PROXIMITY SENSOR

A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic or electrostatic field, or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target. Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors. For example, a capacitive or photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target; an inductive proximity sensor requires a metal target. The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined "nominal range". Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a graduated detection distance. Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and the sensed object. A proximity sensor adjusted to a very short range is often used as a touch switch. A proximity sensor is divided in two halves and if the two halves move away from each other, then a signal is activated. A proximity sensor can be used in windows, and when the window opens an alarm is activated.

Types of sensors
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Inductive Capacitive Capacitive displacement sensor Eddy-current Magnetic Photocell (reflective) Laser rangefinder Sonar (typically active or passive) Radar Doppler effect (effect not a sensor) Passive thermal infrared Passive optical (such as charge-coupled devices) Reflection of ionising radiation

Applications
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Car bumpers that sense distance to nearby cars for parking Ground proximity warning system for aviation safety Vibration | Position measurements of rotating shafts in machinery [1] Sheet break sensing in paper machine. Anti-aircraft artillery Mobile Phones Rollercoasters