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APPENDIX

EN ISO norms for ceramic tiles


- Testing methods

EN ISO norms for ceramic tiles


- Requirements

UNI-designation

Categories of selection

The Centro Ceramico in Bologna

Ceramic Arbitration Board


Constitution and Rules of Procedure

205

EN ISO norms for ceramic tiles - Testing methods

APPENDIX

EN ISO 10545 - Part 1


Ceramic tiles
Sampling and basis for acceptance
This standard applies to uninstalled
ceramic tiles. It establishes the rules for the
composition of a sample lot.
The lot must consist of tiles produced
under conditions and with properties that
are assumed to be uniform. Thus every
consignment, that is every quantity of tiles
delivered within two days, must be
divided into sub-consignments that are
assumed to be homogeneous and can thus
constitute inspection lots.
The number of lots to be inspected and
the choice of properties to be considered
for inspection will be subject to agreement
between supplier and consumer, as will be
the choice of location where the sampling
will be performed.
The sampling will be performed by
randomly taking samples from the
inspection lot. Usually two samples are
taken. Every sample must be packed,
sealed and labelled.
Every property will be assigned a
sample size, or a minimum number of
tiles to be inspected as noted in a table,
together with the basis of acceptance or
rejection.
Tests on the sample tiles must be
performed according to the methods
specified in the corresponding standards.
In regard to the preceding European
Standards (EN163), the table setting forth
the standards of acceptance and rejection
has been modified to take into account:
new added testing methods, and an
eliminated method;
modifications in product requirements:
for all requirements which are not
obligatory but which must be declared by
the manufacturer, the table specifies that
the basis for acceptance or rejection

206

depends on the conformity (or lack thereof)


with the manufacturer s declaration.

EN ISO 10545 - Part 2


Determination of dimensions and
surface quality
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles.
For all measurements, 10 whole tiles are
required.
Instruments include vernier calipers,
micrometer, screw gauges or other suitable
apparatus. Tiles with surfaces of less than
4 cm 2 are excluded from all measurements
other than thickness.
Measurement (Fig.1)
Measurement of length and width. Each
side of the tile must be measured 5 mm
away from the corners. The average
dimension of a square tile consists in the
average of 4 measurements and the
average size of the sample consists in the
average of 40 measurements.
The average length and width of an oblong
tile consists in the average of the
measurements of two opposite sides, so
that the average length and width of the
sample consist in the average of twenty
measurements of each dimension.
Measurement of thickness. Thickness is
measured by first tracing the two
diagonals, then measuring the thickest
point along each of the four segments
obtained. In the case of extruded tiles, four
lines perpendicular to the direction of
extrusion are traced, and the thickness is
measured at the thickest point on each line.
Measurement of straightness of sides.
The deviation from straightness of a side
is measured at the center of that side, and
the measurement must be taken for every
side of every single tile.
Measurement of rectangularity. This
consists in the deviation of the outer

corner of the side of the tile (5 mm from


the corner) from the inner side of the
calibrating plate. Deviation from
rectangularity is expressed, in percentage
terms, by the formula: /L . 100 where L is
the length of the adjacent side of the tile.
Measurements of surface flatness.
Surface flatness is defined by the 3
measurements described below which, for
tiles smaller than 40 x 40 mm, are taken
with metal straight edges and thickness
feeler gauges.
Center curvature: the departure of the
center of the tile from the plane in which 3
of the 4 corners lie. For every tile, 4
measurements are taken. The maximum
center curvature is expressed in mm or as
a percentage relative to the diagonal
calculated from the work size.
Edge curvature: the departure of the center
of a tile from the plane in which 3 of the 4
corners lie. The maximum edge curvature
is expressed in mm or as a percentage of
the relative work size.
Warpage: the departure of the fourth
corner of tile from the plane in which the
other three angles lie.
The maximum warpage is expressed in mm
or as a percentage of the diagonal
calculated on the basis of the work size.
Surface quality. This assessment requires
a surface of at least 1 square meter and a
minimum of 25 tiles.
The tiles must be placed under a light
source of 300 lux and observed with
the naked eye from a distance of one
meter.
The quality of the surface is expressed as a
percentage of tiles without defect.
Intentional surface effects must not
be considered defects (see corresponding
paragraph under product standards);
cracks, nipped edges and nipped corners can not be considered intentional
effects.

APPENDIX

EN ISO 10545 - Part 3


Determination of water absorption,
apparent porosity, apparent relative
density and bulk density
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles.
The test must be performed on 10 whole
tiles in cases where the surface of each tile
is less than 0.04 m2; if greater than 0.04 m2,
5 tiles will suffice. In any case, every test
sample must weigh a minimum of 50 g.
After tiles are brought to a constant
weight through drying, they are weighed
with a precision which depends on the
weight of the tile. Tiles are then placed to
be boiled in a container of distilled or deionized water, in such a way that they do
not touch the bottom and are completely
immersed. Container should be kept at
boiling point for two hours. Then tiles
should be left cooling for four hours
immersed in water. Once the tiles have
been removed from the container, excess
water is removed with a chamois leather
and tiles are then weighed, again as
precisely as for dry weight.
The absorption of water, expressed as a
percentage of the weight of the dry
material, is expressed in the formula:

Rectangularity
+

Fig. 1
Scheme of
dimensional
properties.

Straightness of sides
-

+c

-c

Deviation from rectangularity: /L

Deviation from straightness: c/L

Work size

Center curvature
+c

-c

Center curvature: c/D

L
Edge curvature
+b

Warpage
-b

Edge curvature: /L

+s

-s

Warpage: /D

[(m2- m1)x100]/m1
where:
m 1 = the mass of the dry tile
m 2 = the mass of the wet tile.
The average absorption of water of the
sample is determined by the arithmetic
average of the individual results, and
results must be rounded off to a single
decimal place.
The determination of water absorption,
which is required for a products
assignment to a group, remains the same
as that stipulated by the European
Standards (EN 99); other properties have
also been added for which no requirement

exists (that is, these properties are not


considered in the sections on product
requirements) but which may be useful in
typifying the structure of the tiles ceramic
mass: for theses properties, water
absorption is measured through water
impregnation at a residual pressure of
100 1 kPa for 30 min.

EN ISO 10545 - Part 4


Determination of modulus of rupture
and breaking strength
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles.
The test must be performed on whole

tiles whose number depends on the size of


the tiles (Table 1). Only exceptionally large
tiles, or tiles whose shapes make it
impossible to insert them in the apparatus,
may be cut.
The tile is placed on two supporting rods
with the proper surface uppermost (Fig.2) so
that it protrudes by the length 1 beyond each
supporting rod. The load is applied evenly
at a constant rate of increase of stress
(1 N/mm2 s) by means of a third rod in
contact with the proper surface, equidistant
between the supporting rods. Extruded tiles
must be so positioned that the direction of
extrusion is perpendicular to the rods. For

207

APPENDIX
Table 1
Instrumental
parameters for the
measurement of
modules of
ruptures, according
to the format of the
tiles.

Dimension of tile
(mm)

Diameter of rods, d
(mm)

Thickness of rubber, t
(mm)

Overlap of tile beyond the edge


support, l
(mm)

95

20

10

< 95 48

10

2.5

< 48 18

rectangular tiles, the longer side must be


perpendicular to the support rods.
The resistance to bending , expressed
as N/mm 2, is given by the formula

3FL
2bh
2

where :
F = breaking load (in N)
L = span between the supporting rods (in
mm)
b = width of the tile at the broken edge (in
mm)
h = minimum thickness of the tile (in mm)
measured along the broken edge.
The average resistance to bending of the
sample is the arithmetic average of the
individual results.
The test method is the same as that
described in the preceding European
Standards (EN 100: the so-called threeFig. 2
Loading system in
the measurement of
modulus of rupture
and breaking
strength.

208

point
method).
An
important
modification has been introduced: the test
report must note not only the load F
required to break the sample and the
modulus of rupture from bending, but also
the breaking strength calculated S. The
modulus of rupture is undoubtedly an
important parameter, but it refers to an
intrinsic property of ceramic material: in
physical terms, it represents work per unit
of volume, a value that may be useful for
the specifier but that gives no information
on the maximum load that a tile can bear.
This last parameter depends on the
dimensions of the sample: in fact, given the
same level of water absorption (and thus
the same intrinsic properties of the
material), the value of the modulus of
rupture from bending is the same, but
the force F required to break the sample
varies depending on the dimensions of the
sample itself. Strictly speaking, then,
within each group as defined in the
product standards, different requisites
would have to be established depending
on tile format a virtually impossible
enterprise. It was therefore decided to introduce a recalculated breaking strength
S , obtained by multiplying the value of
the force F (as read on the instrument) by
the ratio between L (the distance between
the supporting rods) and b (the width of
the test sample). This makes it possible to
obtain a value of the load which is
independent of the format, and for which
a requisite can be specified in the product
standards.

Minimum number
of tiles for test

7
7
10

EN ISO 10545 - Part 5


Determination of impact resistance by
measurement of coefficient of
restitution
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles.
The test must be performed on at least
five samples, sized 75 mm x 75 mm, cut
from the tiles. The test samples are applied
with a rigid epoxide resin adhesive to
specially prepared blocks of conglomerate, sized 75 mm x 75 mm x 50.
Testing apparatus (fig. 3 ) consists of:
a steel ball with a diameter of
(19 0.05)mm;
a device equipped with an electromagnet,
and a guide tube to insure that the
dropping steel ball falls on the center of the
test sample which is placed on a rigid
support;
an (optional) electronic device that
measures the time interval between the
first and the second impact when the ball
falls on the surface of the test sample.
The sample is positioned horizontally on
the instrument with the surface under the
electromagnet so that when the ball is
released from a height of 1 meter it hits it
in the center. The height of the rebound is
measured, or, alternately, the interval of
time between two successive rebounds.
Any damage visible from the distance of 1
meter must be noted, but may be ignored
in classyfing tiles.
The coefficient of restitution (e) is
calculated using different formulas
depending on the type of measurement
selected (time or height).

APPENDIX

The test is recommended for tiles to be


used in floors where impact resistance is
considered especially important. A
coefficient of restitution with a value of
0.55 is considered sufficient for normal
low-stress levels of use; higher values are
required in cases where greater stress is
anticipated.

Electromagnet
Steel balll

1 meter

Guide tube

EN ISO 10545 - Part 6


Determination of resistance to deep
abrasion. Unglazed tiles
Method applicable to all unglazed
ceramic tiles.
The test must be performed on whole
tiles or on samples of sufficient
dimensions; at least 5 per type are required.
The apparatus used, as illustrated in
Fig. 4, consists of a rotating disk of
standardized material and dimensions, a
storage hopper equipped with a device for
dispensing the abrasive material, and by a
stand for the sample.
The sample is placed on the instrument
in such a way as to be tangential to the
rotating disk, insuring that the abrasive
material is uniformly dispensed (100 g/100
revolutions).
After 150 rotations of the disk, the cord
length of the groove made by the abrasive
material is measured. The procedure must
be performed on every sample in at least
two different areas at right angles to each
other.
Resistance to deep abrasion is given by
the expression:

hd2
sin
180
8

V=

where:
V = the volume of material removed (mm3)
sin /2 = l/d
d = diameter of the rotating disk ( mm)

Fig. 3
Scheme of the
measuring system
of coefficient of
restitution.

Timing equipment
Detector

Levelling screw

Tile

Epoxide resin adhesive

Clamp
Concrete block

h = thickness of the rotating disk (mm)


l = lenghts of the chord
= angle subtended at the center of the
disk by the chord (in degrees).
The test method and the expression of the
results are the same as those reported in
the preceding European Standards (EN
102).
Only one modification was introduced,
regarding the material to be used for the

calibration of the instrument: rather


than Standard Austrian Granite (a
natural material that is difficult to obtain
and of indefinite compositional
p ro p e r t i e s ) , i t w a s d e c i d e d t o m a k e
the primary standard a synthetic
material, transparent fused silica, whose
properties are well-known and clearly
defined.
The procedure of calibration remains
unchanged.

209

APPENDIX

Fig. 4
Outline of abrasion
measuring instrument for
unglazed tiles.

1. Sample clamp.
2. Blocking screw.
3. Test sample.
4. Valve.
5. Feed fox for abrasive
material.
6. Steady flow funnel.
7. Steel disc.
8. Counterweight.

Fig. 5
Outline of abrasion
measuring
instrument for
glazed tiles (PEI
method).

100, 150, 600, 750, 1,500, 2,100, 6,000, and


12,000.
After the abrasion, samples are rinsed,
dried and placed under a light source
(Fig. 6) capable of lighting the surface of
the samples with an intensity of 300 lux: a
test sample is determined to have not
resisted a certain stage of abrasion when
the area subjected to wear is clearly
distinguishable. The classification system
is set forth in Table 2.
Tiles whose abraded surface can still, after
12,000 revolutions of abrasion, be
considered cleanable if subjected to the
stain resistance test according to EN ISO
10.545 - Part 14, are considered to be in
class 5.

resistant. The definition of this new class


of resistance considers resistance to
abrasion not a sufficient condition,
especially considering the severe
conditions of use to which these tiles could
be subjected; practically speaking, a
surfaces good mechanical resistance must
be combined to a good resistance to stains.
Thus the new definition takes into account
both product innovations (the production
of technical materials with great surface
resistance) and also the consumers need
for a product that not only does not deteriorate aesthetically, but is also practical in
its cleanability (that is, ease stain removal)
and easy maintenance.

After the wet test method (or so-called


PEI method) described in the preceding
UNI EN 154 standard was chosen, the dry
method (called MCC) disappeared. The

EN ISO 10545 Part 8


Ceramic tiles
Determination of linear thermal
expansion
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles.
To perform the test, two perpendicular

monitoring system has been improved.

EN ISO 10545 - Part 7


Determination of surface abrasion
resistance of glazed tiles
Method applicable to all glazed ceramic
floor tiles.
The testing apparatus is illustrated in
Fig. 5.
The abrasive load consists of steel balls
of various diameters, white aluminum
oxide F80 and water.
The test must be performed on eleven
samples of 100 mm x 100 mm, cut out of
the tiles in such a way as to include the
different colors and decorations that may
be present in the proper surface.
The number of revolutions for every
stage of abrasion is:

210

Samples to be observed are placed in a box


61 cm wide (Fig.6 ), its interior painted a
neutral gray (to prevent unwanted
reflections); the light source, with color
temperature of between 6000 and 6500 K
(temperature is linked to wave length, and
thus to the lights color) must be screened
and there must be 300 lux on the sample to
be observed. The major modifications
regard classification:
a zero class has been introduced: tiles
for covering floors must withstand (that is,
not show signs of abrasion from) at least
100 revolutions; otherwise, they must be
considered wall tiles;
the number of stages for each class of
abrasion has been reduced in order to
simplify test procedures, without
depriving them of meaning;
a class 5 of resistance has been added,
to distinguish the new types of products
that are usually described as highly

samples must be cut from the center area


of the tile. The length of the samples must
be suitable to the measuring apparatus; the
area of the cross-section must be greater
than 10 mm 2 and the length of any side in
cross-section must be less than 6 mm. In
the case of glazed tiles, the glaze must be
removed.
After the samples are dried, their length
is measured at room temperature with
cursor calipers/gauge.
Every test sample is placed in an
instrument capable of raising the temperature by 5 o C/min. Initially and
throughout the heating procedure, the
length of the sample is measured.
The coefficient of linear thermal
expansion () is expressed to the first
decimal place x 10 -6 per degree Celsius
according to the formula:

1 L
x
t

where:
L o = sample length at room temperature
L = increase in length of test sample
t = rise in temperature

EN ISO 10545 - Part 9


Ceramic tiles
Determination of resistance to thermal
shock
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles
under normal conditions of use.
Test must be performed on at least 5 tiles
free from defects at the beginning of the
test.
The procedure consists in cycling sample
tiles ten times between the temperature of
cold water and a temperature slightly
higher than that of boiling water, generally
between 15 and 145 oC. For tiles with a
water absorption of under 10%, the lowest
temperature is reached by means of the

total immersion of the tiles in an uncovered


bath with a water temperature of 15 oC. In
case of tiles with a water absorption higher
than 10%, the water bath must be covered
with an aluminum plate on which a layer
of aluminum grains is placed; the glazed
surface of the tiles must be placed in
contact with this layer.
In both cases, after 5 minutes at the low
temperature, samples must be placed in an
oven at 145 oC for about 20 minutes and
then immediately transferred back to the
low temperature conditions.
At the end of 10 cycles, the samples are
examined for visible defects.

EN ISO 10545 - Part 10


Ceramic tiles
Determination of moisture expansion
Test method applicable to all ceramic
tiles.
7 whole tiles are needed to perform the
test. From the center of each tile, a
specimen at most 10 cm long and 3.5 cm
wide is cut. In the case of extruded tiles,
the length of the test specimen must be in
the direction of the extrusion.
Specimens are refired in a kiln at 550 oC.
and then returned to room temperature.
The length of each specimen is
determined with a micrometer, using
reference bars of nickel steel (invar) of
appropriate dimensions. This measurement is taken twice, at a 3-hour
interval.
Specimens are immersed in boiling water
for 24 hours, ensuring that the level of
water is higher than the specimens by at
least 5 cm and that the specimens do not
touch each other.
The specimens are removed from the
water and allowed to cool for an hour, after
which their length is measured twice, at a
3-hour interval.

Stage of abrasion
visible damage (revolutions)

Class

100

150

600

750, 1500

2100, 6000, 12000

(1)

> 12000

Table 2
Classification of
abrasion resistance
of glazed tiles
(PEI method).

(1) Must pass the test indicated in ISO 10.545-14 for stain resistance.

Moisture expansion measured in


mm/m is expressed by the formula:

l
x100
L
where:
l = the difference between the average of
the measures taken after the treatment with
boiling water, and the average of the
measures taken before such treatment
(mm)
L = initial length (mm).

EN ISO 10545 - Part 11


Ceramic tiles
Determination of crazing resistance.
Glazed tiles
Method applicable to all glazed
ceramic tiles except those where crazing
is an inherent decorative feature of the
product.
The test is performed on at least 5 whole
tiles that may be cut only if they are

1.65 m

APPENDIX

40
2m

211

Fig. 6
Monitoring conditions of
abrasion effects on glazed
tiles (PEI method).

APPENDIX

1
E1 =[ (m2 - m1)/m1] x 100

Fig. 7
Various types
of crazing.

where:
m 1 = dry mass of each tile;
m 2 = wet mass of each tile.
All the tiles are placed in a freezer in
which the temperature is controlled, when
possible, by inserting a thermocouple in a
hole made in a typical tile of the sample
under examination.
The cycle of freeze and thaw includes the
following phases:
cool the tiles to -5 o C at a speed of
20 oC/hour;
maintain at -5 oC for 15 minutes;
introduce water at (205) oC to raise the
tiles to +5 oC;
maintain at +5 o C for 15 minutes.
The described cycle must be repeated a
minimum of 100 times, at the end of which
the samples are weighed (m 3), and then
dried until they reach a constant weight
(m4), and visually inspected.
Final water absorption is calculated, as
given by
E2 = [ (m3 - m4)/m4] x 100
exceptionally large; at the start of the test,
all samples must be free from crazes.
Tiles are placed in a pressure-cooker, and
pressure is raised gradually to 500 kPa
(t=159 oC) and maintained at that level for
2 hours.
The pressure is then lowered as quickly
as possible to room pressure and the tiles
a re a l l o w e d t o c o o l , a f t e r w h i c h a n
aqueous solution of methylene blue is
applied and then removed.
The purpose of this treatment is to make
v i s i b l e t o t h e e y e o t h e r w i s e u n p e rceivable crazing.
The glazed surface of the tiles is
examined for crazing, taking care to avoid
confusing crazes with scratches, and
disregarding cracks (Fig. 7).

212

EN ISO 10545 - Part 12


Ceramic tiles
Determination of frost resistance
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles
intended for use in freezing conditions in
the presence of water.
Test must be performed on a minimum
area of 0.25 m 2, and on not less than 10
entire tiles that are free of defects.
After drying to a constant weight, tiles
are placed in a vacuum tank to a pressure
of (60 4) kPa below atmospheric
pressure.Water is introduced while this
pressure is maintained for 15 minutes
before returning to atmospheric pressure.
In this way, the initial water absorption
(before the cycles of freeze and thaw) is
determined, as given by:

and any damage visible on the proper


surface and edges of the tile are noted.
Modifications of the EN 202 standard are
intended to shorten the length of the test
so that more repetitions of the cycle can be
staged in a reasonable time. It is in fact
recognized that frost damage is a function
above all of the number of cycles (that is,
of the shifts across 0 0 C when water
transforms to ice and vice versa) rather
than of a low temperature. How quickly
the temperature drops is also an important
factor (especially in proximity of 0 oC),
linked to the velocity of ice formation and
the causing of tensions that may make the
tile break.

APPENDIX

Aqueous test solutions

Low concentration (L)

High concentration (H)

Length of attack (GL)

Length of attack (UGL)

(4.1) Ammonium chloride

(100 g/l)

(100 g/l)

24 h

12 Days

(4.2) Sodium hypochlorite

(20 mg/l)

(20 mg/l)

24 h

12 Days

(4.3.1) Hydrochloric acid

3% (V/V)

4 Days

(4.3.2) Hydrochloric acid

18% (V/V)

(4.3.1) Citric acid

100 g/l

(4.3.2) Lactic acid

5% (V/V)

(4.3.1) Potassium Hydroxide

30 g/l

(4.3.2) Potassium Hydroxide

(1)

12 Days

24 h

12 Days

4 Days

4 Days
(1)

4 Days

100 g/l

12 Days

4 Days

(1)

Table 3
Chemical resistance. Test solution
and conditions for
glazed (GL) and
unglazed (UGL)
tiles.

12 Days
12 Days
12 Days

(1) Only if requested

The standard dictates that one should


repeat the cycle a minimum of 100 times,
implying that client and supplier may
agree to measure resistance to a higher
number of cycles, should particular
weather conditions require as much.

EN ISO 10545 - Part 13


Ceramic tiles
Determination of chemical resistance
Method applicable to all ceramic tiles to
determine chemical resistance at room temperature.
Each of the aqueous solutions set forth
in Table 3 must be tested on at least 5 test
samples that are:
cut out (50 x 50 mm), in the case of
unglazed tiles;
entire or partial, in the case of glazed
tiles.

Classification
Unglazed tiles: samples extracted from
unglazed tile are first partially immersed
in the test solutions for 12 days and then
subjected to running water for 5 days, then
boiled in water for 30 minutes, dried and
visually inspected for variations on the
proper surface, on the cut edges and on the
non-cut edges. The effects observed are the
basis of the classification of Table 4.

Glazed tiles: Test solutions are


maintained in contact with the glazed
surface of the tiles for the length of times
noted in Table 3, after which the surface is
cleaned and dried and the effects created
by the solutions are assessed according to
the diagram of Fig.8.
Should the pencil test not be applicable, the
tiles are indicated as Normal classification

not possible, and classified on the basis of


the visual inspection according to Table 5.

EN ISO 10545 - Part 14


Ceramic tiles
Determination to stains resistance
Method applicable to the proper surface
of ceramic tiles to determine stain
resistance.
Each of the staining agents listed below
must be maintained in contact with at least
5 test samples (whose proper surface has
first been cleaned and dried) for 24 hours.
Stains are removed in stages through the
use of different cleaning agents and
procedures (Fig.9).
Classification of the results follows visual
inspection: class 1 tiles are the easiest from
which to remove a given stain, while with
class 5 tiles, such stains cannot be removed

Test solutions

No visible effect (A)

Visible effects on cut edges (B)

Visible effects on cut and uncut


edges and on proper surface (C)

Ammonium chlorid / Sodium hypochlorite

UA

UB

UC

L Solutions

ULA

ULB

ULC

H Solutions

UHA

UHB

UHC

Table 4
Unglazed (UGL)
ceramic tiles:
classification
of chemical
resistance.

213

APPENDIX

Fig. 8
Classification
scheme for
chemical resistance
of glazed (GL)
ceramic tiles.

Visual
examination
Esame visivo

Visible
Effetto visibile effect

No visible effect

Nessun effetto visibile

Pencil
test
Prova matita
- umido- Wet wiping

Removed
Rimossa

Reflection text

Prova riflessione

Clear
Chiara

Non rimossa
Not
removed

CLASS A

CLASSE A

CLASS
B
CLASSE B

and the proper surface has been damaged


irreversibly.
Stains
1) Green staining in light oil (red staining
for green tiles).
2) Iodine alcohol solution.
3) Olive oil.
Cleaning agents
1) Hot water.
2) Weak commercial cleaning agent.
3) Strong commercial cleaning agent.
4) Solvents (hydrochloric acid, potassium
hydroxide, acetone, others to be specified)
Cleaning procedures
A) Running hot water.
B) Manual cleaning with weak commercial
cleaning agent.
C) Mechanical cleaning with strong
commercial cleaning agent.
Table 5
Glazed (GL)
ceramic tiles:
classification of
chemical
resistance.

The determination must be made on at


least three whole tiles whose surface has
been first cleaned and dried. Each tile is
then prepared as shown in Fig.10.
The extraction is effected with a 4%
(V/V) acetic acid solution for 24 hours; the
amount extracted is determined in the
appropriate manner, such as by means of
atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

ATTACCO CHIMICO
CHEMICAL
ATTACK

Blurred
Confusa

CLASS C

CLASSE C

D) Immersion in suitable solvent


(hydrochloric acid, potassium hydroxide,
acetone, others to be specified).

EN ISO 10545 - Part 15


Ceramic tiles
Extraction of lead and cadmium from
glazed tiles
Method applicable to proper surfaces of
all glazed ceramic tiles. This method was
not included in the EN standards, deriving
rather from the American ASTM C-895
system; it regards the determination of the
amount of lead and cadmium that may be
released into an acetic acid solution by a
glaze, in the case of tiles used in foodpreparing areas (like tiles installed on
kitchen counters).

EN ISO 10545 - Part 16


Ceramic tiles
Determination of small color differences
This method was not included in the EN
standards, but appears as part of the U.S.
standards. The test method used is the one
described in the standard ASTM C-609, and
measures small differences in color
between an unknown sample and a
reference tile; the standard specifies that
this method should be used to measure
only tiles that are solid color and smooth;
with other tiles, the results may not be
valid. The test is based on the use of a
colorimeter; any colorimeter on the market
may be used, so long as it gives values that
can be mathematically transformed into
the tristimulus values X,Y and Z (according
to CIE).
The instrument is first calibrated using a
primary standard (magnesium oxyde) or
a secondary standard, depending on the
indications of the supplier of the
instrument.
Measures are then taken of the unknown
sample and the reference sample,

Test solutions

No visible effect (A)

Visible difference in appearance (B)

Partial or complete loss


of original surface (C)

Ammonium chloride - Sodium hypochlorite

GA(V)

GB(V)

GC(V)

L Solutions

GLA(V)

GLB(V)

GLC(V)

H Solutions

GHA(V)

GHB(V)

GHC(V)

214

APPENDIX

1
Fig. 9
Classification
scheme for
resistance to
stains.

Staining

Cleaning procedure A

Visual examination

Stain not removed


Cleaning procedure
B"
Visual
examination
Stain not removed
Cleaning procedure
C"
Visual
Stain removed

examination
Stain removed

Stain not removed


Cleaning procedure
D"

Stain removed

Visual
Stain removed

examination
Stain not removed

CLASS 5

CLASS 4

alternately, until three readings have been


taken of every tile.
Finally, the standard specifies the method
to be followed to calculate differences of
color, specifically as regards instruments
that give the values in L, a and b (which
are transformed into X, Y and Z).

CLASS 3
EN ISO 10545 - Part 17
Ceramic tiles
Determination of coefficient of friction
Method applicable to glazed and
unglazed ceramic tiles for floor covering.
This method (not included in the EN) is
particularly important for the safety of the

CLASS 2

CLASS 1

final user, since the coefficient of friction


relates directly to the slipperiness of a floor.
Remember that the coefficient of friction
is defined as the ratio between the
tangential force and the vertical load on a
body moving over a surface. The standard
sets forth methods for measuring both the

215

APPENDIX

1
2

Fig. 10
Extraction of lead
and cadmium:
sample assembly
during test.

1. Silicone rubber
2. Solution

3. Tile
4. Dome

dynamic coefficient of friction (associated


with an element moving over a surface)
and the static coefficient of friction
(associated with an element that must
move from a position of rest).
Method A: this method, of English
origin (BCR-Tortus), measures the dynamic
coefficient of friction with a portable mobile apparatus, a moveable device with an
electric motor that moves at a constant
velocity over the surface of the tiles to be
tested. The apparatus measures the
coefficient of friction created between the

216

tiles and a contacting element (slipping


element) that is covered in standardized
rubber (4S) and bears a predetermined
load. The dynamic coefficient of attrition,
both average and precise and under all
surface conditions (dry, wet with water,
etc.), are measured. This method can be
used either in the laboratory or on floors
in service.
Method B: this method, originated in
the United States (ASTM C1028) measures
the static coefficient of friction with an
apparatus that uses a dynamometer to
determine the maximum horizontal force
needed to initiate movement between the
slider (covered in standardized 4S rubber
and loaded with a known weight) and the
tile surface, when dry and also when wet.
This method, too, may be used in the
laboratory and on floors in service.
Method C: this method is modeled on
the German standard DIN 51130. A person
walks back and forth on a panel covered
with ceramic tiles. The inclination of the

test area is increased at a constant rate until


the angle is reached at which the person
finds it difficult to walk (and begins to
slip).
The test is then interrupted and the angle
of inclination of the panel at this point is
measured; remembering that in this case,
the coefficient of friction is equal to the
geometrical tangent of the measured angle.
The test is conducted by applying oil to the
test surface, and the testing person wears
works shoes with standard soles. This test
can be conducted only in the laboratory
and not in the field.
Method D: this method requires the use
of a pendulum to whose arm a slippery
element covered in standardized rubber
(4S) is connected. The pendulum is made
to swing and the amount of energy
absorbed when the slider comes into
contact with the test surface, be it either
dry or wet with water, is then measured.
This method too can be used both in the
laboratory and in the field.

EN ISO norms for ceramic tiles - Requirements

P P E N D I X

Properties

2
Group AI
ISO13006 Annex A

Group AIIa P.1


ISO 13006 Annex B

Group AIIa P.2


ISO 13006 Annex C

Group AIIb P.1


ISO 13006 Annex D

Precision

Natural

Precision

Natural

Precision

Natural

Precision

Allowable % deviation of
the average dimension of
each tile (2 or 4 sides) from
work size W

1.0 up to
a max.
2 mm

2.0 up to
a max.
4 mm

1.25 up to
a max.
2 mm

2.0 up to
a max.
4 mm

1.5 up to
a max.
2 mm

2.0 up to
a max.
4 mm

Allowable % deviation of
the average size of each
tile (2 or 4 sides) from the
average of 10 test specimens
(20 or 40 sides)

maximum
1.0

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.0

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.5

Natural

Group AIIb P.2


ISO 13006 Annex E

Group AIII
ISO 13006 Annex F

Precision

Natural

Precision

Natural

2.0 up to 2.0 up to a
a max.
max.
2 mm
4 mm

2.0 up to
a max.
2 mm

2.0 up to
a max.
4 mm

2.0 up to
a max.
2 mm

2.0 up to
a max.
4 mm

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.5

maximum
1.5

Length and width

Thickness

Thickness must be indicated by manufacturer

Allowable % deviation of the


average thickness of each tile
from the work size

10

Straightness of sides
(Proper surface)
Maximum % deviation from
straightness
related to the corresponding
work size

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.6

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Rectangularity
Maximum % deviation from
rectangularity
related to the corresponding
work size

1,0

Surface flatness
Maximum % deviation from
flatness in surface
a) center curvature related to
the diagonal calculated from
work size

0.5

1.5

0.5

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

b) edge curvature related to


the corresponding work size

0.5

1.5

0.5

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

c) warpage related to the


diagonal
calculated from work size

0.8

1.5

0.8

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

Surface quality
% of acceptable tiles in the lot

95 minimum

217

Group A
Dimensional and
aspect properties Test according to
ISO 10545-2.

P P E N D I X

Group A
Physical properties.

Properties

2
Group AI
ISO 13006 Annex A

Precision
Test method ISO 10545-3
Water absorbtion % by weight
Average value
Individual value
Test method
ISO 10545-4
Breaking strength, in N
a) thickness 7.5 mm
b) thickness < 7.5 mm
Modulus of rupture, in N/mm2
Not applicable if the breaking
strength is 3000 N
Average value
Individual value

Natural

Group AIIa P.1


ISO 13006 Annex B

Precision

Natural

Precision

Natural

Group AIIb P.1


ISO 13006 Annex D

Precision

Natural

Group AIIb P.2


ISO 13006 Annex E

Precision

Natural

3<E6
6.5 maximum

6 < E 10
11.1 maximum

6 < E 10
11.1 maximum

6 < E 10
11.1 maximum

not less than 1100


not less than 600

not less than 950


not less than 600

not less than 800


not less than 600

not less than 900


not less than 900

not less than 750


not less than 750

not less than 600


not less than 600

minimum 23
minimum 18

minimum 20
minimum 18

minimum 13
minimum 11

minimum 17,5
minimum 15

minimum 9
minimum 8

minimum 8
minimum 7

max 1062

max 2365

test method available

max 275

max 393

max 541

max 649

report the class of abrasion and the number of cycles passed

Test method ISO 10545-8


Coefficient of linear thermal
expansion
from room temperature to
100 oC

test method available

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-10


Moisture expansion of
unglazed tiles (mm/m)

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-11


Crazing resistance of
glazed tiles

requested

Test method ISO 10545-12


Frost resistance

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-16


Small color difference

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-17


Coefficient of friction

For floor tiles, report value and test method adopted

218

Precision

3<E6
6.5 maximum

Test method ISO 10545-7


Resistance to surface
abrasion of
glazed floor tiles

Test method ISO 10545-9


Resistance to thermal shock

Natural

Group AIII
ISO 13006 Annex F

3
3.3 maximum

Test method ISO 10545-5


Impact resistance
Test method ISO 10545-6
Resistance to deep
abrasion of unglazed
tiles V mm 3

Group AIIa P.2


ISO 13006 Annex C

P P E N D I X

Properties

Group A
Chemical
properties.

Group AI - ISO 13006 Annex A


Group AIIa - ISO 13006 Annex B-C
Group AIIb - ISO 13006 Annex D-E
Group AIII - ISO 13006 Annex F

Chemical resistance
Test method ISO 10545-13

Resistance to low concentrations of acids and alkali


a) glazed tiles
b) unglazed tiles

report the class of chemical resistance

Resistance to high concentrations of acids and alkali

test method available

Resistance to chemicals for home use and pool chemicals


a) glazed tiles
b) unglazed tiles

min. GB
min. UB

Test method ISO 10545-14

Stain resistance
a) glazed tiles
b) unglazed tiles

min. Class 3
test method available

Test method ISO 10545-15


Lead and cadmium release

test method available

219

P P E N D I X

Group B
Dimensional and
appearance properties Test according to
ISO 10545-2.

2
Group BIb - ISO 13006 Annex H

Group BIa - ISO 13006 Annex G

Area S of product (cm2)

Properties

Area S of product (cm )

S < 90

90 < S <190

190 < S < 410

S > 410

S 90

90 < S 190

190 < S 410

S > 410

1.2

1.0

0.75

0,6

1.2

1.0

0.75

0.6

Length and width


Allowable % deviation of
the average dimension of
each tile (2 or 4 sides) from
work size W
Allowable % deviation of the
average size of each tile (2 or 4
sides) from the average of 10 test
specimens (20 or 40 sides)

0.75

0.5

Thickness

0.5

0.75

Thickness must be indicated by the manufacturer

Allowable % deviation of the


average thickness of each tile
from the work size

10

10

Straightness of sides
(Proper surface)
Maximum % deviation from
straightness
related to the corresponding
work size

0.75

0.5

0.75

0.5

1.0

0.6

1.0

0.6

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

b) edge curvature related to the


corresponding work size

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

c) warpage related to the


diagonal
calculated from work size

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

Rectangularity
Maximum % deviation from
rectangularity
related to the corresponding
work size

Surface flatness
Maximum % deviation from
flatness in surface
a) center curvature related to
the diagonal calculated from
work size

Surface quality
% of acceptable tiles in the lot

220

95 minimum

P P E N D I X

2
Group BIIa - ISO 13006 Annex J

Group BIIb - ISO 13006 Annex K

Area S of product (cm2)

Area S of product (cm2)

Group B
Dimensional and
appearance
properties Test according to
ISO 10545-2 (cont.).

Properties

S 90

90 < S 190

190 < S 410

S > 410

S 90

90 < S 190

190 < S 410

S > 410

Allowable % deviation of
the average dimension of
each tile (2 or 4 sides) from
work size W

1.2

1.0

0.75

0.6

1.2

1.0

0.75

0.6

Allowable % deviation of the


average size of each tile (2 or 4
sides) from the average of 10 test
specimens (20 or 40 sides)

0.75

Length and width

0.5

Thickness

0.75

0.5

Thickness must be indicated by the manufacturer

Allowable % deviation of the


average thickness of each tile
from the work size

10

10

Straightness of sides
(Proper surface)
Maximum % deviation from
straightness
related to the corresponding
work size

0.75

0.5

0.75

0.5

1.0

0.6

1.0

0.6

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.5

Rectangularity
Maximum % deviation from
rectangularity
related to the corresponding
work size

Surface flatness
Maximum % deviation from
flatness in surface
a) center curvature related to
the diagonal calculated from
work size

b) edge curvature related to the


corresponding work size

c) warpage related to the


diagonal
calculated from work size

Surface quality
% of acceptable tiles in the lot

95 minimum

221

P P E N D I X

Group B
Dimensional and
appaerance
properties Test according to
ISO 10545-2 (cont.).

2
Group BIII - ISO 13006 Annex L

Properties

Non-spacer

Spacer

Side < 12 cm: 0.75


Side > 12 cm: 0.50

+ 0.6
- 0.3

Side < 12 cm: 0.50


Side > 12 cm: 0.30

0.25

Length and width


Allowable % deviation of
the average dimension of
each tile (2 or 4 sides) from
work size W
Allowable % deviation of the
average size of each tile (2 or 4
sides) from the average of 10 test
specimens (20 or 40 sides)

Thickness

Thickness must be indicated by the manufacturer

Allowable % deviation of the


average thickness of each tile
from the work size

10

Straightness of sides
(Proper surface)
Maximum % deviation from
straightness
related to the corresponding
work size

0.3

Rectangularity
Maximum % deviation from
rectangularity
related to the corresponding
work size

0.5

0.3

+ 0.5
-0.3

+ 0.8 mm
- 0.2 mm

+ 0.5
- 0.3

+ 0.8 mm
- 0.2 mm

0.5

0.5 mm for sizes < 250 cm2


0.75 mm for sizes > 250 cm2

Surface flatness

Maximum % deviation from


flatness in surface
a) center curvature related to
the diagonal calculated from
work size

b) edge curvature related to the


corresponding work size

c) warpage related to the


diagonal
calculated from work size

Surface quality
% of acceptable tiles in the lot

222

95 minimum

P P E N D I X

Properties

Test method ISO 10545-3


Water absorbtion %
by weight
Average value
Individual value

Test according to
ISO 10545-4
Breaking strength, in N
a) thickness 7.5 mm
b) thickness < 7.5 mm
Modulus of rupture, in N/mm2
Not applicable if the breaking
strength is 3000 N
Average value
Individual value

2
Group BIb
ISO 13006 Annex H

Group BIIa
ISO 13006 Annex J

Group BIIb
ISO 13006 Annex K

Group BIII
ISO 13006 Annex L

0.5
0.6 max

0.5 < E 3
3.3 max

3<E6
6.5 max

6 < E 10
11 max

E > 10
minimum 9
When the value exceeds
20% this shall be
indicated by the manufacturer

not less than 1300


not less than 700

not less than 1100


not less than 700

not less than 1000


not less than 600

not less than 800


not less than 500

not less than 600


not less than 200

minimum 35
minimum 32

minimum 30
minimum 27

minimum 22
minimum 20

minimum 18
minimum 16

Thickness > 7.5: min.15


Thickness < 7.5: min.12

max 540

Test method ISO 10545-5


Impact resistance
Test method ISO 10545-6
Resistance to deep
abrasion of unglazed
tiles V mm3

test method available

max 175

max 175

Test method ISO 10545-7


Resistance to surface
abrasion of
glazed floor tiles

max 345

report the class of abrasion and the number of cycles passed

Test method ISO 10545-8


Coefficient of linear thermal
expansion
from room temperature to
100oC

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-9


Resistance to thermal shock

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-10


Moisture expansion of
unglazed tiles (mm/m)

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-11


Crazing resistance of
glazed tiles
Test method ISO 10545-12
Frost resistance

Group B
Physical properties.

Group BIa
ISO 13006 Annex G

requested

test method available

requested

Test method ISO 10545-16


Small color difference

test method available

Test method ISO 10545-17


Coefficient of friction

For floor tiles, report value and test method adopted

223

P P E N D I X

Group B
Chemical
properties.

Properties

Group BIa - ISO 13006 Annex G


Group BIb - ISO 13006 Annex H
Group BIIa - ISO 13006 Annex J
Group BIIb - ISO 13006 Annex K
Group BIII - ISO 13006 Annex L

Chemical resistance
Test method ISO 10545-13

Resistance to low concentrations of acids and alkali


a) glazed tiles
b) unglazed tiles

report the class of chemical resistance

Resistance to high concentrations of acids and alkali

test method available

Resistance to chemicals for home use and pool chemicals


a) glazed tiles
b) unglazed tiles (Group BIa-BIIb)

min. GB
min. UB

Test method ISO 10545-14

Stain resistance
a) glazed tiles
b) unglazed tiles

min. Class 3
test method available

Test method ISO 10545-15


Lead and cadmium release

test method available

224

The UNI designation

P P E N D I X

The term certification is defined in the


UNI CEI 70001 standards, paragraph 13.5,
as follows: Certification of conformity
action by means of which an independent third
party testifies that, with reasonable
dependability, a given product, process or
service is in conformity with a specific standard
or another official document.
The term certification refers to the
complex of procedures including testing,
inspection and verification by means of
which it can be concluded that a product
not only conforms with established
technical standards, but is subject to
sufficient self-monitoring during all phases
of production so that, even though all tests
cannot be conducted on line, a constant
quality of production can be reasonably
guaranteed. This requires that the
manufacturer be equipped with an
adequate system of quality control, complete with a manual, a laboratory with
specialized technical personnel and an
adequate system of data registry so that,
in cases where products are not in
conformity, the original causes of the defect
can be traced. All these indications are
specified in the ISO 9000 standards.
Let us consider the specific case of ceramic
tiles.
The EN ISO standards, prescribing quality
requirements for first-choice materials and
describing the corresponding test methods,
are presented in section 2.2, and described
in detail in Appendices 1 and 2. Some of
these tests (like the evaluation of surface
quality) constitute an integral part of
normal production lines (grade sorting
lines); while others (like chemical and
abrasion resistance, etc.) are destructive,
and hence cannot be performed on line
but rather on samples. In the case of the
latter type, the manufacturer must perform
them (or have them performed)

Fig. 1
Flow-sheet for the
application of the
UNI Mark.

Application to UNI
Istruzione domanda UNI

Application to inspecting institution

Application to laboratory
Istruzione domanda Laboratorio

Istruzione domanda Organismo ispezione

Initial visit of
inspection institution

Visita iniziale Organismo ispezione

Examination of visit report by


Certification Committee

Esame rapporto visita Comitato Certificazione

Laboratory tests
Prove di laboratorio

Examination of test report by


Certification Committee

Esame rapporto prove Comitato Certificazione

Drafting of UNI contract


Stipulazione del contratto UNI

Application of mark to
certified products

periodically, with a frequency that depends


on the importance of the test to quality
control. If a tests results are negative (that
is, if the product is found to be not in
conformity), the manufacturer identify the
possible cause or causes, analyzing the
characteristic parameters of the various
phases of the production cycle and making
the required corrections; finally, products
that are not in conformity must be
identified and carefully isolated from
normal production.
All this is part of the so-called quality
control system, which requires:
a quality control manual, describing the
various operational procedures and noting
standards of evaluation and interpretation
of results;
a quality control laboratory complete
with sufficient equipment and specialized
technical personnel;
documentation of the results of
examination as effected at the various

phases of the production cycle: raw


materials, grinding, pressing, drying,
glazing, firing;
documentation of examination effected
on finished product.
As regards the preparation of the quality
control manual, the organization and management of the laboratory and the tests
on raw materials and partly finished
products, manufacturers are referred to the
EN ISO 9002 standard which offers general
guidelines modifiable to specific cases.
Examination of finished products, instead,
must be performed in conformity with the
EN ISO standards for ceramic tiles.
Although these procedures are complex,
each manufacturer will already have its
own internal quality control system, and
it will be sufficient for such a system to be
modified to meet the aforementioned
requirements of the EN ISO standards.
Companies already equipped with a

225

P P E N D I X

Fig. 2
The UNI Mark logo.

UNI
P0000
sufficient quality control system are the
first to request the mark. As noted above,
they may request it but are not obligated
to; the mark for ceramic tiles is optional.
Nevertheless it is important, and its
importance is sure to increase in the near
future since it constitutes an official
recognition of sound production management, as well as an excellent form of selfpresentation to consumers in all the
European markets. (It must be remembered
that a quality mark is also in use in other
European countries).
In Italy, the quality mark is conferred by
UNI, Italian Standardization Body, which
is its proprietor and grants the right to use
the mark to any requesting company that
demonstrates, first, that it has an adequate
system of quality control (as described
above); furthermore, the type of product
for which the mark is requested must meet
the requirements established by current
standards.
The procedure to be followed is described
in a UNI publication on the subject. Fig.1
presents a brief flowchart for the
attribution of the mark. The main steps in
the procedure to be followed are
summarized below.
First, the mark is requested by the

226

manufacturer, that is by the company that


produces ceramic tiles and/or offers them on
the market, under its own name, assuming
complete responsibility for the product. Thus
the mark may be requested even by a
company that does not directly produce
the tiles, but only distributes a product (for
which it assumes complete responsibility)
that is manufactured and packaged in its
name by a third party.
The mark is requested for a commercial
series: that is to say, for tiles
that belong to the same product Group,
as established by the EN ISO standards (see
section 2.2);
that have the same body and the same
thickness, and are grouped into a certain
number of formats and colors.
The mark (Fig.2) is indelibly stamped onto
the series which has acquired the right to
use it: it is important to be able to
distinguish the series that carries the mark
from that same companys other
production, so as to avoid any
misunderstandings or imitations.
The mark is also featured in catalogs,
brochures, advertising flyers: since it
represents a distinction of quality, it is
i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n t e re s t t o
guarantee its broadest possible exposure
through
individual
and
g ro u p
advertisements.
The mark is the property of UNI, which
grants a manufacturer the contractual right
to use it for four years, at the end of which
the contract is tacitly renewed unless it has
been revoked by either of the contracting
parties.
Once the application is sent to UNI complete with required documentation, the
procedure for receiving the permit for the
mark begins; the procedure includes, first,
a visit by the Inspection Institution
designated by UNI (Centro Ceramico Bo-

logna). The main purpose of the visit is to


verify the existence of an adequate internal
system of quality control, as indicated
above: the producer must indicate how the
quality control inspections are conducted,
submitting all pertinent data. The
frequency and nature of the inspections on
semi-manufactured goods and on the
stages of the technological process are at
the discretion of the manufacturer: for
example, for raw materials, it is sufficient
to include in the documentation a technical
form completed by the supplier.
Inspections on finished products, by
contrast, are stricter. First, sampling is
quite regulated: for each commercial
series, it must be substantial, as regards
formats as well as glazes and colors:
d e t a i l s re g a rd i n g s a m p l i n g m u s t b e
specified in the visit report. Control tests
must be performed following EN ISO
standard test methods; other test methods
may also be used, so long as their
correspondence to standard methods has
been verified. Frequency of testing is set
forth in Table 1; all the colors of a series
must be monitored periodically, and after
a year of on-going production inspections,
the entire range of tests required by EN
ISO standards must have covered the
totality of production. A-type tests must
be performed at the production site; Band C-type tests may be effected partially
or totally at an external laboratory (such
as the manufacturer s laboratory, or an
external laboratory).
All test results must be properly
documented and presented by the
manufacturer at the time of the visit.
Samples are also selected at this time and
sent to the official testing laboratory (Centro Ceramico Bologna) for testing.
The Inspection Institution sends the report
of its visit to the Certification Committee,
which evaluates the report. If that report

P P E N D I X

receives a positive evaluation, the


Certification Committee commissions the
testing laboratory to perform all tests
required by the EN ISO standards on the
series for which the use of the mark is being
petitioned. The laboratory sends out test
reports to the Certification Committee,
which is empowered to give final approval,
based on which UNI draws up a contract
with the manufacturer for the granting of
the permit to use for the mark.
During the life of the contract, the
Inspection Institution must visit the
production plant annually to verify the
proper management of quality control (and
especially of the registers in which test
results are documented). Furthermore,
samples are drawn to be sent to the
designated laboratory for testing:
obviously, fewer tests are required than for

Type of test

Frequency

Property tested

daily

dimensions and surface quality


water absorption
modulus of rupture

monthly

yearly

the initial application for the mark, since


this is a sample-based evaluation,
performed on materials selected on the
basis of their significance. UNI can then
commission the test laboratory and the
inspection institution to perform
unscheduled sampling of tiles both from

Table 1
Quality control
scheme.

abrasion resistance
chemical resistance
crazing resistance
Mohs hardness
linear thermal expansion
thermal shock resistance
moisture expansion
frost resistance

the manufacturer and on the market, so as


to conduct tests to ascertain if these
samples conform to those submitted for the
initial testing.
Obviously, violations of contract will merit
sanctions of varying gravity, as listed in the
relevant UNI publication.

227

Categories of selections

(1) The Cet agreement


refers to EN norms in
force at the time it was
signed (1990). The EN
ISO norms described
and used in this guide
(see 2.2. and
Appendices 1 and 2)
are an updating of
those norms. The
values included in
Table 2 will be
updated using as a
reference the
requirements listed in
Appendix 2.

P P E N D I X

EN ISO standards establish quality


requirements only for first choice
materials, or materials of the best
commercial quality (as stated in the EN
87??? standard). All materials of lesser
quality
have
no
classification
requirements. Currently, every company
uses its own standards of selection, using
such terminology as first, second,
third, first commercial, kiln output,
discard, etc., creating confusion on the
market.
At a meeting in Brussels on November 16,
1990, the CET (European Federation of
Manufacturers of Ceramic Tiles) reached
an agreement regarding the definition of
quality grades of ceramic tile, and specified
a labelling system for boxes. This
agreement establishes no official norm but
does nevertheless represent true progress
in the distribution of ceramic tiles.
As regards the labelling of boxes and
packages, only general suggestions were
provided. Quality classification must be
clearly and legibly noted, in Arabic
numerals; companies must label in
whatever way is most effective, depending
on corporate requirements and technical
means available.
Since the first choice classification has
already been defined (as materials that
conform with EN standard requirements (1) ), it was sufficient to define
second choice in order to automatically generate the definition of
third choice.
Factors that determine a tiles classification
are, first, aesthetic defects (stains, flecks,
defects in decoration, etc.) that are
detrimental to the appearance of the
proper surface. For second-choice tiles, the
established distance from which these
defects are visible is greater, but the
maximum allowable percentage of
defective tiles (5%) is the same. If this

228

percentage is exceeded, tiles are considered


third-choice. As for functional properties,
the limits established for first-choice have
been slightly increased, while guidelines
regarding physical and chemical properties
are more complex and detailed.
For some of these properties(abrasion
resistance of the surface of glazed tiles, and
resistance to acids and bases, also of glazed
tiles) the requirement of first choice
depend on the manufacturer s statement,
and likewise for second choice. For other
properties, requirements have remained
unaltered, since said properties are
considered peculiar to ceramic tiles, or in
any case fundamental to the performance
required: such is the case with thermal
shock resistance and crazing resistance
(even if manufacturers may declare that
glazes used to achieve aesthetic affects may
craze), as well as with resistance to stains,
home-use chemicals and pool chemicals.
Finally, for the remaining properties, it was
accepted as a general principle that for a
material of second choice, an acceptable
value-limit is the first-choice requirements
of the group immediately following it. For
example, requirements for second choice
of group BI are those for the first choice of
group BIa. Obviously, this general
standard has required adaptations due to
some incongruities in the system. The
results are set forth in Table 1. It should be
noted that though the data in this chart are
the result of several elaborations and
detailed discussions, it has yet to be
perfected: nevertheless, it is a sound point
of reference in a confused situation that has
persisted for years and was in urgent need
of regulation.
It has been established that the standard
constitutes a strong recommendation,
especially for tiles for the export market.
The complete text of the agreed-upon
regulations follows.

Affixing of the quality grade on boxes and


packaging
For products in conformity with the
requirements established by the EN
standards, the first-choice designation
must be specified, as prescribed by said
standards.
Likewise, for products that do not satisfy
the requirements established by the EN
standards, the designation of 2nd and 3rd
choice must be specified.
These indications must be entirely clear
and legible on the boxes and packages,
using Arabic numerals of a size and form
that may vary depending on the technical
means and corporate requirements of the
manufacturer.
Standards of selection: aesthetic and
functional
Aesthetic standards
1st choice
The proper surface of the tiles must appear
intact in all its parts; an aesthetic
assessment will require the testing of at
least a sample of 1 m 2 and a minimum of
30 tiles, as established by the EN 98
standard.
The assessment is effected by observing the
proper surface of the tile at a distance of 1
meter under a light of 300 lux.
The result is expressed as a percentage of
tiles with defects.
Requirements for 1st choice
Percentage of defective tiles < 5.
2nd choice
A sample of at least 1 square meter and a
minimum of 30 tiles must be tested. The
assessment must be effected by observing
the proper surface of the tiles at a distance
of 2 meters and under a light of 300 lux.
The result is expressed as a percentage of
tiles with defects.
Requirements for 2nd choice
Percentage of defective tiles < 5.

P P E N D I X

4
AI

AIIa-1

AIIa-2

AIIb-1

20 20

20 17.5

10 8

17,5 8

Properties

Modulus of rupture (EN 100)


Average value
Individual value

18

Mohs hardness (EN 101)


Glazed
Unglazed

5 5
6 6

Deep abrasion (EN 102)

Linear thermal expansion (EN 103)

18

18

15

5 5
6 6

300 393 393 649

48 10
513 12

10 10
12 10

15

AIII

AIIb-2

BI

BIIa

27 22

22 18

5 4
5 4

5 4
6 3

4 4
3 3

4 4
3 3

771
1419

649
2365

1419
2365

2365
3174

10 10
12 10

10 10
10 10

10 10
10 10

10 10
10 10

20

5 5
6 6

20

16

5 5
6 6

205 345 345 540

9 9

9 9

Thermal shock (EN 104)

Required
for all/ groups
for all groups
Richiesta per
tutti i gruppi
Richiesta perRequired
tutti i gruppi

Crazing (EN 106)

Richiesta per tutti i gruppi / Richiesta per tutti i gruppi


Required for all groups
Required for all groups

Chemical resistance unglazed (EN 106)


Household chemicals and pool chemicals
Acid and alkalis

reqd reqd reqd reqd


reqd reqd
reqd
reqd if
agreed

Chemical resistance glazed (EN 122)


Stains
Household chemicals and pool chemicals
Acid and alkalis manufacturer

Frost resistance (EN 202)

reqd reqd reqd reqd


reqd if
reqd if
agreed
agreed
reqd if
reqd if
agreed
agreed

Table 1
Requirements for
quality grades.

BIII

18 15/12 15/12 8

16

1st choice: italic;


2nd choice: bold.

5 5
6 4

5 f 3 w
4 f 3 w

540
2046

9 9

9 9

reqd reqd reqd reqd reqd reqd reqd reqd


reqd if
reqd reqd reqd reqd reqd reqd
agreed
reqd if
agreed

reqd reqd
reqd reqd

classi gruppi
2 for all groups
Min.
class2 2per
fortutti
all groups
Min
classe
i gruppi / Min classe 2 Min.
per tutti
Min.
class
B for
alli groups
classi gruppi
B for all groups
Min
classe
B per
tutti
gruppi / Min classe B Min.
per tutti
Richiesta Requested
se daccordo.
Secondo
la classe
di resistenza
chimica
indicata
dal fabbricante
if agreed
upon.
According
to class of
chemical
resistance
indicated by manufacturer
RichiestaRequested
se daccordo.
Secondo
la According
classe di resistenza
indicata
dal fabbricante
if agreed
upon.
to class ofchimica
chemical
resistance
indicated by manufacturer

Surface abrasion (EN 154)


Moisture expansion (EN 155)

reqd reqd
reqd if
agreed
reqd if
agreed

BIIb

According to class of abrasion indicated by manufacturer


Secondo la classe di abrasione indicata dal fabbricante / Secondo la classe di abrasione indicata dal fabbricante
According to class of abrasion indicated by manufacturer

0.6 0.6

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6


0.6 0.6

reqd
reqd if
agreed

3rd choice
Tiles in this group include all those that do
not satisfy the requirements established for
1st and 2nd choices.
Functional standards
Requirements for 1st choice
Tiles must satisfy 1st choice requirements,
as established by the specific EN product

reqd if
agreed
reqd if
agreed

reqd if
agreed
reqd if
agreed

reqd if
agreed
reqd if
agreed

reqd if
agreed
reqd if
agreed

reqd if
agreed
reqd if
agreed

standard for the group to which it belongs.


Requirements for 2nd choice
- Dimensions
Tiles must satisfy the requirements
established by the specific EN product
standard for the group to which it belongs,
with a maximum allowable deviation of
25% from the tolerances indicated in the

reqd
reqd if
agreed

reqd if
agreed
reqd if
agreed

reqd if
agreed

aforementioned standard.
- Physical and chemical properties
Tiles must satisfy the requirements set
forth in Table 1.
Requirements for 3rd choice
Tiles in this group include all those which
do not satisfy the requirements for 1st and
2nd choice.

229

f = floor
w = wall

Centro Ceramico Bologna

P P E N D I X

CENTRO CERAMICO - BOLOGNA


Italian Center for the Research and Testing for the Ceramics Industry
International denomination:
ITALIAN CERAMIC CENTER
Headquarters:
Via Martelli, 26 - 40138 Bologna
Tel. (051)534015 - Fax (051)530085
Branch Unit:
CERTI.CER
Via Valle dAosta 1- 41049 Sassuolo (Modena)
Tel/Fax (0536)802154
Internet: www.cencerbo.it
e-mail: centro.ceramico@cencerbo.it

The Centro Ceramico is managed by a University Consortium, whose members are:


UNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNA
ERVET
Regional Organization for Economic Development
EMILIA-ROMAGNA CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE ASSOCIATION
ASSOPIASTRELLE
Association of Italian Ceramic Tile and Refractories Manufacturers
ANCPL
Italian Association of Manufacturing Cooperatives
ENCS
Italian Institute for Ceramics and Silicates
ANDIL
Italian Association of Heavy Clay Products Manufacturers
FEDERCERAMICA
Italian Association of Ceramics and Abrasives Manufacturers

Acknowledgement of the legal status of the University Consortium:


DPR 10/4/1978, n.806

230

P P E N D I X

National and international accreditations


Laboratory listed in the register of the Highly Qualified Private and Public External Laboratories
Ruling of the Ministry Of Scientific Research 6/16/1983 (G.U. 7/6/1983, n.183)
Laboratory authorized to monitor atmospheric pollution
L.7/13/1966, n.615 - Ruling of Ministry Of Health 8/10/1974 (G.U. 9/1/1974, n.240)
Italian reference Ceramics Laboratory for the Mutual Recognition Agreement of Test Reports
of the CEN Certification Committee N.5
Italian reference Ceramics Laboratory for CERLABS - World Network of National Ceramic
Laboratories
Inspection institution and official test laboratory designated by UNI for granting the Quality Mark
for Ceramic Tiles
Inspection institution and official test laboratory designated by UNI for granting the Quality Mark
for Bricks
Test laboratory accredited by SINAL, according to UNI CEI EN 45001 (Accreditation N. 0058,
10/21/1997)
Laboratory designated by ENCS (Italian Institute for Ceramics and Silicates) for granting the ENCS
Mark for sanitary articles
Recognized official laboratory for the exportation of ceramic tiles and sanitaryware in Saudi Arabia, according to S.A.S.O
Test laboratory accredited by P.C.B.C. (Poland) according to ISO/IEC 25
Official laboratory acknowledged by ZAG-ZRMK (Slovenia) for the exportation of ceramic tiles.
Official laboratory recognized by the Ministry for the Defense for the monitoring of the consignment
of earthenware
Laboratory with Qualified Personnel according to EN 30011 for assessing quality systems according
to EN ISO 9000

C
E
R Labs

- World Network of National Ceramic Laboratories

231

P P E N D I X

5
Activities

Applied research
Assistance to industry, certification, consultation
Professional training
Distribution of information
in the following areas:

Chemistry and raw materials


Industrial ceramics (tiles, bricks, sanitaryware, earthenware, refractories, etc.)
Advanced technical ceramic
Environment
Processes and energy
Product and system quality

Tests, analyses, services


Tiles, Sanitaryware, Refractories, Bricks, Pipes for building, Adhesives for building, Dinnerware, Cements and Concrete:
quality assessment according to test methods established by respective standards, national (UNI) and international (EN, ISO)
microstructure characterization (SEM,EDS).
Defects in tiled floors and wall coverings: on-site inspections, technical assistance, etc.
Ceramic raw materials, glazes, frits, etc.; execution of:
chemical analysis and chemical determination
mineralogical analysis
microscope examinations
thermal analysis (DTA,TG, dilatometrics, firing tests)
granulometric analysis
heating microscope.
Chemical analysis of waters (waste water, processing water) and of production and purification waste/residues.
Characterization of gaseous emissions.
Measurement of exposure to pollutants in the workplace.
Energy Auditing: measurement of thermal and electric consumption, and assistance in energy conservation.

232

P P E N D I X

Manuals for ceramic tile professionals


Ceramic tile professionals may request the following manuals on ceramic tile. They include the results of research
projects, or they were published to cover topics of particular interest in easy and readable format.

233

Ceramic Arbitration Board - Constitution and Rules of Procedure

P P E N D I X

Constitution
Art. 1
1.1. The Arbitration Board has been
established under the auspices of the Centro Ceramico for the purpose of offering
services of arbitration (basic and
extraordinary),
conciliation
and
contractual appraisal in the interest of
promoting the friendly resolution of
disagreements and/or controversies
regarding ceramic materials.
1.2. Said services are regulated by the Rules
of Procedure which are attached to the
present Constitution and are an integral
part of same.
1.3. The Arbitration Board is located within
the Centro Ceramico.
Art. 2
2.1. The Arbitration Board is directed and
administered by a Council.
2.2. The Council has full authority to
pursue the achievement of all the aims of
the Arbitration Board.
2.3. In particular, the Council:
a) creates and maintains a list of arbiters
and experts;
b) assigns arbiters and experts;
c) stipulates the amount parties must pay
for reimbursement of administrative
expenses;
d) resolves challenges to arbiters and
experts;
e) resolves claims against fees to arbiters
and experts;
f) provides opinions on procedures to
arbiters and experts.
Art. 3
3.1. The Council is composed of seven
members including the President.
3.2. The President of the Centro Ceramico
is by rights the President of the Council.
3.3. The Board of Directors of the Centro

234

Ceramico nominates the members of the


Council of the Arbitration Board, selecting
them from among the pool of persons of
proven experience in the law or in
ceramics, and of clear moral integrity.
3.4. The Councils tenure lasts 4 years and
its members may be reinstated.
Art. 4
4.1. The Council is convened by the President
whenever he deems it appropriate, and when
at least 3 of its members request it.
4.2. The Council is presided over by the
President or, in case of his absence of
inability to serve, by the oldest member of
the board.

4.3. The Council deliberates with the


presence of at least half of its members.
4.4. Decisions are made by a majority vote
of members present.
4.5. In the case of a tie, the vote of whoever
has convened the union will be decisive.
Art. 5
5.1. The Council nominates the Secretary
of the Arbitration Board.
5.2. The Secretary executes the decisions
of the Council, draws up the minutes of
its meetings, reports to the Council on
the functioning of the administration
a n d o f s e r v i c e s re n d e r e d t o t h e
Arbitration Board.

Art. 6
The functioning of the Arbitration Board
is assured by the payment of expenses by
the users of the services and, in cases where
such payments do not suffice, by the Centro Ceramico.
Art. 7
This Constitution may be modified
following deliberation of the Council,
ratified by the Board of Directors of the
Centro Ceramico.

Rules of Procedure
Art. 1 - Arbitration services
1.1. Arbitration services consist in
providing one or more arbiters to parties
for the resolution of conflicts.
1.2. Conciliation services consist in
providing the parties with one or more
conciliators who will promote an
agreement among parties.
1.3. Services of contractual appraisal
consists in providing parties with one or
more experts responsible for formulating
a technical evaluation.
1.4. Recourse to arbitration services entails
unconditional acceptance of the
Constitution of the Arbitration Board, of
its Rules of Procedure, and of the decision
that will be made, exempting the Board
from any responsibility.
1.5. Parties have a joint obligation to pay
the fee of the arbiter and/or the expert.
Art. 2 - Arbitration agreement
2.1. Reference is made to one of the
aforementioned rules of procedure when
an arbitration agreement exists between
parties or when, despite the absence of an
arbitration clause or compromise, the
parties jointly request it of the Arbitration
Board.

P P E N D I X

2.2. When the parties agree in writing to


avail themselves of the services of the
Arbitration Board, and specify no further
details, this will be understood to signify:
a single arbiter rather than an arbitrating
body; an outside arbiter rather than a
Board one; a judgement based on fairness
rather than on jurisprudence.
2.3. In the case of several parties, a single
arbiter will pass judgement, regardless of
the arbitration agreement.
Art. 3 - List of arbiters and experts
3.1. The Council draws up and updates the
list of arbiters and experts, including
individuals of proven experience in the
legal and/or ceramics field and of
uncontested moral integrity.
3.2. Whenever it is deemed appropriate,
the Council may designate people who are
not on the list, but possess the
aforementioned requirements.
3.3. Either part may reject in writing the
designated arbiter or expert, citing reasons
for doing so.
3.4. Following such a rejection, the Council
will confer with the interested parties and
then make its decision without appeal.
Art. 4 - Request for arbitration
4.1. The party that wishes to promote
arbitration presents a written request to
office of the Arbitration Board, notifying
the opposite party by registered mail.
4.2. The request must indicate:
a) name and address of the parties;
b) type of arbitration requested: standard
or extraordinary, arbitration body or single
arbitrator;
c) exposition of facts and legal issues on
which the request is based;
d) summary of the arguments which the
requesting party means to use;
e) in the case of an arbitration body: full
name and address of the arbiter in the field.

4.3. Together with the request, the


requesting party must submit to the office
of the Arbitration Board:
a) a copy of the compromise or of the
compromise clause;
b) the original letter of attorney, if said
party intends to be represented and
defended in the proceedings;
c) the receipt of the registered letter noted
in comma 1 above;
d) the compensation owed to the office of
the Arbitration Board, as estimated by the
Council.
4.4. The office of the Arbitration Board
registers the request in the appropriate
chronological register, opens a file and
assigns it a number.
Art. 5 Integration of the lawsuit
5.1. Within thirty days of being notified of
the request, the defendant party must
submit to the Arbitration Board a written
response to the pertinent questions,
indicating the arguments it intends to use
and, in the case of an arbitration body,
designating the special arbiter.
5.2. If he intends to seek legal
representation and defense, said party
must also present the original of the letter
of attorney.
5.3. Within ten days from the expiration of
the term in the above sub-section, the office
must submit the file to the council.
5.4. Depending on need, the Council
designates a single arbiter and the
president of the arbitration body. In cases
where the parties do not designate an
expert arbiter, the Council designates him/
her as well.
5.5. The Council also determines the
arbiter s advance payment.
5.6. The office of the Arbitration Board
immediately communicates the results of
said deliberation to the arbiter and to all
parties by registered mail.

Art. 6 - Procedures
6.1. Once the arbiters advance payment
has been paid as per the above art. 5.4, the
process begins.
6.2. Within ten days of said payment, the
arbiter communicates to the parties, by
registered letter, the date and hour of the
first meeting to be held within the next
twenty days.
6.3. Arbitration takes place at the offices of
the Ceramics Arbitration Board.
6.4. The arbiter takes the minutes of the
meeting which he undersigns.
6.5. The arbiter attempts to reconcile the
parties.
6.6. If the parties are reconciled, they draw
up and sign a statement of reconciliation,
under the guidance of the arbiter,
indicating among other things who will be
responsible for paying the fee of the arbiter,
whose responsibilities conclude with the
signing of this document.
6.7. The arbiter conducts the inquiry using
his best judgment and respecting the
principle of cross-examination.
Art. 7 - Decision
7.1. The arbiter issues his decision within
three months of the first meeting, unless
otherwise agreed by the arbiter and parties
involved.
7.2. The decision is issued in written form
and is signed by the arbiter.
7.3. When there are multiple arbiters, the
decision is arrived at by a majority vote.
7.4. Should one arbiter refuse to sign the
decision, the other arbiters note this fact
in the ruling itself.
7.5. The decision must contain the claims
of the parties involved, the course of the
proceedings, the motives and the final
verdict.
7.6. In his decision, the arbiter caps his fee
and the expenses for the defense of the
parties involved, charging them to one or

235

P P E N D I X

the other party according to the principle


of loosing party.
7.7. A written claim against the payment
of the arbiter s fees may be submitted to
the Council of the Arbitration Board within
thirty days of notification of the arbiters
decision.
7.8. Said claim does not suspend the
deadline for the execution of the other
points of the decision.
7.9. The Board makes an irrevocable
decision regarding the claim against the
payment of the arbiters fees.
7.10. The arbiter sends an original copy of
the decision to each of the parties by

236

registered mail, and files another original


copy with the Arbitration Board.
7.11. In the case of legal arbitration, the arbiter
must also observe the formalities established
by the code of civil law.

process of reconciliation and contract


appraisal, to the extent that they are
relevant.

Art. 8 - Execution
Statements of reconciliation or decisions
must be implemented by the parties within
thirty days of their notification, unless
another deadline is indicated in the
decision.

Any question regarding the assessment of the


rights, the determination of damage and its
quantification that cannot be amicably resolved
between the parties, will be referred to the
outside arbitration of a single arbiter to be
appointed according to the Rules of Procedure
of the Arbitration Board instituted within the
Centro Ceramico Bologna, which the parties
declare they know and accept unconditionally.

Art. 9 - Applicability of procedures


The preceding procedures also apply to the

Compromise clause

Sources:
All pictures in this guide have been provided by Assopiastrelle, Edi.Cer. and Centro Ceramico
Bologna.
The following pictures are included in the book Cer-Architect (Edi.Cer. 1999). They display
projects, in Italy and other countries, made with Italian ceramic tile.
P. 19
P. 22
P. 50
P. 53
P. 60
P. 74
P. 103
P. 112
P. 123
P. 123
P. 124
P. 127
P. 130
P. 135
P. 135
P. 143
P. 143
P. 145
P. 146
P. 148
P. 148
P. 154
P. 156
P. 158
P. 164
P. 175
P. 179
P. 180
P. 181
P. 186
P. 197

Museo Leonardesco, Vinci (Firenze) - Italy.


St. Lawrence Square Shopping Centre, Toronto - Canada.
Lyce du Granier, La Pavoire - Francia.
S. Rocco Clinic, Brescia - Italy.
Oasi Congress Center, Acireale (Catania - Sicily) - Italy.
Metro Bisolidos Centre, Water Treatment Department, San Diego - USA
Palazzo Ducale, Salone dOnore, Sassuolo (Modena) - Italy.
Banca Popolare di Lodi - Italy.
left: outdoor portico, private residence (Italy)
right: National Insurance Institute, Budapest - Ungheria
Piazzale della Chiesa di Santa Chiara, Assisi - Italy.
Flooring, cheese production plant, Modena - Italy.
left: antique Italian pharmacy
top left: bedroom, private residence
bottom left: Hotel Fortino Napoleonico, Ancona - Italy.
top: Fashion Cafe, London - U.K.
bottom - Montreal Station (Quebec) - Canada
Heart Hospital, Rancho Mirage, California - USA
Indian Mound - USA
top: Water Treatment Department, San Diego - USA
bottom: Le Torri Company, Modena - Italy.
left and top right: Piazzale della Chiesa di Santa Chiara, Assisi - Italy.
left: Shopping Town Hotel, Melbourne - Australia
flooring, private residence
Golda Meir Center, Tel Aviv
flooring, antique Italian palace
Heart Hospital, Rancho Mirage, California - USA
industrial plant, Dongen - Netherland
Australian Institute of Science and Technology, Canberra - Australia
flooring, private library
Raffles Hotel, Singapore

P. 204

a square in S. Gimignano (Siena) - Italy.

237