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Thai Society and Development Problematique by Prof. Saneh Chamarik

Publication of this book was made possible by support of the White Line publishing house.

Kobfai's Publishing work is funded by CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency), the Obor Foundation and the DOEN Foundation, The Netherlands.

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1f11'Nn1'~flWJJWt'IU'lw 'l~i'u~u9i1LiLu'41U~1n CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency), the Obor Foundation us: the DOEN Foundation, The Netherlands.

ISBN 974-89169-7-9

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tJEI\lm':iFlnblol-r~F1lal9l;~il1tJ (6l':i. fl~m; VlUl 13) ~\lnil,xu tiEl~ln6l tJEI\I~(]~m':i~FlnblolLEl\l ~\lL U6lnEl\l L "'L116l1'l1l~n\ltJl 1 uamUm':irir'Yllil 1tfln1':itiil

"'ltnFlnblol'Y11~lll, ~n~m':i~il:VJ;)3-1\JVlmP.J L ll, tJ':i::m':i LL ':int1:v::

VI • •

E16\Jlm'l(]~m':i~'Yll\lm':iL3lEl\ltJEI\I~lt bIoiJ 1l1fJ 191 ~aflNN~J7U fiLum::

L \/7::\/11 LL~:: m~/l;flmW-#WR'U 7.tR FiEl~t1'tilm':iFlnblol:V::~E1il1l\ltJElU~lfJ

~

m':i1LI'l':il::Vl1"'<B'J;)L:Vll,LL~::1'l1UI'l~i1LLtJ':i (Variables) IPil\l11~ LL~::

L '\-l, tJ':i::m':it1ooil~E1m':it1~::l'll(;]Fl::L ll,rn~q~m':i~mil~lt bIoiJi1~L U'\-l,EIfll\l h

mtJ !;flmwfldlJ 'J ~\llfll,El1~mh11rml'ltn-rjF1lal9l{~lll, ~q~':i':i~9iElilm':i

VlUl 38-39 i1LElll,LUll,t6lfJ~L~~ll,)

"v~..J'.!I 'I'" "'11:"1' a ~ 1:"1

tJEJlinn(;]L TIll, 11'\-l,~~:: b VlFl1l~L TIl b~L u'\-l, 11 ~ql9lm':i~l'lnblolL ull,

L 'YlFlil,F1V1~E115m':iFlnblol~\l~E1fl1 ll, flflTJ::FIIJfi LL~:: I"IJ'UFIN 7.tR tJ':i::Vliiilm':i

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flilLnl9l'l1(;laElULL~::'Yl(;]~E1'Yllil1'YlmF1lfl61':iB':i':i~tf1l9l 1:J\l61':i\lll,Fllm~'Yl~m Vlll,

nu 161Elfl1Alarcya1Un~(;]~'\-l,mt1ll, ri tl11Jl~lt bIoiJL~::tJ':iln!lnl':irir tJElil«\lFI~ ~lt bIoiJL ull, (j"i"iNtf7~ t1L tJ~fJll,LL tJ~\l13-lVl~(;];i\l F111~~mm~ L(;] 1 t1:v::

, ,

nlVlll,(;]tiEla~~~jl'\-l, 1 "'L~m::L~l::~iln~ VliElti~::filVlU6lA1l11::riU\lrlU

22

Fll'\JFl3-l1~n~ tiL ~t1l1>5._,~t1El~h'_'~'_'·hil::L r111l'\JL ijll>m'l'llll>5ml::~L ijll>~~'_'

, '"

(0 b jecti vi ty) tJEl'_'n1(;]3-l~ ~~LU.~::~'_'Fl3-lL ijll>eJmj'lI> 'YlElll>~~'lh::~~¢1tJEl~m')

f.in~1Frll>Fll1 L ~mL51n~Fl113-l~(;]13-l5ml::1«t1 -nFlll>::L tlll> ':hii~1~tlQL5B ~~Fi1tJEl'_'V'ltl~m'l3-lAn~1~~:: "El5'\J1t1m~::Fl1~Fl::L lI>" 'I'I~m~Fl113-l~1~ClJ tJEl'_'V'ltl~m,)3-lf.imY1 t lI>#lI>~~::5~1~LL'\J'\JElc11~'Yltl~~'I'I~Eln!J~11tl L tllI>wkh Fl113-lV'lmm3-lL~t1l1>LL '\J'\JElcJ1~tJEl~1'YlmFl151"'~B'l'l3-lt11~ lh mfl1J1(;] Fl113-l 'l::arln'l::1~~1il(;] t l1El~"lll>tJEl'\Jthtl~LThrrutl'l::L~lI>L ~El~'l11tJEl~n1~\!I'I3-l3-l~ ~~ ~'_'L tllI>~'_'~nl(;]L~mLlh eJ~~~::Yi~3H1jil1~~1nV'ltl~m'l3-lf.in~1;;~::V'l~1(;] L th'l'l3-l1t11 tlElc11\!tllt1 ~1~3 t lI>mrut~n@113-l t lI>Fl113-l~'_'Lnl'ltJEliltiL ~t1l1>

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V'ln~m'l3-lf.in~lu~~,ruii1~yj3-lL 'YlFl113-l53-l t~ t U~lUtJElil mJL U§ElULL UfllJ

'1 "

3-l1n~il "] tU@113-l~1~'\J "15m'lLL'\J'\Jl'YlmFl15l'l{" (Scientific method)

f'lEltl "] a:1n1'lm'\J t m(;]'I'Ic1uLThll'\J5.rm::~L tlu~~~ ~m::~l~(;]1t1~l 15n1'l

,

LL '\J'\J1'YlmFl15l'l1L U~lLEl\l ~ttl~\ltl~LL ilan '1'11n t(;]tILL Yi~~\ln~'\J~::b tlULFl~El\l ~\lLm3-l t l1n1'lAn~1'Y11rjFl15l'l{Lb~::~\!Fl3-lFl15(;]{~1 "]1tl L tlU'l::L UtI'\Jbb'\J'\J LLeJu~n!Jbn~1i 5~1El\l~1'I113-l~L tllI>'I'I~nj1uai'ul'I\ltu LLL9lrhfi(;]ai'u~Elai'u LEllLbL9l "15n1'l" L tlu t 'l'lrut~t1tJ1(;]'I'I~El t~t1 ~Fh\~\lti\l U'l::L~ULLfI::uruYn ~

~ ~

L '1'1 3-l1:: 53-l V'ltl~m'l3-lf.in~ln~::n~ltIL tlULFl~El\l "~lnlntJEl'\JL tJ(;]LL~::

LfbElmtJEl\lrjFl15l'l{" ~\l1tlElc11~ 1Pl'l. 53-lilll ~\ltim41ttlH ('I'IU1 15) UClJmu 1~::Lbn1tJ(;]n~\!IlU 1~a.lmnun lh'l'l1ntllt1IlU3-lEl\l t l1~11El:: 1 'lFll'l

I Q..I' JI dI Cod

a·nnElU3-l1'1'1~\I L UEl'l'llmEl1Bn1'l

L~ElV'l(;]3-l1ti\l(;]'l\!dLL~l c1El3-l~::L -tiu "Ui'11tl'l::L~UL ~El\l "tiEl~llllntJEl\l

"

15m')An~lLL'I.J'l.JV'ltl~m'l3-l" (1Pl'l. ~~l'l 'I'IU1 38-43) ~\!~L~\lLtlUL~El\l

tJEl\ItiEl~11l~~1U 15mJ YI~::L~t1l1>LL'\J'\J3-l1~1n1'Y1mFl15l'l{i5'l'l3-ltl1~ wm tlPltl51'l::L tlUL ~El\ltJEl\!tiEl~llllPl t u~n~~:: EiJJmi1~ tJEl\IV'lq~m,)3-lAn~ 1LEl\l t U5Cl1Un1'lrU'Yl1\!1t11n1'ltJEl\ll'l::1U(;]n tlPltILQV'll:: t U5'1'1rjm3-l~m tlrtlqj1 n1'H~El\!~~::L tlU~l~\I~l~(;]El'\J t~m'ltJmtl~ltJEl\!V'ltl~m'l3-lf.in~l t U'l::t1:: 'YlFl1'l'l~ I'I.Fl. 1950 L~::~U'YlFll'l'l~ 1'1. Fl. 1960 tl'l::L~UrJm~CJ\lFl~ lUL 1t1utJ~"l U UClJm'l::'1'111Fi1ii.t13-lIl'\Jtim filiJliJ~\!~\I~'\J'YlFl113-lTiJ\I ~'l. 53-l1ll LL~::tJEl\! (;J'l. ~~(;] LL51Pl\! t l1b -tiu bLL9lliJ1n'Y1Fl1'l'l~ 1'1. Fl. 1960 3-l1 V'ltl~m'l3-l

23

Fln'l!f1Lt1"iJ"~th'Lc.JnC!!rltJ1nr]{;I1 'VI'li'VILl'J"~L 1fJn '] rl'l-t ~1 "nl"n..J~-m'VI~"~Fl Ylr]~m'j3-JFln'l!f1"(Post -behaviourel revolution) L U'I-t~Flm"m'j~eJ~'I-t tJ-rtfC!!11'YlmF11~{;I1"Lm 'J Relativism LLLl:: Historicism~'l-t3-J1{;1eJtJ t~ tJ-rtft1n1'YlmF11~{;IiLL 'I-t ') Positivism eJ'l-tL U'I-t ~'I-t~1W~JeJ"'VI~nFl,)13-JFl(;]LbLl::

~ ..

Fl,)13-JL ~eJ 1 'l-tYlr]~m'j3-JFln'l!f14

a; t" d ~ ~ !;!! J' ~

tJ'j::b(;]'I-t {;Ib(1fJ" "'VILl"~FlYlr]{;Im'j3-Jl'ln'l!f1" 'l-tn'l-tFl'J13-J'VI3-J1mbLl::

Fl'J13-Jih~C!!~nLl" 1tJ~\I,rC!!'I'I1tJeJ\I'VI~n15m'jLLiil::~'I-t:p'l-ttJeJ"Fl,)13-J~ (Epistemology) i1b~m use 1 'I-t 'I1F1'1-t::tJeJ\leJb~fJ'l-tL th 1~1b u'l-tm'jfh'J'VIu 1eJeJn 1 tJ

OJ

~nU'l-t 'VI it" 1 'l-tm'jL~1::LL~'J\lFl'J1~~tJeJ"3-J'I-t 'l!f~L 'j1 tJ-rtft"U11'Ylmf011~{;IiLL 'I-t 'J

OJ' ~

Positivism 1 U~1U::L UUF11~{;IitJeJ\lm'j'Yl(;]~eJtJLLLld~~U (Empirical

.. OJ

sciences) WJnb 'VIUeJ 1 tJ1nYlmm3-JbbfJntlm fi~\leJeJn1ni'hM3-J «(;]'j.~:;]{;1

,

'VIU1 27) b~'J lutJ'j::m'j~1~C!!iJ"*Ylmm3-JFfuF1(;]LbLl::bb~(;]\I}-1W7mnfJrtf 1 U ~tJtJeJ"n!JbbLl::ml'l!f~1f117TJ!' ~"m1n!lm'jcl,j\lbil(;]~u 'VI~nm'j~')1 tl b 'V\~l'd~m uU'j1nJ1utJeJ"m'lE1.5tJ7C1LL~!'wmmnl n!J'Yl1"1'YlmF11~{;IiL UU~" ~'Yl(;]~eJtJrlU Ul~'JfJ'VI~nJ1Utlm fi~\I1ntf1!'fitJmmr (Experiences) use "luJ1u::~mnm'j1'YlmF11~J?li3h1nJ1u{;I13-J~.rm::1irfJ (Objective) 1n tJ'j:~tJmJclLL v\leJ1fJl1lU!' (Sensory experience) 'VI~nm'jLtlu ~1fb ~m.j L UU~·J 1~t(;]fJ~~'j::~1'V11n1nn1Ll b 'YlF1:: LbLl::~m'Jn1'j cl bbi.i~1 m::~eJ"~WJ~rltJm'jbbn1tJ L tJ~fJUbb tJLl\l{;l13-JtJ'j::~tJm'jclmfJ'V\~"eJ~W~eJ

OJ OJ

Flru~3-JtJ1ibbL1::Fl'J13-Jir3.J~UBt * ~eJ"m::~tJnTIclrltJFl,)13.JL uU~\leJm"

~3.J\l'jclfbm\l~b UU~(;] t3.J~1ntJ-rtfC!!11'YlmF11~{;Iibb U ') Historicism 'V\~eJ

Relativism ~hm 'VI11lJ:JLl~11tJ'j::m'jbb 'jntlm fi~\I~\I'VImfJ ~hl~\I~L ~13.J1

,

~Fl'J13.J~~huntJeJ\lFlUb 'j1 t(;]fJ{;I'j\l tJ'j'j(;]1tleJ3.JiiltJeJ\ltJ'j::~tJm'jru1~(1nLL tJ'j'jtJ

qJ <u cu ClJ qJ

3-J1rieJULL~,) ! UFlJ73-J'unRfiI'll€)IJFlUL 17 uaernsu tJ'j'jtJt\mtleJ3.JLltJeJ\ltJ'j::~tJ

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m'jcl L UU 1 tJ1 Ub ~eJiltJeJ"FlULbLl::irilFl3.J 1~3.J1n~iln~11 Ub ~eJiltJeJil tLl n 1111 (1

tJ'j::m'j~~eJill Ubb~tJeJ"tJ'j::-mF11~l1li tLln'l1F1U n~1')FieJ Fl'J13.JFl(;]EhuLMm

rltJ~lm:: tLlniJ Ula:leJ~L uu5u 'VIitileJuL~mrlU 'I'I1nma:1LL{;Int?111'1rlUEleJn 1 tJUl

OJ

Fl'J13.J~~iltJ'Jilb iJu 1 tJ{;I13.Jm'jF1u::~~~1"~'j'jJil~UtJeJilirilFl3.J bbLl::tJFlFlLl ~1 tl

OJ ,

24

Lnlntll.1iJ1nnld~ll. ~tJflfll1::~LL YiliJ~\lm\l5~~~tl1~ LLG1::'l.h::nld~fl1~ 1aJem ~l'ld1~1iJ~\lLL tJtJfl~mcU (Final truth) 'Ynnl'ld1~1iJ~\lL Ull.L ~f.J\I~ir~~ll.5rltJ

'IJ

UliJlijmL dln~f.J~ (Relativity) 1iJ1nm~LLflln\lf.Jf.JmLG1::fl~l\lfl~~l'ltJf.JWI~ 1Y~

1n1~ T~m1Alt?Jf.J\I~I'lYl~f.J-r1nlll.5~~~~\lI'lll.L Ull.~dll.'YIli\l6

eJll.~liJ~\I L~~\ITliJ~~tl-rtlqJ1LLll.d Positivism Lll.d\lm~1'YlmA1flI'l1

5~'j~tl1~fiUffiJ~ln£ltmL~d 1ll.?J[\l::~d\lm~-rjA1flI'l1~1-rtJLmLLtJtJeJfl1\l?Jf.J\I Positivism L th~lL Ull.'YI~n~In~ll.'Yll\l~(]~m'j~~n1Y17 'YI~m 'YIl'ltJ~LL uu

Relativism ?JEl\ltl-rtlqJ1LLll.d Historicism ~\lmi1d 1tl1n~~\Iill.~T~LL~

11I'ld1~~~LLYiLL~::fl~mcU'Yll\ll'YlmA1flI'l1 L Ull.~\lL ull.1tl13.J1~h·.y\lLll.'Yll\l

'IJ 'IJ

'YI~nm~LL~::'Yll\ltllltJ118 tl~::L~ll.I'l'j\lrhmliJliJ::~\l1aJ~~1'l'J1~~1~qJ~n Lll. ~rh

L~::m~~~~m'j~~n1Y1~f.J\lL ull.m'jt.llJ~ "m~ml1" 1'YlUlAlflI'l1m'j~tl1~ nmliJ 13.JldL Ull.?Jf.J\I~InLL tl~nf.J:: h LL~tif.J~U11iJ::L Ull.tJ'YlL~~ll.1iJ1nm~L d~l~ ~1ll.~1 n~f.J11«\lI'l~ A1fl1'l1~lL Ull.~f.J\ltl~I'lLLElnl'lll.LflI1f.Jf.Jn1iJ1nm~ L~ ~ll.LL uu 1'YlmAlflI'l15'j'j~tll~~\llll.L ~'YI1LL~::15m'j L 'V'l~l::tJ~~~InLLi###BOT_TEXT###quot;mq~m'j~tJElI1 3m 1Y~LLl'ln(;hI11iJ1m ~f.J\ltl'j1n nm~cU'Yll\l-rI'l(l 15m'j~n1Y1flf.J~~1~ElI1LLl'ln

• '!.J.

~l\lElEln 1tl1iJ1n~tllltJl1rlll.Lll.l'YlmA1flI'l15'j'j~tl1~ tl~::L~ll.ElW1liJ::~Ell1fl~ll1

m1~Lth Llil Lll.flflld::L Ull.liJ~I1?Jf.J\lir\ll'l~ 1iJ1nm1~'YI~1~?Jf.J11 "m~m::'Y11" ?Jf.J\I :J..Ill.1Y~~\II?h U ll. ~1I'lLL~::mA~tl'j::fltJn1'jcl~d:J..Irlll.Elfllll.mEltJ?JEl\l-r1nlll.5'j'j:J..I

• 'IJ

LL~:: Lll. tl'j::m'j~1~ru-rInlll.5'j'j:J..I 'YI~El ~n~ll'l "L U~\I~L tl~~ll.LLtl~\l1aJf.Jfll'l\l~

~ 'IJ

~\In'YI~1~l'ldl:J..111 (T~n~ll'l) ~~n1Y[\l::L Ull.tl~d~A1flI'l1 (Historical)

TlneJ~~-r1nlll.5'j'j:J..I~l\l '] rlll. Lll. tl'j::~A1flI'l1 ~l1flf.J~~T~n~lI'lLLtJtJ~l '] rlll. 1tl" 9 Lll.LL~1kfllii:f.J~~flln 'YI~n~1n Lll.LL ll.1t1f.J Relativism LL51n\lL YlL ~ll.

11 arme, Ull.liJ~\I?JEl\lir\lI'l:J..I ~Elm'jn'j::fill.lf.JI1:J..1",* 1Y~L Ull. tl'j1n£lm'jcU eJll. tl'j::nEltJ~b~~ ~fl~tJ13'tJ~f.Jll. LQ~1::Elfl1\l~I'I~~~hll. tl~:: ~A1fl1'l1 LL~:: -r1nlll.5'j~~~ ] ung m11dti\lU 11iJ::L Ull. tif.J«\ld~clf.Jflll1~LLrid\lm'j~(]~m~:J..I ~n1Y1 L mooL .y;~tJm~lijlntl'j::;Lfl'Yl m~fl~l'jtlLLtJtJ (Models) LL~::; Lll.~flln

'IJ •

m'j~InFlll. 'Yl(]1Y~'YI~f.Jn{]~d 1 tl

Lll.m&Llnnl'll:J..I lJL~~ll.~\lI'l\IL ti1L1iJ11'YI~n Positivism ~1'l[\l1"l1~f.J

'IJ •

m'j~n1Y1-r~A1flI'l1LL~::;L ~'j1::;Q::;~ll.~\l1aJiiliJ::;I'li

f.J~l'll:J..Itif.J1UliJ,r~tJD\I Miller

M 'IJ

25

~il " ... LL;r'V'l(]~m'ia.lA15(;1{flIlFlIIL t1ULL U ,)Fll'i~n~l~LL 'V'l~VI~lfJfl~t U,)IIFll'i 'lA15(;1{ma.l,nu LLj;]'ilnllWY11I1V1~nFl,)la.1~ (Epistemological) !Jflll 'V'ln~m'ia.lA1fl(;1{rru;t1n~t~a.I ... flfllI1V1i'mnmJ'i'i(;11maJL ~U~bfJnUVI~mL U ')

VI ~ ~ ~

Positivism ~II bJL tJu ~LL ll. UflU ilV1~mLU ') Positivism ... ~::flIlFllltilu ')fJ

VI~m.t 1 t ~LLr1Fll'i~m~nFiIn~WY11I1'jA15(;1{fl~j;]fllUin UiVlifl bJ ... " 10 L'V'l'il:: tU~~InLLft') Miller LflIlFltila.l'U11V1~mLu,) Relativism Vlifl Historicism nbJm~ 'I. ~ril(;1flu~ll.l'V'lfl t~ l~L ~ilflunu 'I. U 'Yl'i'iAU::tlflllijL ~fJU ~lngh~cy L tJUL ~flll!JflIlFl,)la.1'i::ll1'iflUFlflU!Jflll,)IIFll'i'jA15(;1{'!, UFll'iLL5,)1I LL~:: Ul ~ru'lh:: LfJTf'lZ~lnFl,)la.1~!Jfl1l1'YlmA15(;1{ 5mUrn'iru1"~LLfi"'YllruCYCYlFl,)1a.1 FiIn!Jfllltl'TfCYl1'YlmA15(;1{~lfJ Positivism LL~:: Historicism ~II~ Miller 'V'l'i'iruUl 'I. ~L ~~IIll.l~::L tJutl'i:: LfJtI'lZthm tJULFl~flllin.J~II#1I t~ 'I. U

d d _ a " c.~ J'

L saerrrs L~fJULL UU'l'YlmA151J1'iG'i'ia.lTfllJ1fJlltlU

jlU::Fll'iru1 U u~~UU ~ll.15U 'l~ rha.l~lI1UCYVl1'i,)UL 'i bJLL ll. UflU 'I. U tl,Tf nn Fl,)la.1ieYUL tJUeJ~!JflIlFll'i Th'LLfJlI'i::Vlilll Positivism LL~:: His-

~ 'll

toricism nFiflFll'i~fl~UFl,)la.15U 'l~ 'I. ULLU ,)Fll'i~n~lLL uu "~lilJlil.fJa.I"

!Jfllltl'tlrulFll'iLilfllleYU~Ii1Ina.lIlVla.llm ~Fl,)la.1iCiIl "G'i'ia.ltll~!Jfl\I~IIFll'iLilflll

.., iii q 'U

LL~::'i::L iifJ'lJ'Yl1"rn'iLiltJII~~n~6i" (1n'i.5a.1U9i VI~ 1 5) '1 U rlAU::tltJII

Miller FlruFll!JtJIIU'TfrulFll'iLi1tJlI "m~~::iHitJ!Jl(;1lJ1n'lJn'V'l~flll flfll11 lin

. ~

IJIla.1LL U ')rn'i~n~lLL UULm 'I. utl-rtlCYlm'iLiltJlI LQWl::tJflll1~IILLU ,)Fll'i~n~l

LL UU r trruu VlitJFl~15~Fl 1Ilfthm:jIlL~a.lFll'iFln~1~ ~t1mLlJlnj;]l11 (Discriminating) LMmn'lJFlUL~::rn'iLilflll 'lUtlru::L~mnU~gmU'n~lFl,)la.1i~

'll

L tJu VI~m tJUjlU U la.1~~IIL tJu ltll~ ~1I,fU Fll'iFln~ltl'tlCYlrn'iLilflll '1 U

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'll 'll ~

~II~:: 'I. ~Fl,)la.1L tJUG'i'ia.lLLr1Fl,)la.1atuVla.llfJ~t1n~tJIIL Vla.ll::5a.1!JtJIIVI~mL U')

'll

Positivism LL~:: Historicism '1U!Jru::L6imnu~L~fJ\IVI~a.I'V'l'ilI1LQ'V'll::!Jfl\l

VI~mL U '),rllf!flII" 11

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26

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