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This APA style quick guide

Citing Websites: Cite websites in text as you would any other source, using the author and
date if known. If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation (for
long titles just use the first few words). Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the
corresponding entry in the reference list. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place
of the year: (Smith, n.d.) Example in-text citation for website with no author: The term
"Nittany Lion" was coined by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 (All things Nittany,
2006). Example reference entry for website with no author: All things Nittany. (2006).
Retrieved from http://www.psu.edu/ur/about/nittanymascot.html
Example in-text citation for section of website with no author: The burning of tropical
forests is a major cause of global warming ("Global warming 101," 2012). Example reference
entry for section of a website with no author: Global warming 101. (2012). In Union of
Concerned Scientists. Retrieved from www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/global_warming_101/
Using the Author/Date System
Example of Usage
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in
comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
One study found that the most important element in
Author's name in
comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic
parentheses
(Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Multiple works (separate
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves
each work with semicomprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis,
colons)
1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the listeners familiarity with
Direct quote, author's
the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the
name part of narrative
entire message (p. 85).
One study found that the listener's familiarity with the topic of
Direct quote, author's
discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire
name in parentheses
message (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of
text without quotation marks and include the authors names, date, and page number in
parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as
important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience
with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates
comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Author's Name
Author's name part of
narrative

Works by multiple authors


APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following chart to
determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
Citing Works by Multiple Authors in Text
Subsequent
First
Type of
Subsequent
citations,
First citation
citation, parenthetical
citation
citations
parenthetical
format
format
One
Field (2005)
Field (2005)
(Field, 2005)
(Field, 2005)
author
Gass and
Two
Gass and
(Gass & Varonis,
Varonis
(Gass & Varonis, 1984)
authors
Varonis (1984)
1984)
(1984)
Three
Munro, Derwing, Munro et al.
(Munro, Derwing, & Sato,
(Munro et al.,
authors
and Sato (2006) (2006)
2006)
2006)
Tremblay,
Four
Richer,
Tremblay et
(Tremblay, Richer,
(Tremblay et al.,
authors
Lachance, and
al. (2010)
Lachance, & Cote, 2010)
2010)
Cote (2010)
Hay, Elias,
Fielding(Hay, Elias, FieldingFive
Hay et al.
Barnsley,
Barnsley, Homel, &
(Hay et al., 2007)
authors
(2007)
Homel, and
Freiberg, 2007)
Freiberg (2007)
Six or
Norris-Shortle et Norris-Shortle
(Norris-Shortle et
more
(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)
al. (2006)
et al. (2006)
al., 2006)
authors

Example paragraph with in-text citation


A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve
native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002;
Krech Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above
indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al.
(2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other
professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.

References
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to
foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245259. Krech Thomas, H. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of
foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

Print Resources - including books and articles


Books
Important Elements:
Author (last name, initials only for first & middle names)
Publication date
Title (in italics; capitalize only the first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns)
Place of publication
Publisher
Source
Book by a single
author
Book by two
authors
Book by three or
more authors
Book by a
corporate author
Article or chapter
within an edited
book
Translation

Citing Books
Example Citation
Rollin, B. E. (2006). Science and ethics. New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press.
Sherman, C., & Price, G. (2001). The invisible web: Uncovering information
sources search engines cant see. Medford, NJ: CyberAge Books.
Goodpaster, K. E., Nash, L. L., & de Bettignies, H. (2006). Business ethics:
Policies and persons (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
American Medical Association. (2004). American Medical Association
family medical guide (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Winne, P. H. (2001). Self-regulated learning viewed from models of
information processing. In B.J. Zimmerman & D.H. Schunk (Eds.), Selfregulated learning and academic achievement (2nd ed., pp. 160-192).
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tolstoy, L. (2006). War and peace. (A. Briggs, Trans.). New York, NY:
Viking. (Original work published 1865).

Articles from Print Periodicals (magazines, journals, and


newspapers)
Important Elements:
Author (last name, initials only for first & middle names)
Date of publication of article (year and month for monthly publications; year, month and day
for daily or weekly publications)
Title of article (capitalize only the first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns)
Title of publication in italics (i.e., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Newsweek, New York
Times)
Volume and issue number
Page numbers of article
Source
Article in a monthly
magazine (include volume #
if given)
Article in a weekly magazine
(include volume # if given)
Article in a daily newspaper

Citing Articles from Print Periodicals


Example Citation
Swedin, E. G. (2006, May/June). Designing babies: A eugenics
race with China? The Futurist, 40, 18-21.
Will, G. F. (2004, July 5). Waging war on Wal-Mart. Newsweek,
144, 64.
Dougherty, R. (2006, January 11). Jury convicts man in drunk
driving death. Centre Daily Times, p. 1A.
Rimer, S. (2003, September 3). A campus fad thats being
copied: Internet plagiarism seems on the rise. New York Times,
p. B7.

Article in a scholarly journal


Book review

Stock, C. D., & Fisher, P. A. (2006). Language delays among


foster children: Implications for policy and practice. Child
Welfare, 85(3), 445-462.
Rifkind, D. (2005, April 10). Breaking their vows. [Review of the
book The mermaid chair, by S.M. Kidd]. Washington Post, p. T6.
Top

Electronic Resources - including online articles, websites, and


blogs
The following guidelines for electronic sources follow the recommendations in the sixth edition
(2009) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Articles from the Librarys Online Subscription Databases


Important Elements:
Publication information (see Print Periodicals, above)
DOI number (if available). More information about DOI numbers is available on the American
Psychological Association's APA Style page.
If the DOI number is not available, APA recommends giving the URL of the publication. If the
URL is not known, include the database name and accession number, if known:
Retrieved from ERIC database (ED496394).
Source
Magazine
article with
URL
Journal
article with
DOI

Citing Articles from the Librarys Online Subscription Databases


Example Citation
Poe, M. (2006, September). The hive. Atlantic Monthly, 298, 86-95. Retrieved
from http://www.theatlantic.com
Blattner, J., & Bacigalupo, A. (2007). Using emotional intelligence to develop
executive leadership and team and organizational development. Consulting
Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(3), 209-219. doi:10.1037/10659293.59.3.209

Articles in Online Journals, Magazines and Newspapers


Important Elements
Author (last name, initials only for first & middle names)
Date of publication of article
Title of article
Title of publication (in italics)
Volume and issue number (for scholarly journals, if given)
Page numbers, if given
DOI number, if given. More information about DOI numbers is available on the American
Psychological Association's APA Style page.
If the DOI is not available, give the URL (Web address) of the article.
Source
Article in an
online
scholarly
journal

Citing Articles in Online Journals, Magazines and Newspapers


Example Citation
Overbay, A., Patterson, A. S., & Grable, L. (2009). On the outs: Learning styles,
resistance to change, and teacher retention. Contemporary Issues inTechnology
and Teacher Education, 9(3). Retrieved from
http://www.citejournal.org/vol9/iss3/currentpractice/article1.cfm

Article in an
online
magazine
Article in an
online
newspaper

Romm, J. (2008, February 27). The cold truth about climate change. Salon.com.
Retrieved from http://www.salon.com
McCarthy, M. (2004, May 24). Only nuclear power can now halt global warming.
Earthtimes. Retrieved from http://www.earthtimes.org
Top

Web Sites
Important Elements
Author (if known)
Date of publication, copyright date, or date of last update
Title of Web sitei
Date you accessed the information (APA recommends including this if the information is likely
to change)
URL (Web address) of the site
Source
Web site with
author
Web site with
corporate
author
Web site with
unknown
author
Page within a
Web site
(unknown
author)

Citing Web Sites


Example Citation
Kraizer, S. (2005). Safe child. Retrieved February 29, 2008, from
http://www.safechild.org/
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
(2008, February 15). Stop underage drinking. Retrieved February 29, 2008,
from http://www.stopalcoholabuse.gov
Penn State myths. (2006). Retrieved December 6, 2011, from
http://www.psu.edu/ur/about/myths.html
Global warming 101. (2012). In Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved
December 14, 2012, from
http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/global_warming_101/

Blogs & Wikis


Note: Wikis are collaborative web pages that anyone can write and edit. Information found on a
wiki is not necessarily contributed by experts.
Source
Blog
post
Wiki
entry

Citing Blogs & Wikis


Example Citation
Jeremiah, D. (2007, September 29). The right mindset for success in business and
personal life [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.myrockcrawler.com
Happiness. (n.d.). In Psychwiki. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from
http://www.psychwiki.com/wiki/Happiness

Electronic Books
Important Elements:
Author (last name, initials only for first & middle names)
Publication date
Title (in italics; capitalize only the first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns)
Place of publication
Publisher
URL (Web address) of the site from which you accessed the book

Source
Electronic
Book

Citing Electronic Books


Example Citation
McKernan, B. (2005). Digital cinema: The revolution in cinematography,
postproduction, and distribution. New York, NY: Mc-Graw Hill. Retrieved from
www.netlibrary.com.
Post, E. (1923). Etiquette in society, in business, in politics, and at home. New
York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books.
Top

Entry in an Online Reference Work


Important Elements
Author
Publication date
Title of entry
Editors
Title of reference work (in italics)
Retrieval statement with URL
Citing an Entry in an Online Reference Work
Source
Example Citation
Entry from Gale Virtual Rey, G. (2006). Behaviorism. In D. M. Borchert (Ed.), Encyclopedia of
Reference Library
philosophy. (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/

Multimedia Resources - including motion pictures and television


Motion Picture (film, video, DVD)
Important Elements
Director
Date of release
Title (in italics)
Country where motion picture was made
Studio
Source
Motion
Picture

Citing Films, Videos, DVDs


Example Citation
Johnston, J. (Director). (2004). Hidalgo. [Motion Picture]. United States,
Touchstone/Disney.

Television Program
Important Elements
Producer
Date of broadcast
Title of television episode
Title of series (in italics)
Location of network and network name
Source
Television
program in
series

Citing Television Programs


Example Citation
Buckner, N. & Whittlesey, R. (Writers, Producers & Directors). (2006). Dogs
and more dogs. [Television series episode]. In P. Apsell (Senior Executive
Producer), NOVA. Boston: WGBH.
Top

Other Formats: ERIC documents, government publications


ERIC Documents
Important Elements
Author
Date of publication
Title (in italics)
Publisher, if given
ED Number
Source
ERIC
document

Citing Other Formats


Example Citation
Harris, H.L., & Coy, D.R. (2003). Helping students cope with test anxiety.
Greensboro, NC: ERIC Counseling and Student Services Clearinghouse.
Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED 479355)

Government Publications
Important Elements
Government Agency
Date of publication
Title of document (in italics)
Place of publication
Publisher
Source
Government
document

Citing Government Publications


Example Citation
U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. (2000). Breaking the cycle of
domestic violence: Know the facts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government
Printing Office.
Top

Personal Communication - including interviews


Interviews and Other Personal Communication
In APA style, interviews and other forms of unpublished personal communication, such as email, letters, memos or class notes, are not included in the reference list. Cite interviews and
personal communication in parentheses within the text of your paper:
Professor Smith contends that the use of educational technology in the classroom increases
student engagement (J. Smith, personal communication, September 4, 2007).
Top

Citing Indirect Sources


If you refer to a source that is cited in another source, list only the source you consulted directly
(the secondary source) in your reference list. Name the original source in the text of your paper,
and cite the secondary source in parentheses: Wallace argues that. (as cited in Smith,
2009). In this example, only the Smith source would be included in the reference
list. Whenever possible, try to find and consult the original source. If the Penn State University
Libraries does not have the original source, we can try to get it for you through interlibrary loan.