Anexo

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Synchronizing with Grid The synchronizing breaker in Figures 13-1 and 13-5 has internal voltage and phase angle sensors to monitor the site and grid voltages and signal the correct instant for closing the breaker. As a part of the automatic protection circuit, any attempt to close the breaker at an incorrect instant is rejected by the breaker. Four conditions which must be satisfied before the synchronizing switch will permit the closure are as follows: • the frequency must be as close as possible with the grid frequency, preferably about one-third of a hertz higher. • the terminal voltage magnitude must match with that of the grid, preferably a few percent higher. • the phase sequence of the two three-phase voltages must be the same. • the phase angle between the two voltages must be within 5 degrees. Taking the wind power system as an example, the synchronizing process specifically runs as follows: With the synchronizing breaker open, the wind power generator is brought up to speed using the machine in the motoring mode. Change the machine into the generating mode, and adjust the controls such that the site and grid voltages match to meet the above requirements as close as possible. The match is monitored by the synchroscope or three synchronizing lamps, one in each phase (Figure 13-6). The voltage across the Synchronizing circuit using three synchronizing lamps or the synchroscope. lamp in each phase is the difference between the renewable site voltage and the grid voltage at any instant. When the site and the grid voltages are exactly equal in all three phases, all three lamps will be dark. However, it is not enough for the lamps to be dark at any one instant. They must remain dark for a long time. This condition which will be met only if the generator and the grid voltages have nearly the same frequency. If not, one set of the two three-phase voltages will rotate faster relative to the other, and the phase difference between the two voltages will light the lamps. 4. The synchronizing breaker is closed if the lamps remain dark for to second. Following the closure, any small mismatch

between the site voltage and the grid voltage will circulate the inrush current between the two such that the two systems will come to perfect synchronous operation.

Fig 7.1

Fig 7.2

El crow-bar activo es un dispositivo que se coloca en paralelo con el CS (ver esquema de conexión) lo que posibilita la instalación sobre la maquina existente (retrofit).

FUNCIONAMIENTO El CA está compuesto de un rectificador que alimenta a un dispositivo de electrónica de potencia de resistencia variable. La activación del crowbar activo se realiza en caso sobrecorrientes en el estator originadas por la existencia de huecos de tensión en la red.

La consigna para la activación del CA es la intensidad del estator. Tras la conexión del crowbar, el rotor queda cortocircuitado a través de una resistencia controlada que permite limitar el valor de las corrientes en el rotor. En esta situación, el generador doblemente alimentado se convierte parcialmente en un generador con resistencias rotóricas hasta que la intensidad del rotor y la tensión del bus de continua se reducen a

valores aceptables. En ese momento el crowbar activo se desconecta y el control de potencia queda de nuevo a cargo del convertidor del rotor.