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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

Programme
Course
Course Code
Lecturer

:
:
:
:

Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechanical


Thermo fluids Lab II
KJM 470
Cik Azlin Binti Mohd Azmi

Laboratory Report
Flat Plate Boundary Layer

No.
1.

Name
Fikri Ruzaini Bin Muhamad

Student ID Number

Signature

2004364899

Practical Session

: 6th February 2006 Staff certification : _____________


(Signature)

Report Submission

: 20th February 2006 Staff certification: _____________


(Signature)

Contents
Page No:
1. Title

2 Objective

3. Theory

4. Procedure

5. Data

6. Results

7. Discussion

12

8. Conclusion

12

9. References

12

TITLE:
Flat plate boundary layer
OBJECTIVE:
There are 3 main objectives
1. To measured the boundary layer velocity layer and observed the growth of the
boundary layer for the flat plate with smooth and rough surface.
2. To measured the boundary layer properties for the measured velocity profile.
3. To studied the effect of surface roughness on the development of the boundary
layer.
THEORY:
The boundary layer thickness is the distance from the surface to the point where the
velocity is within 1% of the free stream velocity.
The displacement thickness *, is the distance by which the solid boundary would
have to be displaced in a frictionless flow the same mass deficit exists in the boundary
layer.
The momentum thickness , is defined as the thickness of the layer fluid of velocity,
U (free stream velocity), for which the momentum flux is equal to the deficit of
momentum flux through the boundary layer. The Blasiuss exact solution to the
laminar boundary layer yields the following equations for the above properties.

5.0 x

1.72 x

Re x
Re x

0.664 x
Re x

Due to the complexity of the flow, there is no exact solution to the turbulent boundary
layer. The velocity profile within the boundary layer is commonly approximated using
the 1/7 power law.
u
y

1
7

The properties of the boundary layer are approximated using the momentum integral
equation which results in the following expression.

0370 x

(Re x )

1
5

0.0463 x
(Re x )

1
5

0.036 x
1

(Re x ) 5

Another measured of the boundary layer is the shape factor, H, which is the ratio
displacement thickness to the momentum thickness, H=*/. For laminar flow, H
increase from 2.6 to 3.5 at separation. For turbulent boundary layer, H increase from
1.3 to approximately 2.5 at separation.
PROCEDURE:
1. Set up the apparatus on the bench as shown on figure 1. Firstly used the flat
plate with the smooth surface of the experiment.
2. Set up the pitot tube to 15mm away from the edge of the central plate.
3. Adjusted the position of the central plate to 40mm, where it to set the
measurement plane at the required distance from the leading edge.
4. Switch on the fan and adjusted the air speed to set the free stream air velocity
at medium speed.
5. Record the readings of the pressure are measured at the pitot tube for the range
of about 10 points as the pitot tube is the traversed towards the plate and make
sure the readings should almost constant showed in the free stream outside.
6. Repeat the experiment and set up the measurement plane at 150mm.
7. Repeat with roughness surface.
DATA AND RESULT:
Distance from leading edge
Free stream total pressure
Static pressure
Free stream velocity
Reynolds number

= 40 mm and 150 mm
= 12.6 mmHg
= 9.2 mmHg
= 9.51 m/s
= 105 (Laminar); 107 (Turbulence)

Values from theory,


Laminar flow
4

5.0(0.04)

1.72(0.04)

10 5
6.32 10 4

10 5
2.17 10 4

0.664(0.04)

10 5
8.40 10 5

* 2.17 10 4
H

2.58

8.40 10 5
Turbulent flow

5.0(0.15)

10 7
2.37 10 4

1.72(0.15)

10 7
8.16 10 5

0.664(0.15)

10 7
3.15 10 5

* 8.16 10 5

2.59

3.15 10 5

Rough Surface (40mm)

No.

Micrometer
reading, y (mm)

Static pressure
manometer, h10
(mm)

Total pressure
Manometer, h11
(mm)

h12
(mm)

h11-h10
(mm)

Velocity,
u(y) (m/s)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015

9.4
9.4
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.0
8.8

No.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

12.6
12.8
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.4
12.6
12.4
12.2

u/U
0
1.0677
1.1789
1.2492
1.3016
1.3438
1.3792
1.4099
1.4371
1.4615
1.4836
1.5040
1.5228
1.5403
1.5567
1.5721

11.0
12.0
12.2
12.2
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.0

(u/U)(1-u/U)
0
-0.0723
-0.2109
-0.3113
-0.3926
-0.4619
-0.5230
-0.5780
-0.6281
-0.6744
-0.7175
-0.7580
-0.7961
-0.8322
-0.8666
-0.8994

3.2
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.4

0
12.4318
13.7258
14.5443
15.1545
15.6454
16.0583
16.4158
16.7320
17.0159
17.2739
17.5107
17.7298
17.9336
18.1245
18.3040

y/
0
1.6
3.2
4.7
6.3
7.9
9.5
11.1
12.7
14.2
15.8
17.7
18.9
20.6
22.2
23.7

Smooth Surface (40 mm)


No.

Micrometer
reading, y (mm)

Static pressure
manometer, h10
(mm)

Total pressure
Manometer, h11
(mm)

h12
(mm)

h11-h10
(mm)

Velocity,
u(y) (m/s)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015

9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.0
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.0
8.8
No.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.4
12.6
12.4
12.6
12.4

u/U
0
1.0677
1.1789
1.2492
1.3016
1.3438
1.3792
1.4099
1.4371
1.4615
1.4836
1.5040
1.5228
1.5403
1.5567
1.5721

12.0
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.0
12.0
12.0

(u/U)(1-u/U)
0
-0.0723
-0.2109
-0.3113
-0.3926
-0.4619
-0.5230
-0.5780
-0.6281
-0.6744
-0.7175
-0.7580
-0.7961
-0.8322
-0.8666
-0.8994

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.2
3.4
3.2
3.6
3.6

0
10.1543
11.2112
11.8798
12.3782
12.7792
13.1164
13.4084
13.6667
13.8986
14.1093
14.3028
14.4817
14.6482
14.8041
14.9507

y/
0
1.6
3.2
4.7
6.3
7.9
9.5
11.1
12.7
14.2
15.8
17.7
18.9
20.6
22.2
23.7

Rough Surface (150 mm)


No.

Micrometer
reading, y (mm)

Static pressure
manometer, h10
(mm)

Total pressure
Manometer, h11
(mm)

h12
(mm)

h11-h10
(mm)

Velocity,
u(y) (m/s)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015

9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.0
9.0
9.0
8.8
No.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

12.8
12.8
12.8
12.8
12.6
12.8
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.4
u/U

(u/U)(1-u/U)

0
1.2882
1.3561
1.4369
1.4972
1.5457
1.5865
1.6218
1.6571
1.6811
1.7066
1.7300
1.7516
1.7718
1.7906
1.8084

0
-0.2805
-0.4831
-0.6281
-0.7448
-0.8439
-0.9308
-1.0089
-1.0800
-1.1454
-1.2063
-1.2634
-1.3171
-1.3679
-1.4162
-1.4623

10.8
11.4
11.8
12.2
12.4
12.4
12.6
12.4
12.2
12.4
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.0
12.6

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.4
3.4
3.6

0
14.3017
15.7903
16.7320
17.4339
17.9986
18.4736
18.8849
19.2486
19.5752
19.8721
20.1445
20.3965
20.6311
20.8506
21.0571

y/
0
4.2
8.4
12.7
16.9
21.1
25.3
29.5
37.8
37.9
42.2
46.4
50.6
54.9
59.1
63.3

Smooth Surface (150 mm)


No.

Micrometer
reading, y (mm)

Static pressure
manometer, h10
(mm)

Total pressure
Manometer, h11
(mm)

h12
(mm)

h11-h10
(mm)

Velocity,
u(y) (m/s)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015

9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.0
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.4
9.2
9.2
9.2
No.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

12.8
12.8
12.8
12.8
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.8
12.8
12.8
12.8
12.8
12.6
u/U

0
1.2882
1.3561
1.4369
1.4972
1.5457
1.5865
1.6218
1.6571
1.6811
1.7066
1.7300
1.7516
1.7718
1.7906
1.8084

(u/U)(1-u/U)
0
-0.2805
-0.4831
-0.6281
-0.7448
-0.8439
-0.9308
-1.0089
-1.0800
-1.1454
-1.2063
-1.2634
-1.3171
-1.3679
-1.4162
-1.4623

10

11.6
12.2
12.4
12.6
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.4
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.2
y/
0
4.2
8.4
12.7
16.9
21.1
25.3
29.5
37.8
37.9
42.2
46.4
50.6
54.9
59.1
63.3

3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.6
3.4
3.6
3.6
3.4

0
11.6816
12.8975
13.6667
14.2400
14.7013
15.0892
15.4252
15.7223
15.9890
16.2315
16.4540
16.6598
16.8514
17.0308
17.1995

Graph u/U vs. u/U (1-u/U); laminar region

Graph u/U vs. u/U (1-u/U); turbulence region

11

Graph u/U vs. y/; laminar region

Graph u/U vs. y/; turbulence region

12

DISCUSSIONS:
From the experiment that has been done, the pressure values have obtained
from the manometer. However, the values are different from the calculation and
theory. This is because of some errors that occurred during the experiment was done.
The errors might be occurred because of the micrometer values were not accurate as
there are parallax error when the data was taken. Some of vibration that occurred at
the machine was also caused the errors.
The differences between laminar and turbulence flow of fluid on the flat
surface can be seen on the graph that have been plotted. The roughness of the surfaces
affects the values of the pressures. Greater value of was obtained when the plane is
rough while the value becomes lesser when the distance from the edge of the plate is
further. The free stream velocity calculated was based on the roughness or smoothness
of the surfaces. Laminar flat plat eventually becomes turbulent but there is no unique
value for this change to occur. When the surface is smooth, the transition of laminar to
be turbulent will delay. However when the surface is rough, the transition of laminar
to become turbulent will be quick as there are small disturbances in the velocity
profiles that make the flow easily pass through it. The differences of the profiles
showed on the graph plotted.
CONCLUSION:
It can be concluded that this experiment achieved its objectives. The boundary
layer velocities for the flat plate with smooth and rough surface have been obtained
where the data can be seen from the table. The velocity profiles of the flat plate have
been obtained through data read and the graphs have been plotted. The roughness of
the flat plate gives the variety of the velocity profile. It can be concluded that the
surface roughness of the flat plate influence the velocity profiles where the smooth
surface will delay the transition while the rough surface will make the transition
become faster.
REFERENCES:
1. Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York,
USA, 2003.
2. Bruce R. Munson, Donald F. Young, Theodore H. Okiishi, Fundementals of
Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Asia,2006.
3. John F. Douglas, Janusz M. Gasiorek, John A. Swaffield, Fluid Mechanics, 4th
Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Scotland, 2001.

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