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IOSR Journal of Mathematics(IOSR-JM) is a double blind peer reviewed International Journal that provides rapid publication (within a month) of articles in all areas of mathemetics and its applications. The journal welcomes publications of high quality papers on theoretical developments and practical applications in mathematics. Original research papers, state-of-the-art reviews, and high quality technical notes are invited for publications.

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e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 6 Ver. IV (Nov. - Dec. 2015), PP 12-18

www.iosrjournals.org

S. Buvaneswari1, Dr. P.Alphonse Rajendran2

1,2

Abstract: In category theory the notion of a Pullback like that of an Equalizer is one that comes up very often

in Mathematics and Logic. It is a generalization of both intersection and inverse image. The dual notion of

Pullback is that of a pushout of two homomorphisms with a common domain. In this paper we prove that the

Category G of Graphs has both Pullbacks and Pushouts by actually constructing them.

Keywords: homomorphism, pullbacks, pushouts, projection, surjective.

I.

Introduction

A graph G consists of a pair G = (V(G) , E(G)) ( also written as G = (V , E) whenever the context is

clear) where V(G) is a finite set whose elements are called vertices and E(G) is a set of unordered pairs of

distinct elements in V(G) whose members are called edges. The graphs as we have defined above are called

simple graphs. Throughout our discussions all graphs are considered to be simple graphs [1, 2].

Let G and G1 be graphs.

f *: V(G) V(G1) and f : E(G) E(G1) are functions such that f ((u, v)) = (

~

( u , v ) E (G) . For convenience if (u,v) E (G) then f ((u, v)) is simply denoted as f (u, v) [3].

Then we have the category of graphs say G, where objects are graphs and morphisms are as defined

above, where equality, compositions and the identity morphisms are defined in the natural way. It is also proved

1.6 in [3]).

II.

Pullbacks

diagram is called a pullback for f and g, if for every pair of morphisms 1 :Q X and 2 :Q Y

such that f

1 1 and

Figure 1

Proof: Consider any diagram where f and g are homomorphism of graphs [see figure 2, 3].

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11641218

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Figure 3

Figure 2

Also (x1 , y1) ~ (x2 , y2) in P if and only if x1 ~ x2 in X and y1 ~y2 in Y.

Consider the projection maps p1 : P X and p 2 : P Y as defined below: For (x, y) V(P),

p1 : V ( P ) V ( X )

and

p2 :

( x , y ) x and ( x , y ) y

Then p1 and

V ( P) V (Y )

p 2 are surjective maps. Moreover if (x1 , y1) ~ (x2 , y2) in P , then by definition

x1 ~ x2 and y1 ~ y2 . This shows that p1 (x1 , y1) ~ p1 (x2 , y2). Hence we have a well defined map

1 ()

((x1 , y1) , (x2 , y2))

( p1

homomorphism of graphs.

Moreover for all (x,y) V(P)

( f p1 ) ( x , y ) f p1 ( x , y ) f ( x )

g ( y ) ( by definition of P )

g p2 ( x , y )

( g p 2 ) ( x , y )

and hence f p1 = g p 2 ( by Lemma 1.6 in [3])

Suppose there exists homomorphism of graphs

Figure 4

Then

( 1 (u ) , 2 (u )V ( P ) .

So define

(u ) ( 1 (u ) , 2 (u ) ) .

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Then p1

(u ) p1 ( 1 (u ) , 2 (u ))

=

1 (u )

p2 2 .

Suppose there exists :Q P such that p1 1 and p2 2 .

so that p1 1 (by Lemma 1.6 in [3]). Similarly

For uV (Q) let

Then

(u ) ( x1 , y1 ) P

p1 (u ) x1

1 (u )

and

p2 (u ) y1

2 (u )

Therefore (u ) ( 1 (u ) , 2 (u ) )

= ( x1 , y1 )

=

(u )

Thus P is a pull back for f and g [4].

Example 2.3: Let denote the full subcategory of complete graphs. Then has pull backs.

Proof: Since any two pull backs are isomorphic we follow the construction as in the Proposition 2.2. Consider

the diagram [see figure 5] where X , Y, Z are complete graphs.

Figure 5

Figure 6

Let P be the graph with the obvious adjacency relation, where V(P) = { ( x, y ) V(X) V(Y) / f*(x) = g*(y)}.

Consider the diagram [see figure 6] where p1 and p2 are the restrictions of the canonical projections from the

product.

Claim: P is a complete graph. Let ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) be any two distinct vertices in v(P). Then either

x1 x2 or y1 y2 or both. Suppose x1 = x 2. Then y1 y2 and so f ( x1) = g ( y1) and f (x1) = f (x2 ) = g ( y2).

Therefore g (y1) = g (y2). However y1 y2 and Y is a complete graph implies that y1 ~ y2 and hence

g (y1) ~ g (y2) which is a contradiction. Hence x1 x2. Similarly y1 y2 . Thus ( x1 , y1 ) ( x2 , y2 ) in V(P)

implies that x1 x 2 and y1 y2 which in turn implies that x1 ~ x 2 and y1 ~ y2 .Thus ( x1 , y1 ) ~ ( x2 , y2 ).

Therefore any two distinct vertices in P are adjacent and so P is a complete graph. Therefore P i.e. has

pullbacks.

Example 2.4: The full subcategory C of connected graphs does not have pullbacks.

Proof: Let X , Y and Z be connected graphs defined by the following diagrams [ see figure 7].

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11641218

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Figure 7

[X and Y are the same (isomorphic). However to avoid some confusions in constructing the pullbacks as in

Proposition 2.2, we give different names to the vertices].

Figure 8

Consider the homomorphism of graphs f : X Z and g : Y Z defined as follows [see figure 8].

f (x1) = Z1

g( y1) = Z 2

f (x2) = Z 3

f (x3) = Z 4

f (x4) = Z 6

g( y2) = Z 3

g( y3) = Z 5

g( y4) = Z 6

V(P) = { ( x, y ) V(X) V(Y) / f(x) = g(y)}

Figure 9

p2

P1

[see figure 9] .

In this example V(P) = { ( x2, y2 ) , ( x4, y4 ) }. Since x2 x4 ( or y2 y4 ), (x2 , y2) (x4 , y4).

Hence p is the empty graph on two vertices which is totally disconnected and so p C .

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Therefore C does not have pullbacks.

III.

Pushouts

Definition 3.1: Given a diagram [figure 10] in the category of graphs, a commutative diagram [figure 11]

Figure 10

Figure 11

2 : Q A

such that 1 f = 2 g , there exists a unique morphism : P Q such that 1 1 and 2 2

[see figure 12].

Figure 12

Proof: Consider any diagram in G as given below [see figure 13].

Figure 13

V (T ) (V (Y ) { 0}) (V (Z ) {1})

= ( y , 0 ) / y V (Y ) {( Z, 1)/ Z Z }.

The edges in T are defined as follows.

( y1 , 0 ) , ( y2 , 0 ) E (T ) if and only if ( y1 , y2 ) E (Y ) , and

i)

ii)

x X such that y = f (x) and Z = g (x) (1)

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Let ~ be the smallest equivalence relation in T generated by R. Let A = T / ~ denote the quotient set.

i.e. A = set of all equivalence classes of ~. Let any such equivalence class be denoted as [a] for a T.

Then A = T / ~ = { [(y , 0)] , [(Z, 1)] / y V(Y) , Z V(Z) } where

[(y , 0)] = [(Z, 1)] if and only if there exists x X such that y = f(x) and Z = g(x).

In particular [(f *(x), 0)] = [ (g*(x) , 1)] by (1)..(2)

Step: 2 Let us consider the graph Q where V(Q) = A ; The edges in Q are defined by

i)

([(y1 , 0)] , [(y2 , 0)]) E(Q) if and only if (y1, y2) E(Y)

ii)

([(Z 1 , 1)] , [(Z 2 , 1)]) E(Q) if and only if (Z 1 , Z 2) E(Z) (3)

Define p1 : Y Q and p2 : Z Q as follows [see figure 14].

Figure 14

p1*:

V (Y) V(Q)

y [ ( y , 0)]

V (Z) V(Q)

Z [ ( z , 1)]

Clearly p1 and p2 are homomorphisms of graphs by (3).

and

p2* :

P1*f *(x)

= [ (f *(x) , 0)]

=

[(g*(x) , 1) ] by (2)

= p2* g*(x)

and so p1f = p2g by (Lemma 1.6 in [3]).

Step: 3 Suppose there exists a graph W with

1 : Y W and 2 : Z W

1 f 2 g .(4)

Define a homomorphism : Q W as follows.

( y , 0 ) 1 y and [( Z ,1)] = 2 ( Z) for y Y and Z Z .

and such that

[ ( y1 , 0 )] = [ ( y2 , 0)] implies y1 = y2

so that

( y1 , 0 ) 1 ( y )

2 ( y 2 ) [ ( y 2 , 0 )]

Similarly [ (Z 1 ,1)] = [ (Z 2 ,1)] implies that Z 1 = Z 2 and so

1 ( Z 1)= 2 ( Z 2)

Also [( y , 0)] = [(Z, 1)] implies there exists x X such that y = f(x) and Z = g(x) and

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11641218

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17 | Page

hence

Now for all y V(Y)

2 does so.

Finally to prove the uniqueness of ; Suppose there exists : Q W such that p1 1 .

p 2 2 . Then for all y V(Y) and Z V(Z).

[ (y , 0 )]

=

=

p1 ( y ) 1 ( y )

p1 ( y ) = [(y, 0)].

[ (Z , 1 )] = [ (Z , 1)].

= and so = proving

Similarly

Hence

the uniqueness of

IV.

Conclusion

The above discussions show that the representation of homomorphism between graphs as a pair of

Acknowledgements

The authors are pleased to thank the referees for their useful suggestions and recommendations.

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

C. Godsil and G.Royle, Algebraic Graph Theory, (Springer-Verlag, New York NY , 2001).

V. K. Balakrishnan, Schaum's Outline of Graph Theory: Including Hundreds of Solved Problems (Schaum's Outline Series, 1997)

S.Buvaneswari and P.Alphonse Rajendran , A study on Category of Graphs, IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM), 11(4),

2015, 38-46.

P. Vijayalakshmi and P. Alphonse Rajendran, Intersections and Pullbacks, IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM), 11(2), 2015,

61-69.

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11641218

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18 | Page

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