Class: Mba 1st (B)


Submitted to:

Sir Azfar Shakeel

Submitted By:

Qaisar Sajjad Sabahat Farooq Rafia Mansoor Zara Sajjad Waqar Ahmed

FA-09-MBA-130 FA-09-MBA-140 FA-09-MBA-132 FA-09-MBA-196 FA-09-MBA-186

COMSAT S Institute Of Information Technology Islamabad Pakiatan

Consider your computer as your office. You are the processor, your RAM is like setting a paper on your desk and your Filing cabinet is like your hard drive.

Basically the Ram is a FAST place for your processor to store information.


How RAM Operates:
When you are working on a document in the Microsoft Word software, composing an email in the Microsoft Outlook or Outlook Express programs, or playing Solitaire, you are working in RAM. RAM, short for Random Access Memory, is generally referred to as memory. RAM is kind of like a holding place for active programs.

Once you click on Save in a Word document for example, the operating system takes the information that is in RAM and writes it to a file on the hard drive. If you continue to work on the document, you are still working in RAM. Clicking Save again will dump the information from RAM again to the hard drive, this time overwriting the document that was there previously. If you pulled the power cable on your computer before clicking on Save a second time, when you start up the computer and reopen the document, you would see that everything is there from the first time you clicked Save, but you would have lost all new changes. This is because the RAM was not instructed to save out the new changes to the hard drive.

NOTE: Microsoft has learned that people sometimes forget to save documents as they go, so newer versions of the Microsoft Word software will now automatically save a backup copy of the document periodically. If the power went out, the next time you opened the Word software; it would likely help you bring back the most current version of the file it saved. This feature from Microsoft is called Auto Recover and is NOT a replacement for saving a document.

So why doesn t the operating system just write everything to the hard drive as we go and forget this whole RAM thing? Well, remember that RAM is much faster than a hard drive because RAM is not mechanical like a hard drive. RAM is electronic. If we didn t have computer memory (RAM) in place, your computer would be so slow it would be almost unusable.

So, can I run out of RAM? In a manner of speaking, yes. Every program that you open uses RAM to accomplish whatever the programmer wanted it to do. In the case of the Microsoft


Word software, the document you see on the screen is using a chunk of RAM. The operating system (such as Windows) uses quite a bit of RAM just for its regular tasks. RAM is finite too, meaning that you only have so much. If you have 256 MB of RAM maybe the operating system is using 100 MB, the Word application might be using 50 MB, and other programs running in the background might be using, let s say 156 MB. So that s all of the 256 MB of RAM in use what would happen if I now decided to open up the Internet Explorer® web browser?

Remember when I mentioned that if we didn t have RAM, your computer would be extremely slow? Well, that s what would happen in a case like this. The operating system, by default, puts aside a section of the hard drive aside for use by what s called the page file or swap file. The page file is there to act as memory if need be. So in our example, when the Internet Explorer browser would open, it would need memory in order to present the browser to you on the screen. The operating system would then let it use the page file as if it was RAM. So now every time you re trying to do anything in the Internet Explorer browser, a page request would be done. Information that would normally be accessed in the extremely fast RAM is now being written, read from, and deleted from the hard drive. Suddenly everything slows to a crawl.

Fortunately, when you close programs, they (if they re programmed correctly) will release the RAM they were using, so other programs can use it. Unfortunately, the programs you see open in the taskbar along the bottom are not even close to all the programs running on your computer. There are likely to be another thirty, forty, or even more processes running in the background that you don t even know about or see. Keep in mind that spyware and viruses all run in RAM as well.

Maybe at one time you downloaded and installed a player for movie clips. Unbeknownst to you, the movie player s programmers may have decided that it would make more sense to have some of the player s components stay resident in memory (even when the main program isn t open). This way when you opened up the player, it would launch much quicker. Arguably, that may make sense. However, when you have a good dozen or more application doing this, you lose a great deal of RAM before the actual programs are even open.


RAM stands for Random Access Memory. This means Information can be retrieve and store by the computer at any order. RAM gives your computer a temporary place to process electronic data. This means that, RAM chips continue to store information only as long as computer has electrical power. In other words, when you shut off your computer, all the data stored in RAM are lost. All actual computing start with the CPU (Central Processing Unit). The chipset supports the CPU and contains several controllers that control how information travels between the CPU and other components in the PC. The memory controller is part of the chipset and establishes the information flow between memory and the CPU. A bus is a data path that consists of parallel wires and connects the CPU, memory and other devices. The bus architecture determines how much and how fast data can move around the motherboard. The memory bus goes from the memory controller to the computer's memory sockets. Newer systems have a front side bus (FSB) from the CPU to main memory and a backside bus (BSB) from the memory controller to L2 cache.

For The PC To Get Information:
The CPU sends a request to the memory controller to memory and gets a report back of when the information will be available. This cycle can vary in length according to memory speed as well as other factors, such as bus speed. Residing on the motherboard, the system clock sends a signal to all components, just like a metronome ticking. Each click of the clock represents a clock cycle. A clock running at 100 MHz represents 100 million clock cycles per second. Every action is timed by the clock where different actions require a different number of clock cycles. Many people assume that the speed of the processor is the speed of the computer. Most of the time, the system bus and other components run at different speeds. Because all information processed by the CPU is written or read from memory, the performance of a system is dramatically affected by how fast information can travel between the CPU and memory. Therefore, faster memory technology contributes greatly to the overall system performance.


Cache memory is a relatively small amount (normally less than 1 MB) of high speed memory and resides very close to the CPU. It is designed to supply the CPU with the most frequently requested data. It takes a fraction of the time, compared to normal memory, to access cache memory. The concept is that 20% of the time, what is needed is in cache. The cache memory tracks instructions, putting the most frequent used instruction at the top of the list. Once the cache is full, the lowest need is dropped. Today, most cache memory is incorporated in the CPU. It can also be located just outside of the CPU. Cache that is closest to the CPU is labeled Level 1, the next closest Lever 2, etc. Interleaving is a process in which the CPU alternates between two or more memory banks. Every time the CPU addresses a memory bank, the bank needs about one clock cycle to reset. The CPU can save processing time by addressing a second bank while the first bank is resetting.

How much do I Need:
It should now make more sense as to why having enough RAM in a computer is vital to its operation. In most environments, a computer running the Windows XP operating system will need somewhere between 512 MB and 1 GB to operate smoothly. Under the new operating system, Windows Vista, the Microsoft requirements are a minimum of 512 MB to be Windows Vista Capable or 1 GB of RAM to be Windows Vista Premium Capable (to take advantage of new features such as the Windows Aero user interface). In my field, you learn quickly that these requirements are to let you know that this is the requirement only if you planned to leave your computer sit and not do a thing on it no software, no emailing, nothing. A good rule of thumb has always been to ensure you at least double the requirements of Microsoft. In this case, that would mean you would want at least 1 to 2 GB of RAM in order to be able to run most programs without problems. However If you re a power user and like to have a dozen things going on the computer at once or plan to do some intense video editing, you will probably be better off with more RAM.

Keep in mind that you can always add more RAM to a computer later. If you haven t done it before, you would be very surprised at just how easy it is to add memory to a computer. You basically just pull the computer cover off and put the RAM stick into one of the open

slots designed for it. When you start the computer, it will likely tell you it sees more memory in the computer and will ask you if that s OK. That s all there is to it.

The thing to keep in mind when purchasing a new computer is the number of slots the computer has built into it. For example, when looking at the computer s description, you may see that it has two memory slots in it and allows a maximum of 2 GB. Maybe it comes with 512 MB of RAM already in it. Therefore, you know that that 512 MB is already occupying at least one of those two memory slots. I say at least one because it s possible that instead of having one 512 MB RAM stick there are two 256 MB RAM sticks. In that case, both slots would be filled.

So in this example, if I want to have 2 GB of RAM in my computer, I then need to think about this. Let s say I find out that the 512 MB of RAM the computer came with is occupying one slot. That means I still need 1.5 GB (or 1,536 MB) more RAM (2 GB is the same as 2048 MB. Well, RAM doesn t come in 1.5 GB sticks. I could get a 1 GB stick, but with the other stick that s in there, that would only give me 1.5 GB, not the 2 GB I want. Chances are, what I would need to do is get two 1 GB sticks and remove the 512 MB stick that s already in there. The two 1 GB sticks of RAM would then give me the 2 GB that I wanted.

As a side note, you might think why don t you get a 2 GB stick of RAM to use with the 512 MB stick that s already in there? That would give you 2.5 GB. Well, it would, but at the beginning of the example, I mentioned that the computer had a maximum of 2 GB. Because of this, that would most likely not work because the computer can only recognize a maximum of 2 GB, which would probably be 1 GB in each slot. Nothing too complicated, but you just want to be aware of things like this when buying a new computer or adding more memory to your computer.


How Much I have RAM:

How much am I Using:
One important question that you may be wondering is how much RAM you are using. To find this out in the Windows Vista operating system, you will want to do the following:


Right click on an open area of the taskbar along the bottom and select Task Manager.


When the ³Task Manager´ comes up, go to the ³Performance´ tab.

Here¶s a better idea of some of the important numbers you¶ll find here:
Physical Memory Total: This number tells you how much RAM is actually installed on your computer. In the case of the screenshot shown next, you¶ll see this computer has 1023 MB installed, which is approximately 1 GB. Remember that there are 1,024 MB in 1 GB. So 1,023 MB / 1,024 = 0.9990234375 GB. Physical Memory Cached: This refers to the amount of memory that the system has recently used for system resources. Windows Vista has a new feature called ³Windows Super FetchŒ´ memory management. It runs in the background to determine which applications you use most and puts them into most of the unused RAM to help speed those applications up for you. That is what the cached memory is that you see here.


Physical Memory Free: This is the amount of memory that is unused at this point in time. In this case, this computer has about 10 MB free. 4. Page File: This is an important couple of numbers. They are there to tell you about the page file (also known as virtual memory). When the computer runs out of physical installed RAM to use, it writes to and reads the information to the hard drive on a file called the page file. Unfortunately, using the mechanical hard drive is much slower than using electronic RAM. The first number shows the amount of installed RAM and virtual memory (the page file) that is in use at this point in time. The second number is the total amount of installed RAM combined with the size of the virtual memory available.

So, what does this tell you? The first number in the page file information is probably the most important. In this example, I am using a total of 980 MB. We already determined that I


have 1,023 MB of installed RAM. The key is that if the 980 MB of memory in use were to increase to above 1,023, it means the Windows Vista OS has started to use the page file because it has no more installed RAM left. And that also means you re computer will likely slow to a crawl because of how slow page file access is.

In this example, there are really no major applications open right now. About half the RAM is being used by the Windows Vista OS as well as applications running in the background. If I start opening a few software programs, such as the Microsoft Outlook email client, the Internet Explorer browser, and the Quicken software, suddenly the first number for the Page File jumps up to 1,081 MB.


1,081 MB is more than the 1,023 MB of installed RAM and has drastically slowed down the computer. This is a sign that this computer needs more physical RAM. If you usually keep a few software applications open at the same time, you will probably run into this same problem.

I generally would recommend that you have no less than 1 GB (1,024 MB) of physical RAM installed on a computer running Windows Vista. If possible, however, I would suggest beefing this up to 2 GB (2,048 MB). Trust me ± you¶ll thank me later! RAM is one of the least expensive, but most effective performance boosters you can give your computer.

The amount of RAM that can be installed in a computer is limited by three factors: what the Operating System will recognize how much RAM the computer hardware will permit and the computer user's budget. All computing systems, including Microsoft Windows, Apple Computers and Linux-based systems will benefit from having the maximum amount of RAM that the computer can accept.

RAM Requirement History
y Perhaps the most famous quote discussing the amount of RAM needed by a computer is the statement attributed to Microsoft founder Bill Gates that "640K ought to be enough for anybody." Whether this statement was actually made remains in question, but it is true that all operating systems set hard limits on the amount of RAM that can be addressed. With each succeeding generation of an operating system, the amount of RAM that is accessible is usually increased.

RAM's Function
y RAM or Random Access Memory is working memory. RAM has no ability to store data, and any data that is place in RAM during the computer's operation will vanish after the computer powers down. RAM is where the working portion of your operating system is loaded along with whatever software you are using and its associated data. This temporary holding memory allows the central processing unit the ability to draw from and write to a high-speed memory area as opposed to having to bring this data from the much slower Hard Derive and then write it back as necessary. In fact, when the RAM in a computer is filled, the computer starts to read and write data from the hard drive, which noticeably slows the computer's performance.


Entry Level Systems
y One method used to cut down on the cost of entry-level computer systems is to install the minimum amount of RAM the operating system requires. While this technique makes the price more attractive, the computer's performance is severely affected. Generally, this allows for the retailer to generate a second sale and also charge for installation to increase the amount of RAM in a system, which is significantly more expensive than originally purchasing the system with enough RAM.

Identifying Computer's Maximum RAM Limitations
y In most cases, the maximum amount of RAM that can be installed in a system is set by the manufacturer of the hardware. To find the specifications for any computer system, check the manufacturer's documentation. If the documentation isn't readily available, refer to the manufacturer's website, where searching for the specific model computer in the support section should provide the information. In cases where the computer is not from a name-brand manufacturer like Apple, Dell or HP, it is necessary to identify the motherboard and then visit the motherboard manufacturer's website

RAM Specifications
y In order to purchase more RAM for a system, the specifications for what kind of RAM the system will accept need to be established. For example, a laptop might require a certain type of module and may also specify that only a quantity of two 1-gigabyte modules can be installed. In many cases, it may be necessary to remove the memory that is in the system to install the new chips. The same holds true for a desktop computer. It is important that you purchase exactly what the specifications call for or that you have the upgrade done by a qualified professional if you are unsure of the procedure.

1. RAM is an acronym for random access memory. It is this memory that allows your computer to run programs and continue operations in a relatively quick manner. RAM is used by the central processing unit (CPU) to store information and calculations that can be easily retrieved, like having books and notes open on a desk in front of a researcher. Conclusions and answers to problems are easily at hand. The more ready answers at hand, the faster the researcher can give an answer. RAM size increases this "desk space" for the CPU.


2. RAM is usually mounted on special circuit boards called memory sticks, or just "memory." These can be inserted into a computer's motherboard (the circuit board that all other devices within the computer are attached to) in specially designated slots. This memory is then used by the computer to perform its necessary functions. Without it, or with an incorrect type of memory, the computer will not operate. All computers, whether laptop or desktop, have slots to exchange old memory for new memory (unless otherwise stated by the manufacturer), which allows the user to increase performance relatively cheaply.

The following are some common types of RAM:

SRAM: Static random access memory uses multiple transistors, typically four to six, for each memory cell but doesn't have a capacitor in each cell. It is used primarily for cache.


DRAM: Dynamic random access memo: Have memory cells with a paired transistor and capacitor requiring constant refreshing.


FPM DRAM: Fast page mode dynamic random access memory: was the original form of DRAM. It waits through the entire process of locating a bit of data by column and row and then reading the bit before it starts on the next bit. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 176 MBps.


EDO DRAM: Extended data-out dynamic random access memory: does not wait for all of the processing of the first bit before continuing to the next one. As soon as the address of the first bit is located, EDO DRAM begins looking for the next bit. It is about five percent faster than FPM. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 264 MBps.



SDRAM: Synchronous dynamic random access memory takes advantage of the burst mode concept to greatly improve performance. It does this by staying on the row containing the requested bit and moving rapidly through the columns, reading each bit as it goes. The idea is that most of the time the data needed by the CPU will be in sequence. SDRAM is about five percent faster than EDO RAM and is the most common form in desktops today. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 528 MBps.


DDR SDRAM: Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM is just like SDRAM except that is has higher bandwidth, meaning greater speed. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 1,064 MBps (for DDR SDRAM 133 MHZ).


RDRAM: Rambus dynamic random access memory is a radical departure from the previous DRAM architecture. Designed by Rambus, RDRAM uses a Rambus in-line memory module (RIMM), which is similar in size and pin configuration to a standard DIMM. What makes RDRAM so different is its use of a special high-speed data bus called the Rambus channel. RDRAM memory chips work in parallel to achieve a data rate of 800 MHz, or 1,600 MBps. Since they operate at such high speeds, they generate much more heat than other types of chips. To help dissipate the excess heat Rambus chips are fitted with a heat spreader, which looks like a long thin wafer. Just like there are smaller versions of DIMMs, there are also SO-RIMMs, designed for notebook computers.

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Credit Card Memory: Credit card memory is a proprietary self-contained DRAM memory module that plugs into a special slot for use in notebook computers. PCMCIA Memory Card: Another self-contained DRAM module for notebooks, cards of this type are not proprietary and should work with any notebook computer whose system bus matches the memory card's configuration. CMOS RAM: CMOS RAM is a term for the small amount of memory used by your computer and some other devices to remember things like hard disk settings -- see Why does my computer need a battery? for details. This memory uses a small battery to provide it with the power it needs to maintain the memory contents. VRAM: VideoRAM, also known as multiport dynamic random access memory (MPDRAM), is a type of RAM used specifically for video adapters or 3-D accelerators.


The "multiport" part comes from the fact that VRAM normally has two independent access ports instead of one, allowing the CPU and graphics processor to access the RAM simultaneously. VRAM is located on the graphics card and comes in a variety of formats, many of which are proprietary. The amount of VRAM is a determining factor in the resolution and color depth of the display. VRAM is also used to hold graphics-specific information such as 3-D geometry data and texture maps. True multiport VRAM tends to be expensive, so today, many graphics cards use SGRAM (synchronous graphics RAM) instead. Performance is nearly the same, but SGRAM is cheaper.

3. In recent years, RAM has also been fitted onto other hardware within a computer. For example, graphics cards are also equipped with RAM. The graphics card uses this memory to speed graphics computing power without relying on the computer's RAM. This RAM is generally hardwired into the video card and cannot be upgraded independently. Therefore, in order to upgrade these cards, it is necessary to purchase an entirely new card with larger memory capacity.

4. Though RAM is intended to allow the user to upgrade their computer with relative ease, anyone attempting to do so should consult with their owner's manual or call their computer manufacturer's help line. These sources will reveal the type of RAM needed and any limitations on the expansion capacity. For example, if a laptop computer is rated to expand to 2GB (gigabytes, or 2 trillion bytes of information) and a user places a 4-GB memory into the computer, the computer will not boot up or may even become damaged. Recent developments in microprocessor technology have decreased the price of RAM steadily, making it cheaper to upgrade a computer and thus extend its usefulness.

5. RAM is sometimes confused with the designation ROM, which stands for read only memory. ROM is usually a set piece of programming that cannot be changed (thus it is "read only") that allows a computer to start up ("boot") or to run a program. CDs and DVDs are an example of ROM and will not enhance the computing power of the computer. Hard drives are much slower than RAM and are used to store information for the computer in a long-term manner (such as books on a shelf in a library). Hard drives have


huge capacities for storing that can be measured in GB and even TB (terabytes, or 1 trillion bytes) and can be confused for RAM. The difference is that this kind of memory is much larger than typical RAM and is stored on magnetic disks that are stored inside the hard drive's case. Computers sometimes use this extra space, however, in a process called "virtual RAM," which turns unused space into more computational power for the computer's operation, similar to adding a second table near the hypothetical researcher. If a computer's hard drive is too full (reaching or at capacity), this may affect the computer's ability to process programs and function properly.

Ram is basically a software, it is a random method for assessing the memory which is implemented by using different algorithms and programming techniques which is available in the form of a chip. Simply it is a built in soft ware for helping non professionals.

Sources: Google.com Friends