OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available OET –Reading test Reading Passage

Part A: Time:15 Minutes

• Complete the following summary using the information in the four texts provided. • You do not need to read each text from beginning to end to complete the task. You should scan the texts to find the information you need. • Gaps may require 1, 2 or 3 words. • You should write your answers next to the appropriate number in the right-hand column. • Please use correct spelling in your responses

PART A: Alzheimer's disease is a form of dementia that is more common in older people. Text 1: A person with dementia experiences memory loss, confusion, and personality and behaviour change. Background: Alzheimer's disease is a form of dementia – a term used to describe a progressive decline in mental functioning. A person with dementia experiences memory loss, confusion, and personality and behaviour change. In Australia, about 70 per cent of people with dementia have Alzheimer's disease, either in pure form or combined with another kind of degeneration such as cerebro-vascular disease (poor circulation to the brain). Other kinds of dementia include vascular dementia (caused by mini-strokes), Pick's disease and alcohol-related dementia. The condition is named after a German doctor, Alois Alzheimer – not because he had the worst memory of anyone in Europe, but because he was the first to describe the symptoms, in 1906. He conducted an autopsy on a woman who had died of a strange illness and found unusual changes in her brain –abnormal 'plaques' (clumps) of amyloid (a pale waxy protein), and 'tangles' (bundles of fibres) – in the cortex of her brain, especially in areas known to be important in memory and concentration. Alzheimer postulated that these degenerative changes had caused her dementia. It was later shown that people with Alzheimer's also have lower-than-normal levels of neurotransmitters, especially acetylcholine, in the cortex of their brains. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that help transmit messages from one nerve cell to another.

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available These changes don't happen in the general population, so we know that they aren't part of the normal ageing process. However, we don't know for certain whether the brain changes are the primary cause of Alzheimer's or whether there is some other, unknown, underlying cause.Alzheimer's disease is more common among older people. It usually begins after age 60, and gets more frequent with advancing age. In Australia, one in four people over 85 will have dementia, usually of the Alzheimer's type. Text 2: Symptoms • Alzheimers's disease begins slowly and insidiously. The first sign is mild forgetfulness – the person has trouble remembering recent events, activities, or the names of familiar people or things. Of course, elderly people are inclined to be forgetful occasionally, as are people who are depressed or malnourished. But in someone with Alzheimer's the memory loss becomes increasingly troublesome. They forget things like the names of family members, common words, where they live, and what activities they experienced earlier in the day. As the disease progresses, they get more and more confused. They may lose the ability to manage their own finances or take their medications. Cooking or writing a letter, once second nature, becomes a major task. They may do meaningless things (often things that are socially embarrassing to friends and family). In conversation they tend to repeat themselves. They may become anxious or aggressive, or wander away from home. Finally they lose the ability to dress themselves, bathe or toilet themselves, and finally to talk, to eat, and to perform bodily functions. In the end stages of the illness, people with Alzheimer's need 24-hour care.How quickly these changes happen can vary from person to person.

Text 3: Various Medicine for Alzheimer’s tacrine (trade name Cognex), donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), and galantamine (Reminyl) Anti-anxiety and Effects of these medicine These drugs act by boosting the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain (they belong to a group of drugs known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). – but they have no effect on the progress of the underlying disease. sometimes used to help manage the anxiety and

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available antidepressant drugs Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Oestrogen. Women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT), Ginkgo biloba depression that tend to arise in the later stages of the illness Trials of anti-inflammatory drugs for treating Alzheimer's have so far not found them to be of benefit – by the time the disease has manifested itself it may be too late for them to be effective. Trials of oestrogen for treatment of Alzheimer's have not shown any benefit; whether oestrogens have any preventative action remains uncertain. the herbal remedy gingko may slow the progress of Alzheimer's, although there is a lack of goodquality, long-term trials.

Text 4: Though it can't be cured, there's increasing evidence that Alzheimer's disease can be prevented – at least, the risk of it lowered by 1. Who eat diet that is rich in antioxidants, that is, with plenty of fruit and vegetables. People who eat the so-called 'Mediterranean diet'. 2. people who exercise regularly. 3. People who keep mentally active – read, do crosswords, play board games, go to the theatre and so on. 4. the more education the person has, the lower the risk seems to be.

Summary Of The Task Alzheimer’s is a form of dementia.70% victims of (1)____ suffer from(2)_________.There are (3)_________ types of Alzheimer’s. The disease is named after (4)_________.He found plagues oa amyloid and tangles in (5)_________ areas of brain. People who have (6)__________ have dementia,it showed that lower (7)_______ leads to problem in message transmit between (8)_________ number of Alzheimer’s patient increases with (9)_____.

Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Alzheimers start slowly and insidiously. Initial sign is 10. (10)______ and then (11)_____ is the problem.When 11. disease progress it leads (12)________.In the conversation 12. they (13)_____ to have own repetition. In final stage they lose 13. the ability to dress, bathe or toilet for (14)______.Finally 14. talking ,(15a)____ and to do (15 b)________ . Alzheimer’s (16)____. 15a. 15b. 16.

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available Summary Of The Task Medicine (17a)_________ with (17b)____ cognex along with donepezil, rivastigmine etc., used to (18)_________ in the brain. The (19)__________ have no effect of Alzheimers progress.(20)_____________ helps in final stage. NSAID is of no benefit and the benefit is (21)________ with oestrogen. The disease progress may slow with the (22)____ grug Ginkgo biloba. Answers 17 a. 17 b. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Total:

(23)_____ is available even though there is no (24)_____. People eating foods with (25)_______, one who (26)______ and be(27)_____ and with (28)________ has low risk.

Part B : Passage 1: Most parents have waged epic battles with their kids over eating vegies. But if they don't clean their plate of the last brussels sprout, does it really matter? Vegetables are behind some of the greatest battles between parents and children. Most parents have dinnertime horror stories involving small bits of vegetable and lots of screaming, and while these stories can be entertaining, the research showing how few vegies our kids are eating is not. The 2009 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare national report card found that a whopping 78 per cent of 4-8 year olds, 86 per cent of 9-13 year-olds and 95 per cent of 14-16 year-olds are not eating the recommended daily servings of vegetables. Take out potatoes, which most kids eat as chips, and the percentage of kids not getting the nutrition they need jumps to 97, 98 and 100 per cent respectively. Other research has made similar findings. But Australian children are hardly going to starve if they don't eat vegetables and it's not easy for parents to keep cooking meals that are left on the plate or worse, tipped on the floor. Does it really matter if our kids don't eat their greens? Professor Louise Baur, paediatrician and director of weight management services at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, says we all need to eat a wide variety of foods - including vegetables - and children are no different. Research shows vegetable consumption can help prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and a range of cancers.

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available According to Australia's dietary guidelines, children aged between four and seven should be eating two to four serves of vegetables daily. Eight to 11 year olds should be eating an extra serve; teenagers should have between four to six serves every day. One serve of vegetables is one cup of raw salad vegetables, one medium potato or half a cup of cooked vegetables or legumes. In the short-term, children who don't eat vegetables can end up with dental issues, constipation (especially if they skip on fruit as well) and on rare occasions nutritional deficiencies, Baur says. But perhaps more importantly, we tend to develop our eating habits in childhood, so if you're not eating vegetables and other healthy foods as a child then you are less likely to do so as an adult. Excess weight is also a problem; between 6-8 per cent of school age children in Australia are obese and at least another 17 per cent are overweight. You won't automatically put on weight if you don't eat vegetables, Baur says, but children who don't eat vegetables are often eating foods that are high in saturated fats, sugar and salt. Children who are overweight are more likely to become overweight or obese adults, who are then at greater risk of chronic diseases. And while the most hardened young vegie hater might enjoy an apple, banana or piece of watermelon, Baur says fruit doesn't contain the iron and other minerals found in vegetables, and it also contains more sugars. While fruit is an important part of a healthy diet, the dietary guidelines suggest kids under 12 only need one to two serves a day. So we know that kids need their vegies, but getting them to eat a mouthful, let alone several cups can be a challenge. Nutritionist Dr Rosemary Stanton suggests nutrition should be a whole family affair; you can boost your child's vegetable intake by eating your evening meal together at the dinner table, preferably with the television off. "Vegetables have traditionally been eaten mainly at dinner and with many families no longer having a family meal, many kids get themselves something to eat - often instant noodles, pizza or some kind of pasta dish (rarely with vegies)," Stanton says. Children are also more likely to eat and enjoy vegetables, and other healthy foods, if they find them interesting, says Stanton. "Several studies show that when kids grow vegies or attend a school with a kitchen garden, they tend to eat more vegies… For those in flats, there are community gardens in some areas, or if they have a balcony lettuces, herbs, cherry tomatoes etc …can all be grown in pots."

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available You can also pique your child's interest in vegetables by including them in a range of tasks, such as grocery shopping, going to markets or by getting them to help prepare meals. Small children can toss a salad (you can rewash any salad leaves that end up on the floor), and older children can take on more difficult tasks, for example peeling and cutting vegetables. But perhaps the most important thing parents can do is model healthy eating. Research has shown children's eating patterns are affected by the family's eating behaviour. Lisa Renn, spokesperson for the Dietitians Association Australia, encourages parents to be persistent. She says there are many easy and crafty ways to get vegies off your children's plates and into their mouths: • grate extra vegetables and add them to a favourite pasta sauce • make green mash, add spinach or rocket when mashing potato • serve vegie sticks with dips (think avocado, pumpkin or sweet potato) and other snacks • add extra vegetables or legumes to your next soup or stew • make muffins using vegetables - corn, pumpkin and sweet potato all work well. She also suggests the scattergun approach: offering a wide variety of vegetables (the more different colours the better) in small amounts throughout the day, not just at dinner time. There's no denying these suggestions require time, effort and creative 'marketing'. Ultimately, says Renn, "you do what you can do, get them in where you can, be as inventive as possible and be persistent". 1. According to the passage what is the reason behind the battle between parents & children? a. over eating of vegies b. not cleaning c. vegetables d. not eating vegies 2. Who stand first is avoiding vegies from daily servings? a. 4-8 years b. Teen years c. 14-16 years d. Kids 3. Why do parents feel discomfort in cooking vegetables?

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available a. Children won’t eat them b. Vegetables will be in plates/ floors c. Children will starve d. b and c. 4. Who cannot be eliminated according to Prof. Louise? a. diabetic patients b. children c. children prone to cancer d. a and c 5. Along with a potato how munch vegetables should be taken in a day? a. a cup b. a cup of cooked veggies c. none of the above d. a and b 6. Which has the less possibility to occur with eating les veggies? a. Dental issues b. Constipation c. Deficiency d. None 7. What will automatically happen when you are not eating vegetables? a. put on weight b. reduce in weight c. occurrence of obese d. nothing will happen 8. Who needs 2 serves of vegetables a day according to the passage? a. 4-7 years b. 8-11 years c. Below 12 years d. A and c 9. In the passage who was relating family values with eating veggies? a. Prof. Louise Baur b. The Passage writer c. Stanton d. Dr. Rose Marie 10. Who influence children’s eating habit? a. Advertisements b. Junk foods c. Parents d. Family eating’s Part B: Passage 2: If you're in pain, the last thing you may want is someone sticking needles in you. But plenty of people turn to acupuncture for pain relief. So what's the evidence?

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available If the idea of someone sticking needles into you sounds painful, imagine having it done when you're already in pain. It may sound counterintuitive, but many people turn to acupuncture for pain relief. Acupuncture is a component of traditional Chinese medicine, and involves inserting of very thin, metal needles into specific 'points' on the body. The theory, says Dr Marc Cohen, a professor of complementary medicine at RMIT University, is that inserting the needles stimulates these 'points' and unblocks the natural flow of light energy (qi or ch'i) through your body. Blocked qi is thought to cause disease. Unblocking qi allows your body to heal itself, says Cohen. You can also think of acupuncture as a way of defusing pain trigger points, says Cohen. "If you can find a trigger point that reproduces the pain you're experiencing... that's a point where you put the needle [to relieve it]," he says. Interestingly, these acupuncture 'trigger' points are not always in the same spot as your pain. For example, says Cohen, people who have eye pain often find a tender spot between their first and second toes. The acupuncture point for frozen shoulder, a painful condition that immobilises the shoulder joint, is on your chin. Scientific evidence But although acupuncture has been practiced for several thousand years, scientists struggle to explain how it works.One theory suggests the needling encourages the release of endorphins natural pain killers produced by the brain) and sets off an inflammatory response that allows the body to heal itself. Another theory is that acupuncture has a powerful effect on the mind, says Cohen, which may also help to activate the body's pain-relieving mechanisms. Modern science also has surprisingly little to say on whether acupuncture successfully relieves pain or not. There are some high-quality studies, mainly focusing on the relief of back pain and headache but they are small – so what researchers have done is pool the results. A 2009 review of 22 existing studies on the prevention of migraine with acupuncture found that people receiving acupuncture had fewer headaches after three to four months than those who received either no treatment or routine drug treatment. Those receiving acupuncture also had fewer undesired consequences, such as drug side-effects. Another review from the same year found that acupuncture also reduces the intensity and frequency of tension-type headaches. For chronic lower back pain, a 2007 German study of 1162 participants found that the effectiveness of acupuncture after six months was almost twice that of conventional therapy (drugs, physical therapy and exercise). A 2009 American study of 638 people found similar results. However, the most current reviews pooling all available evidence on chronic lower back pain don't paint such a conclusive picture: they found that while acupuncture is a useful addition to conventional therapies, there isn't sufficient evidence that it's any more effective than other treatments.

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available In addition, a 2009 review of acupuncture for various types of pain found that while acupuncture has a small analgesic effect, we can't be sure this isn't caused by the psychological impact of the treatment. In spite of the lack of conclusive evidence, many people turn to acupuncture to treat all types of pain, including toothache, menstrual cramps and tennis elbow. If you want to try acupuncture, you can go to a GP who practices acupuncture (more than 15 per cent of GPs in Australia do) or a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner. "[A GP] will have recourse to western medicine and will be covered by Medicare, whereas a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner will put… more emphasis on the traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis and philosophy, including tongue diagnosis and pulse diagnosis," says Cohen. Sessions generally go for 15-30 minutes, and an initial course of once a week for sixweeks is normal for chronic pain, says Cohen. You may need fewer sessions for acute pain. You should feel some immediate benefit for acute pain, says Cohen. For chronic pain, you should feel some immediate benefit that might initially wane off between sessions before getting better. But you do need to give acupuncture a chance to work. "Give it at least three or four treatments, up to six treatments before you say it doesn't work," says Cohen. Acupuncture administered by a qualified person is extremely safe, says Cohen. "All drugs have side-effects and certainly pain medications (such as steroids and anti-inflammatory medications) can have very severe side-effects." Practitioners use disposable needles, so there is minimal risk of infection. It's worth asking practitioners about their qualifications (they should have completed a four to five year degree), whether they are registered with their professional association, and what their experience is with the condition you're seeing them for, says Cohen. If you do decide to try acupuncture for your pain, it's important that you still initially seek medical treatment so that you don't miss any underlying conditions. But many pain specialists caution against becoming overly reliant on acupuncture, or any other treatment, to help you manage pain. Dr Paul Wrigley, senior staff specialist at the Pain Management Research Institute in Sydney, suggests that learning ways to self-manage your pain – for example by pacing yourself and learning to reduce your anxiety levels – can help reduce the degree to which pain interferes with your life.So while acupuncture helps some people manage their pain, in the end, you need to figure out what works best for you.

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available 11. Acupuncture ______________ of the body a. Needle stimulates b. Unblocks the energy flow c. None of the above d. A and b 12. How does heating occur? a. by unblocking b. by itself c. both the above d. none 13. Acupuncture is a pain trigger point method? a. yes b. no c. not given d. only for few disease 14. Acupuncture point for frozen shoulder is_____________ a. chin b. a point in toes c. a point face d. all the above 15. Endoprins are a. painkillers b. part of brain c. only (a) or only (b) d. both a and b 16. To treat ________________ acupuncture was used? a. Migraine b. Head aches c. Both the above d. None of the above 17. For what does acupuncture gives immediate relief? a. head aches b. acute pain c. migrants d. none of the above 18. Patients who wish to take acupuncture a. can follow other treatment b. should take other treatment c. in starting go for other treatment d. all the above 19. According to the passage how many persons who belong to Australia is directly mentioned a. one b. two c. three d. four

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Answers: Part A: 1. Dementia 2. Alzheimer 3. 5 4. Dr. Alois Alzheimer 5. memory and concentration 6. degenerative changes 7. levels of neurotransmitters 8. nerves 9. aging 10. mild forgetfulness 11. memory loss 12. more confusion 13. tend 14. themselves 15. a.eating 15.b. bodily functions 16. patients 17. a. tacrine 17.b. trade name 18. boost neurotransmitters 19. acetylcholinesterase 20. Anti- anxiety 21. is uncertain 22. herbal 23. prevention 24. cure 25. antioxidants 26. exercise regularly 27. mentally 28. more education Part B Passage 1: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. d b b b c

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OET Reading material by U TO V, Chennai/ online OET coaching /materials are available 6. c 7. d 8. d 9. c 10. d 11. c 12. c 13. c 14. c 15. a 16. d 17. b 18. c 19. a

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