coal from more than one seam. In a l l cases, d i f f e r e n t seams were sampled s e p a r a t e l y . An e f f o r t was made to o b t a i n samples t h a t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c o a l processed by the p r e p a r a t i o n plant during one full s h i f t of o p e r a t i o n . The i d e a l sample w a s 2000 pounds of c o a l made up of 20 t o 30 increments taken a t uniform i n t e r v a l s throughout a working s h i f t . However, a t many mines fewer increments were taken because sampling c o n d i t i o n s were poor. Some samples, therefore, may not be representative of the output for the operating shift and should n o t be considered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e o u t p u t of t h e mine f o r an extended period of t i m e , The samples are, however, s u p e r i o r t o grab samples. A t s e v e r a l s t r i p mines, coals from d i f f e r e n t seams were being mixed at the preparation p l a n t , and it was not practical t o o b t a i n a single-seam sample from t h e t i p p l e , making i t necesary t o c u t them from f r e s h l y exposed f a c e s i n the p i t s 4

In a d d i t i o n t o t h e 2000-lb sample, a t l e a s t three channel samples of about 50 l b s each were c u t from the coal f a c e i n different a r e a s of every mine sampled,
Laboratory P r e p a r a t i o n

The channel samples were crushed and r i f f l e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s t o obtain adequate samples for chemical and p h y s i c a l a n a l y s e s . Chemical analyses included proximate, heating v a l u e , total sulfur, forms of sulfur (pyritic, organic, or sulfate), and chlorine analyses. These same a n a l y s e s , p l u s u l t i m a t e analyses and d e t e r m i n a t i o n s of the f r e e - s w e l l i n g i n d e x , ash fusion temperature, and Gieseler plasticity were made an a composite of t h e t h r e e face-channel sm.ples.

TABLE 1 -- PYRITIC

SULFUR^

REDUCTION I N FLOAT CORLS

80 percent recovery

01 02 03

04
05
06

07
0A

09

10

11
12
13
14 15

1C 17
18

19

20
21

22 23 24 25

T6
27

28 29
30 3P

32
33 34 35

36
37
3 1)
3'3

46:

AVERAGE

l~hsrnlccsldata on dry baris, 2 ~ e r c e n treduction from original sample,

The 1-ton sample of raw coal was crushed to a maximum s i z e of 1% i n . w i t h a j a w crusher. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e portion (about 200 l b s ) of t h i s 1% in. x 0 coal was crushed to a t o p s i z e of 3/8 i n . , t h e n s c r e e n e d into 3/8 i n . x 14 mesh, 1 4 mesh x 100 mesh, and 100 mesh x 0 fractions. Washability studies were made on t h e 1% in* x 0, 3 f 8 i n . x 14 mesh, and 1 4 mesh x 100 mesh f r a c t i o n s .
G r a v i t y s e p a r a t i o n s of very f i n e coal (less than 100 mesh) are diff i c u l t with any coal and a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t w i t h I l l i n o i s coals, which are q u i t e porous. The l i q u i d used f o r the s e p a r a t i o n rapidly p e n e t r a t e s the pores and t h e r e b y exerts a major influence on the r e s u l t s . Although some tests were made w i t h t h e 100 mesh x 0 c o a l s , the results were R O ~ a t i s f a c t o r y . s

Chemical Analyses
Chemical analyses, which determined p e r c e n t a g e s of ash, sulfate s u l f u r , p y r i t i c s u l f u r , o r g a n i c sulfur, and t o t a l s u l f u r , were made on a l l f l o a t f r a c t i o n s and on some s i n k fractions. G r i n d a b i l i t y and f u s i b i l i t y of t h e ash were also determined f o r the l i g h t e s t , intermediate, and h e a v i e s t (1.60 s p e c i f i c gravity) f l o a t f r a c t i o n s of the 1% in. x 0 coal, although t h e v a l u e s a r e n o t presented i n this report. The proximate a n a l y s e s and d e r e r minations of t o t a l s u l f u r , forms of sulfur, heating value, and free-swelling index were made f o r t h e raw c o a l , as received, and on the sized f r a c t i o n s .
A l l chemical values presented in t h i s r e p o r t are on t h e dry b a s i s .

RESULTS
S u l f u r Removal

Three forms of s u l f u r - s u l f a t e , organic, and pyritic-were determined by chemical analyses. The s u l f a t e sulfur c o n t e n t i s q u i t e low, w i t h an average of only 0.08 p e r c e n t f o r t h e 40 samples tested. The o r g a n i c s u l f u r i s in complex combination w i t h o t h e r organic matter i n the coal and cannot be

TABLE 2-EFFECT

OF COAL SIZE ON SULFUR REDUCTION*

x 100 mesh

- - -

-

-

*

Sulfur values are given on the d r y b a s i s and a r e averages o f 4 0 samples.

Original sample

l~h@rnicarl date on dry bar1

removed from the coal by physical means. The pyritic sulfur, which can be p a r t l y s e p a r a t e d from the c o a l by g r a v i t y methods, i s t h e Eom of s u l f u r of particular interest i n this study.
A s pyrite i s about f o u r times heavier than the associated c o a l , g r a ~ r i t ymethods of s e p a r a t i o n can be used. Nowever, some of t h i s s u l f u r i s generally f i n e l y disseminated throughout t h e c o a l and cannot be readily separ a t e d . Table 1 shows the p e r c e n t a g e of p y r i t i c s u l f u r m o v e d from the samples i n this i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h 40 and 80 p e r c e n t recoveries (1% i n . x O s i z e ) . Although 78.4 p e r c e n t of the p y r i t i c sulfur was removed from sample 24 with SO p e r c e n t recovery of the r a w c o a l sample, t h e average removal of p y r i t i c s u l f u r from a l l samples was only 53.9 percent. Even w i t h 40 p e r c e n t clean c o a l recovery, which i s Ear less than the commerciaLly a c c e p t a b l e recovery level, an average of only 76.8 p e r c e n t of t h e p y r i t i c s u l f u r was removed.

Effect of Goal Size on S u l f u r Reduction
The effect of coal s i z e upon the w a s h a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c o a l may b e important. Table 2 lists t h e average percentages of total and pyritic s u l f u r (dry b a s i s ) a t f i v e recovery values and three s i z e ranges for the 40 coals t e s t e d . The p e r c e n t a g e s of t o t a l and p y r i t i c s u l f u r were u s u a l l y lower i n the f i n e r c o a l sizes, b u r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were not g r e a t enough t o c o n s i d e r fine g r i n d i n g of these c o a l s a s an e f f e c t i v e procedure for sulfur r e d u c t i o n . However, a f e w e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s average t r e n d i n d i c a t e t h a t fine g r i n d i n g might produce a beneficial e f f e c t on some c o a l s .

S u l f u r vs. Recovery One of the basic aims of these w a s h a b i l i t y s t u d i e s i s to provide i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t shows the potential of Illinois coals as a s o u r c e of f u e l w i t h certain sulfur limits and w i t h p r a c t i c a l l i m i t s of recovery of the raw coal. Although the p e r c e n t a g e of a l l o w a b l e s u l f u r may be regulated by government bodies, a p r a c t i c a l recovery L i m i t w i l l vary w i t h every mine and from day to day at any mine. T a b l e 3 gives the percentages of total sulfur, pyritic s u l f u r , and ash i n the o r i g i n a l c o a l samples a t b o t h 40 and 80 percent r e c o v e r i e s . The d a t a a r e based on a n a l y s e s obtained from t h e 1% in. x 0 c o a l samples. The samples a r e a r r a n g e d i n ascending o r d e r of total s u l f u r p e r c e n t a g e s . The data were c a l c u l a t e d by an IBN 360 computer, which was programmed t o c o n s t r u c t " b e s t f i t t i n g " curves and t o i n t e r p o l a t e t o o b t a i n the s u l f u r and ash percentages a t any d e s i r e d recovery percentage. Table 3 shows t h a t f i v e of t h e 40 c o a l s t e s t e d could b e f l o a t e d w i t h These an 80 percent recovery and a maximum of 1-50 percent s u l f u r (dry basis) f i v e c o a l s were n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g low-sulfur c o a l s t h a t ranged from 1.18 t o 1 . 7 1 percent s u l f u r , as sampled. Three a d d i t i o n a l coals could b e reduced t o a s u l f u r content of 1.5 p e r c e n t or less w i t h 40 p e r c e n t recovery. O f a l l t h e coals tested, only 10 samples at 80 percent recovery and 19 samples at 40 p e r cent recovery had s u l f u r percentages of 2.5 o r less.

.

Central Illinois Southwestern l l linois Western I l linois

0 0
0

8
Percent recovery of float coal

Fig. 1

- Sulfur.distribution

calculated f o r b~nqmsite samples from three geological areas.

Franklin - J e f f e r s o n Counties No. 6 Coal - Low. S u l f u r Area lV2 inch X 0 size

Pig. 2

- Sulfur df

tribntion c h c u l a t e d for composite samples.

S u l f u r and recovery for

5 s u l f u r r a n g e s based on 40 Illinois coal s ~ m p l e s

usuo/

r e c o v e r y range

6.5

Sulfur and recovery for

2

samples w i t h

6.0

differ

e n t woshobility

chorocteristics 5.5

5 .O

0
0

5'
0
Y

4.0

L

3

3.5

0
C

Q)

-,

3.0

I .O

0.5

0

1 0

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

I00

Fig. 4

- Relationship of

P e r c e n t r e c o v e r y of f l o o t c o o l

sulfur and recovery for 2 samples.

These data should n o t be extended from number of samples t o r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t y of c o a l being mined o r c o a l r e s e r v e s a v a i l a b l e , Some of the samples are E r o m areas w i t h very l o w coal r e s e r v e s , while the reverse i s t r u e of o t h e r s . The annual p r o d u c t i o n from the mines sampled a l s o v a r i e d g r e a t l y . It u l t f mately may be practical t o make q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e s for t o t a l c o a l r e s e r v e s by sulfur c a t e g o r i e s , b u t a t p r e s e n t this c a p a b i l i t y i s limited by l a c k of available sampf..es from a r e a s w i t h no o p e r a t i n g mines, A v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n leads t o the conclusfon, however, t h a t l e s s than 3 percent of the t o t a l Illin o i s coal r e s e r v e s can be cleaned t o less than 1.5 percent s u l f u r w i t h a normal recovery.
The upper p a r t of f i g u r e 1 shows t h e average r e l a t i o n between the t o t a l sulfur and t h e float coal recovery for t h e c o a l s sampled i n c e n t r a l I l l i n o i s , southwestern I l l i n o i s , and w e s t e r n Illinois. The average sulfur content i n the c o a l , as mined (100 percent r e c o v e r y ) , was s l i g h t l y less t h a n 5 percent f o r a l l t h r e e areas. The sulfur i n t h e c o a l s sampled from southwestern I l l i n o i s and w e s t e r n I l l i n o i s was reduced t o about 3 percent with a 70 p e r c e n t recovery. The a v e r a g e s u l f u r i n the c e n t r a l Illinois coals sampled was reduced t o about 3.5 p e r c e n t a t 70 percent recovery.

The lower p a r t of f i g u r e 1 shows the r e l a t i o n between t h e p y r l t i c sulfur and recovery for the same c o a l s . A remarkable s i m i l a r i t y i s shown among t h e coals from the t h r e e a r e a s , w i t h a r e d u c t i o n from about 2 . 5 p e r c e n t p y r i t i c s u l f u r , as mined, t o about 1 p e r c e n t p y r i t i c s u l f u r w i t h 70 percent recovery.

The average s u l f u r content f o r the c o a l s sampled i n t h e low-sulfur c o a l area of F r a n k l i n and J e f f e r s o n Counties i s shown i n f i g u r e 2, The c o a l s , as sampled, had an average of l e s s than 1.5 p e r c e n t t o t a l s u l f u r . This was r e a d i l y reduced t o 1.25 p e r c e n t with a 90 p e r c e n t recovery. The p y r i t i c s u l f u r v a r i e d from about 40 t o 50 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l s u l f u r . Figure 3 summarizes the r e l a t i o n between the p e r c e n t a g e s of t o t a l s u l f u r and f l o a t c o a l r e c o v e r i e s i n five sulfur ranges f o r t h e 40 I l l i n o i s coals sampled f o r t h i s s t u d y . All t h e c o a l s tested t h a t contained between 1 and 2 p e r c e n t s u l f u r , as sampled, were considered as a group, and t h e average v a l u e s were p l o t t e d . The same was done with t h e 2 t o 3 , 3 t o 4 , 4 t o 5 , and p l u s 5 ranges. The p a t t e r n of r e d u c t i o n of s u l f u r i s q u i t e similar i n each range.
It i s important t o n o t e that f i g u r e s 1, 2, and 3 represent average d a t a from s e v e r a l mines. The d a t a from i n d i v i d u a l mines sometimes v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y E r o m t h e average. T e s t results from s e v e r a l c o a l samples o b t a i n e d from a s i n g l e mine might a l s o show some v a r i a b i l i t y ,

F i g u r e 4 illustrates t h e extreme variability o f r e s u l t s between mines. The mine r e p r e s e n t e d by sample 37 had more than 6 p e r c e n t sulfur i n the r a w c o a l sample, y e t the 80 p e r c e n t float f r a c t i o n had about 3 p e r c e n t s u l f u r . The mine r e p r e s e n t e d by sample 29 had less s u l f u r (about 5 p e r c e n t ) i n the raw coal than sample 37, but t h e f l o a t coal had more than 4 p e r c e n t s u l f u r a t 80 percent recovery. The l i g h t e s t 10 percent f r a c t i o n of sample 29 s t i l l c o n t a i n e d more than 3 percent s u l f u r .

S u l f u r i n the Sink Fraction
The r e j e c t m a t e r i a l from some I l l i n o i s c o a l preparation plants i s a p o s s i b l e source of r e c o v e r a b l e sulfur. For example, t h e 1.60 s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y sink material (refuse) from one of t h e 40 samples t e s t e d d u r i n g the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n contained about 26 p e r c e n t s u l f u r . Four other coals sampled had more than 20 p e r c e n t sulfur in t h e 1.60 sink f r a c t i o n .

The Illinois c o a l s sampled from a c t i v e mines and tested f o r t h i s study indicated t h a t o n l y a few could be p r e p a r e d t o a s u l f u r content of 1 . 5 percent o r less. These samples were r e l a t i v e l y low i n sulfur when mined. Most Illinois raw c o a l s appear t o c o n t a i n t o t a l s u l f u r ranging from 3 t o 5 p e r c e n t . Our s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e most of these coals w i l l r e t a i n from 2.5 to 4 p e r c e n t s u l f u r w i t h 80 p e r c e n t recovery.
T h e f l o a t coal fractions ( c l e a n c o a l ) usually had l e s s sulfur when t h e coal was crushed t o finer sizes. However, the d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t g r e a t enough t o make f i n e g r i n d i n g a p r a c t i c a l means of s u l f u r reduction f o r most of the c o a l s t e s t e d .

The sulfur in the 1.60 specific gravity s i n k f r a c t i o n s ( r e f u s e ) f o r the 40 samples included i n this study indicated t h a t f i v e samples had a sulfur c o n t e n t of 20 t a 26 p e r c e n t and mlght be suitable f o r processing as a s o u r c e of s u l f u r .

EWVIROMENTAL GEOLOGY NOTES SERIES
Controlled D r i l l i n g Program i n Northeastern I l l i n o i s . 1965. from Controlled D r i l l i n g Program i n Du Page County, I l l i n o i s . 1965. A c t i v i t i e s i n Environmental Geology i n Northeastern I l l i n o i s . 1965. Geologica3. and Geophysical Znves t i g a t i o n s f o r a Ground-Water Supply a t Macomb, I l l i n o i s . 1965, Problems i n Providing Minerals for an Expanding Population. 1965. Data from Controlled D r i l l i n g Program i n Kane, Kendall, and De Kalb Counties, I l l i n o i s , J-965. Data from Controlled D r i l l i n g Program i n McHenry County, I l l i n o i s . 1965. A Application of Geologic Information to Land Use i n the Chicago Metropolitan n Region. 1966. Data from Controlled Drilling Program i n Lake County and the Northern P a r t of Cook County, I l l i n o i s . 1966. Data from Controlled D r i l l i n g Program i n W i l l and Southern Cook Counties, I l l i n o i s .
aata

1966.
Ground-Water Supplies Along the I n t e r s t a t e Highway System i n I l l i n o i s . 1966. Effects of a Soap, a De&?rgent, and a Water Softener on the P l a s t i c i t y of Earth Materials, 1966. Geologic Factors i n Dam and Reservoir Planning. 1966. Geologic Studies a s an Aid t o Ground-Water Management, 1967. Hydrogeology a t Shelbyville , Illinois-A Basis f o r Water Resources Planning. 1967. Urban Expansion-An Opportunity and a Challenge t o I n d u s t r i a l Mineral Producers. 1967. S e l e c t i o n of Refuse Disposal S i t e s i n Northeastern I l l i n o i s . 1967. Geological Information f o r Managing the Environment. 1967. Geology and Engineering C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Some Surface Materials i n McHenry County, I l l i n o i s . 1968. Disposal of Wastes: S c i e n t i f i c and Administrative Considerations. 1968. Mineralogy and P e t r o g ~ a p h yof Carbonate Rocks Related t o Control of Sulfur Dioxide i n Flue Gases-A Preliminary Report. 1968. Geologic Factors i n Community Development a t Naperville, I l l i n o i s . 1968. Effects of Waste E f f l u e n t s on the P l a s t i c i t y of Earth Materials. 1968. Notes on the Earthquake of November 9 , 2968, i n Southern I l l i n o i s . 1968. Preliminary Geological k r a l u a t i o n of Dam and Reservoir S i t e s i n McHenry County, I l l i n o i s . 1969. Rydrogeologic Data from FQUPL a n d f i l l s i n Northeastern I l l i n o i s . 1969. Evaluating Sanitary L a n d f i l l Sites i n I l l i n o i s . 1969. Radiocarbon Dating a t the I l l i n o i s S t a t e Geological Survey. 1969. Coordinated Mapping of Geology and S o i l s f o r Land-Use Planning. 1969. Preliminary Stratigraphy of Unconsolidated Sediments f r o m t h e Southwestern P a r t of Lake Michigan. 1970. Geologic I n v e s t i g a t i ~ n the S i t e f o r an Environmental P o l l u t i o n Study. 1970. of D i s t r i b u t f on of Major , Minor, and Trace Constituents i n Unconsolidated Sediments from Southern Lake Michigan 1970. Geology f o r Planning i n D Kalb County, I l l i n o i s . 1970. e

.

* Out

of print