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Summary Concepts: Agriculture and Natural Resource Management

Policy agenda under MAFF (ASDP)

Laws on "Plant Protection and Quarantine",
"Law on Agricultural Land Use and Management",
Sub-Law and regulations under "Agricultural Cooperative Law",
Sub-Law and regulations under Law on "the Management of Agro-Chemical and Fertilizer,
Draft National Policy for Agricultural Cooperative Development,
Sub-Decrees and Prakas under the Law on "Seed Management and Breeders' Rights",
other Prakas related to "Fees for Plant Quarantine Inspection and Pest Control",
Prakas on "Designation of Appointment as Juridical Police for Plant Quarantine Officers", and
Amendment of Prakas on "Uniform, Symbol and Seal for Plant Quarantine Officers" etc
The MAFF has made significant progress in increasing the land area for crops and paddycultivated areas, yield
per hectare, fishing lots and areas released to fishing communities, fish catch (from all sources), forestry cover,
and percentage of reforested land area. Moreover, there have been remarkable achievements in research and
development (R&D) on agricultural technologies, such as: (1) high-yield, high-quality seeds; (2) land
preparation methodologies; (3) effective use of green manure residuals; (4) land fertility management and use of
organic fertilizers; (5) identification of types of pests and the damage they can do as well as correcting
misconceptions about pests and pest-control measures; and (6) seed-storage methodologies and timing of harvest
and seed drying.
From 2006 to 2009, key laws and regulations were put in place to further develop this sector. These include the
Law on Plant Seed Management and Plant Breeder Rights
Sub-decree on Phytosanitary Inspection
Sub-decree on Establishment and Management for Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs)
Sub-decree on the Sanitary Inspection of Animals and Animal Products
Sub-decree on Abattoir Management and Meat and Animal Product Inspection
Law on Fishery
Sub-decree on Forest and Non-Timber Forest Products Permitted for Import-Export

Sub-decree on Transforming MAFFs General Directorates to General Secretariats; Upgrading Forestry

and Fishery Administrations to General Directorate Levels; Upgrading the Department for Agronomy
and Improving Agricultural Lands to General Directorate of Agriculture; and Transforming the General
Directorate of Rubber Plantation to a MAFF General Directorate

The food, agriculture, and forestry sectors were given special attention in the ASEAN Economic Community
Blueprint: 1. Enhance intra- and extra-ASEAN trade and the long-term competitiveness of ASEANs food,
agriculture, and forestry products/commodities.
Monitor the implementation of the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT)- AFTA schemes for
agricultural and forest products;
Develop and apply fisheries quality-management systems that ensure food safety and support the
competitive position of ASEAN fisheries products on world markets. This is to be achieved through: (1)
the implementation, validation, and verification of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
(HACCP)-based systems and improved laboratory practices and (2) the adaptation of quality and safety
management systems that can be applied to small enterprises in the ASEAN by 2009;
Establish Good Agriculture / Aquaculture Practices (GAP), Good Animal Husbandry Practices
(GAHP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), and HACCP-based
systems for agricultural and food products with significant trade / trade potential by 2012;

Summary Concepts: Agriculture and Natural Resource Management

Harmonize the quarantine and inspection/sampling procedure by 2010 and the sanitary and
phytosanitary (SPS) measures for agricultural, food, and forestry products with significant trade / trade
potential in accordance with international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2015;

Harmonize the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of commonly used pesticides for widely traded
crop products in accordance with international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2010;

Harmonize the regulatory framework for agricultural products derived from modern biotechnology in
accordance with international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2015; 102
Harmonize the safety and quality standards for horticultural produce and agricultural products of
economic importance in the ASEAN region in accordance with international standards/guidelines,
where applicable, by 2015;
Harmonize animal (both terrestrial and aquatic) health control measures for the safety of food of
animal origin through common biosecurity management standards scheme in accordance with
international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2015; Harmonize guidelines for the use of
chemicals in aquaculture and measures to eliminate the use of harmful chemicals in accordance with
international standards/guidelines, where applicable, by 2009; and
Develop a regional reference framework on a phased approach to forest certification by 2015.
Government policy to promote investment for agricultural development
The Law on Investment (5 Aug 1994), Amendment on the Law on Investment (23 March
the Sub-Decree on Mortgage and Transfer of the Right over an Economic land Concession
(29 Aug 2007), and Royal Decree NS/RK/0609/009 (20 June 2009) provide incentives for
agricultural development in Cambodia. These include: 1) zero tariff s on importing
agricultural materials (seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, and agricultural equipment); 2) profit
tax exemption for qualified investment projects (QIP) in agriculture and agro-industry for
a total of 9 years (trigger period 3 years, grace period 3 years and priority period 3
years). The government is planning to provide incentives for investment in processing
facilities, milled rice exports and irrigation. A sub-decree on contract farming is being
drafted and will serve as a tool to attract more investors to work with small farmers and
contribute to improved rural livelihoods (Sok 2010).
Research Q : Water resources managementWhat potential does groundwater 1. hold for irrigation both as an
integral aspect of Cambodias water balance, and as a substantial natural storage of water that could be available
as a yearround water source? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using groundwater for agricultural
development and environment? What is the economic balance of groundwater between benefits and impact on
soil property and fertility in the long run?2. How can surface water use efficiency of the existing irrigation
scheme be improved? 3. How can surface water users participation in ownership and eff ective maintenance of
irrigation schemes be strengthened? What is the economic return of investment in irrigation scheme
maintenance?4. What kinds of conflict exist around water scarcity and water resources allocation, and in what
way can these be resolved eff ectively? In what ways can the share of public investment for irrigation
infrastructure rehabilitation and construction be improved and made more eff ective?
Research Q: gricultural development and food security
2. What appropriate technology and inputs use would intensify productivity for small landholders to produce
enough food? What alternative job opportunities are there to diversify rural income besides farming income to
improve livelihoods? How can rice-based farming with limited irrigation capacity be diversified to promote rural
livelihood and poverty reduction?
4. How can better land use planning and agricultural crops zoning to increase agricultural growth be promoted?
How can the rice production area be expanded to increase agricultural growth and promote export? How can the
law be enforced to return idle land to productive.
Fisheries sub-sector development

Summary Concepts: Agriculture and Natural Resource Management

1. What are the negative impacts of low river levels on fisheries ecology, habitats and productivity in
Cambodias inland fisheries sector? How can the change in river levels be managed to sustain fish ecology,
habitats and productivity?
3. How can the roles of relevant agencies (MAFF, MoE, MoWRAM and MoI) be harmonised /coordinated for
more eff ective management of the fisheries sector?
4. How can aquaculture production to reduce the threat to natural inland fisheries be improved?
Livestock sub-sector development
2. How can a livestock market for small scale producers be developed? How can formal trade (e.g.cattle or buff
aloes) to expand livestock market for Cambodia be fostered? What regulations are needed to improve the
livestock market?
3. How can local swine production be improved to supply local market demand? What are the appropriate
production practices to improve swine raising? What risks and constraints do swine producers face? What
regulations and policies are in place to minimise the import of pigs and to promote local producers?
Cambodias economy has been transforming from an agricultural to an industrial base which leads to increased
rural-urban migration. There has been a shortfall of labour in the agricultural sector and wages have increased;
this would seem to have negative implications for increasing agricultural development if agricultural production
continues to be labour intensive. In this context agricultural production practices seem to be shifting from
humanlabour to mechanisation. However, the shift in agricultural technology during the transition of the
economy has not yet been studied. In addition, rural-urban linkage and urban food security and their
vulnerability should also be assessed.