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Flowvision CFD

Flowvision CFD

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You are on page 1of 404

Flow V ision

Version 3.09.05

FlowVision Help 1

Contents

1 Introduction 10

2 Notation 11

3 Detailed description of a simpliest

model 13

3.1 Laminar flow in a tube

.......................................................................................................... 14

3.1.1 Computational

...................................................................................................................

domain 14

3.1.2 Creating a project

................................................................................................................... 15

3.1.3 Defining a physical

...................................................................................................................

model 19

3.1.3.1 Substance

.................................................................................................................................................. 20

3.1.3.2 Phase

.................................................................................................................................................. 21

3.1.3.3 Model

.................................................................................................................................................. 23

3.1.4 Defining boundary

...................................................................................................................

conditions 23

3.1.5 Defining initial

...................................................................................................................

conditions 26

3.1.6 Generation of...................................................................................................................

initial computational grid 27

3.1.7 Adaptation of...................................................................................................................

computational grid 29

3.1.8 Defining control

...................................................................................................................

parameters of computation 30

3.1.9 Stopping conditions

................................................................................................................... 31

3.1.10 Starting the...................................................................................................................

computation 34

3.1.11 Visualization

................................................................................................................... 36

3.1.11.1 Charachteristics (pressure variation)

.................................................................................................................................................. 37

3.1.11.2 Plot along line (pressure distribution)

.................................................................................................................................................. 40

3.1.11.3 Vectors (velocity distribution)

.................................................................................................................................................. 43

3.1.11.4 Color contours (distribution of velocity's modulus)

.................................................................................................................................................. 45

4 Physical processes 47

4.1 Motion of fluid

.......................................................................................................... 48

4.1.1 Laminar flow...................................................................................................................

around circular cylimder 48

4.1.1.1 Computational domain

.................................................................................................................................................. 50

4.1.1.2 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 51

4.1.1.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 52

4.1.1.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 54

4.1.1.5 Adaptation of calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 59

4.1.1.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 62

4.1.1.7 Stopping conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 62

4.1.1.8 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 62

4.1.1.8.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Force variation 63

4.1.1.8.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 63

4.1.1.8.3

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 64

4.1.2 Time-varying

...................................................................................................................

flow in a tube 65

4.1.2.1 Computational domain

.................................................................................................................................................. 66

4.1.2.2 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 66

FlowVision Help 2

4.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 67

4.1.2.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 75

4.1.2.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 75

4.1.2.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 76

4.1.2.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 76

4.1.3 Flow in clearance

...................................................................................................................

- use of the Gap model 77

4.1.3.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 77

4.1.3.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 78

4.1.3.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 79

4.1.3.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 80

4.1.3.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 80

4.1.3.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Distribution of gap cells 81

4.1.3.5.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 81

4.1.4 Flow of crude

...................................................................................................................

oil in a petroleum reservoir 82

4.1.4.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 83

4.1.4.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 85

4.1.4.3 Modifiers

.................................................................................................................................................. 86

4.1.4.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 90

4.1.4.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 90

4.1.4.6 Stopping conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 91

4.1.4.7 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 91

4.1.4.7.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 91

4.1.4.7.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into account 93

4.1.5 Trans-sonic...................................................................................................................

flow in Laval nozzle 93

4.1.5.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 94

4.1.5.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 95

4.1.5.3 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 96

4.1.5.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 97

4.1.5.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 97

4.1.5.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 98

4.1.5.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Mach Number distribution 98

4.1.5.6.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 99

4.1.6 Supersonic...................................................................................................................

flow past wedge 100

4.1.6.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 101

4.1.6.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 101

4.1.6.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 103

4.1.6.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 103

4.1.6.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 105

4.1.6.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 105

4.1.6.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 106

4.1.7 Hypersonic...................................................................................................................

flow around sphere 107

4.1.7.1 Computational domain

.................................................................................................................................................. 107

4.1.7.2 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 108

4.1.7.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 109

4.1.7.4 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 110

4.1.7.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 113

4.1.7.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 114

4.1.7.7 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 115

4.1.7.7.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Mach Number distribution 115

4.1.7.7.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 116

FlowVision Help 3

4.2 Heat thansfer

.......................................................................................................... 117

4.2.1 Heat thanser

...................................................................................................................

in a solid body 117

4.2.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 117

4.2.1.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 118

4.2.1.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 119

4.2.1.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 119

4.2.1.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 119

4.2.1.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 120

4.2.2 Forced convection

................................................................................................................... 121

4.2.2.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 121

4.2.2.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 122

4.2.2.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 124

4.2.2.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 124

4.2.2.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 124

4.2.2.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 125

4.2.3 Natural convection

................................................................................................................... 125

4.2.3.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 127

4.2.3.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 128

4.2.3.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 130

4.2.3.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 131

4.2.3.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 131

4.2.3.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 132

4.2.3.5.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 134

4.3 Turbulence

.......................................................................................................... 136

4.3.1 Turbulent flow

...................................................................................................................

in a pipe 136

4.3.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 137

4.3.1.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 138

4.3.1.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 139

4.3.1.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 140

4.3.1.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 140

4.3.1.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure variation on inlet 140

4.3.1.5.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Turbulent viscosity distribution 141

4.3.1.5.3

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 142

4.3.1.5.4

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 143

4.3.2 Turbulent flow

...................................................................................................................

over plate 144

4.3.2.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 145

4.3.2.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 147

4.3.2.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 149

4.3.2.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 150

4.3.2.5 Preliminary computation

.................................................................................................................................................. 151

4.3.2.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 151

4.3.2.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Y+ distribution 152

4.3.2.6.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Viscous friction distribution 153

4.3.3 Turbulent flow

...................................................................................................................

around a backward facing step 154

4.3.3.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 155

4.3.3.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 155

4.3.3.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 157

4.3.3.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 157

4.3.3.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 157

4.3.3.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 158

© CAPVIDIA, 1999-2015 Leuven, Belgium. All rights reserved.

FlowVision Help 4

4.3.4 Turbulent flow

...................................................................................................................

around a box 158

4.3.4.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 159

4.3.4.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 160

4.3.4.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 162

4.3.4.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 164

4.3.4.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 166

4.3.4.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 166

4.3.4.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Y+ distribution 166

4.3.4.6.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 167

4.3.5 Subsonic flow

...................................................................................................................

around an airfoil 168

4.3.5.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 170

4.3.5.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 170

4.3.5.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 172

4.3.5.4 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 173

4.3.5.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 174

4.3.5.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 174

4.3.5.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Mach Number distribution 174

4.3.5.6.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 175

4.4 Mass transfer

.......................................................................................................... 177

4.4.1 Mixing of non-reacting

...................................................................................................................

substances 178

4.4.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 178

4.4.1.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 180

4.4.1.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 182

4.4.1.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 182

4.4.1.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 183

4.4.1.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Concentration distribution 183

4.4.2 Radioactive

...................................................................................................................

decay 184

4.4.2.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 184

4.4.2.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 186

4.4.2.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 187

4.4.2.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 187

4.4.2.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 187

4.4.2.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Isotope concentration distribution 187

4.4.2.5.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 188

4.4.3 Combustion

................................................................................................................... 189

4.4.3.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 190

4.4.3.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 192

4.4.3.3 Ignition

.................................................................................................................................................. 194

4.4.3.4 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 195

4.4.3.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 196

4.4.3.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 197

4.4.3.7 Preliminary calculations

.................................................................................................................................................. 197

4.4.3.8 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 198

4.4.3.8.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Oxidant excess factor's distribution 199

4.4.3.8.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 200

4.5 Free surface

.......................................................................................................... 201

4.5.1 Broken dam

................................................................................................................... 201

4.5.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 202

4.5.1.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 203

4.5.1.3 Specifying water column

.................................................................................................................................................. 205

© CAPVIDIA, 1999-2015 Leuven, Belgium. All rights reserved.

FlowVision Help 5

4.5.1.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 207

4.5.1.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 208

4.5.1.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 208

4.5.1.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Water distribution 209

4.5.2 Free jet ................................................................................................................... 209

4.5.2.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 210

4.5.2.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 211

4.5.2.3 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 212

4.5.2.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 213

4.5.2.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 213

4.5.2.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 213

4.5.2.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Water distribution 214

4.5.3 Sweepout of

...................................................................................................................

oil with water 214

4.5.3.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 215

4.5.3.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 217

4.5.3.3 Initial conditions defining volumes of liquids

.................................................................................................................................................. 219

4.5.3.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 220

4.5.3.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 220

4.5.3.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 221

4.5.3.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Water distribution 221

4.6 Dispersed media

.......................................................................................................... 222

4.6.1 Droplet evaporation

...................................................................................................................

in air 222

4.6.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 222

4.6.1.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 227

4.6.1.3 Modifiers

.................................................................................................................................................. 228

4.6.1.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 229

4.6.1.5 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 229

4.6.1.6 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 229

4.6.1.6.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Moisture vapor distribution 230

4.6.1.6.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 231

4.7 Radiation

.......................................................................................................... 232

4.7.1 Radiative transfer

...................................................................................................................

in turbid medium 232

4.7.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 232

4.7.1.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 233

4.7.1.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 234

4.7.1.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 234

4.7.1.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 235

4.7.1.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 235

4.8 Electrodynamics

.......................................................................................................... 236

4.8.1 Mutual interaction

...................................................................................................................

of two isolators 236

4.8.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 237

4.8.1.2 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 238

4.8.1.3 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 240

4.8.1.4 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 240

4.8.1.5 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 241

4.8.1.5.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Electrical intensity's distribution in a plane 241

4.8.1.5.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Electrical intensity's distribution along a line 242

FlowVision Help 6

5.1 Conjugate problems

.......................................................................................................... 245

5.1.1 Conjugate ...................................................................................................................

heat exchange 245

5.1.1.1 A project based on a single detail

.................................................................................................................................................. 246

5.1.1.1.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Computational domain 246

5.1.1.1.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Physical model 246

5.1.1.1.3

...........................................................................................................................................

Boundary conditions 248

5.1.1.1.4

...........................................................................................................................................

Binding subregions 251

5.1.1.1.5

...........................................................................................................................................

Initial grid 254

5.1.1.1.6

...........................................................................................................................................

Adaptation of the calculation grid 254

5.1.1.1.7

...........................................................................................................................................

Parameters of calculation 255

5.1.1.1.8

...........................................................................................................................................

Visualization 255

5.1.1.1.8.1

......................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 255

5.1.1.2 A project based on a several details

.................................................................................................................................................. 256

5.1.1.2.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Computational domain 256

5.1.1.2.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Physical model 258

5.1.1.2.3

...........................................................................................................................................

Boundary conditions 260

5.1.1.2.4

...........................................................................................................................................

Binding subregions 262

5.1.1.2.5

...........................................................................................................................................

Initial grid 265

5.1.1.2.6

...........................................................................................................................................

Adaptation of the calculation grid 265

5.1.1.2.7

...........................................................................................................................................

Parameters of calculation 266

5.1.1.2.8

...........................................................................................................................................

Visualization 266

5.1.1.2.8.1

......................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 266

5.1.2 Conjugate ...................................................................................................................

radiation heat transfer 267

5.1.2.1 Computational domain

.................................................................................................................................................. 268

5.1.2.2 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 268

5.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 271

5.1.2.4 Binding subregions

.................................................................................................................................................. 273

5.1.2.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 274

5.1.2.6 Adaptation

.................................................................................................................................................. 274

5.1.2.7 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 275

5.1.2.8 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 275

5.1.2.8.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 276

5.1.2.8.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Temperature distribution 277

5.2 Rotation

.......................................................................................................... 279

5.2.1 Rotor ................................................................................................................... 279

5.2.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 280

5.2.1.2 Rotation

.................................................................................................................................................. 281

5.2.1.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 283

5.2.1.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 285

5.2.1.5 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 286

5.2.1.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 286

5.2.1.7 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 286

5.2.1.7.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure variation 286

5.2.1.7.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 287

5.2.2 Sector of a...................................................................................................................

rotor 289

5.2.2.1 Making geometry of computational domain

.................................................................................................................................................. 290

5.2.2.2 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 290

5.2.2.3 Rotation

.................................................................................................................................................. 291

5.2.2.4 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 292

5.2.2.5 Binding subregions

.................................................................................................................................................. 294

© CAPVIDIA, 1999-2015 Leuven, Belgium. All rights reserved.

FlowVision Help 7

5.2.2.6 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 296

5.2.2.7 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 297

5.2.2.8 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 297

5.2.2.9 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 297

5.2.2.9.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure variation 298

5.2.2.9.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 298

5.2.3 Rotor+Stator

................................................................................................................... 300

5.2.3.1 Making geometry of computational domain

.................................................................................................................................................. 300

5.2.3.2 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 305

5.2.3.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 306

5.2.3.4 Binding subregions

.................................................................................................................................................. 309

5.2.3.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 309

5.2.3.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 310

5.2.3.7 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 311

5.2.3.8 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 311

5.2.3.8.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure variation 311

5.2.3.8.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 312

5.2.4 Rotating tank

................................................................................................................... 314

5.2.4.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 315

5.2.4.2 Rotation

.................................................................................................................................................. 316

5.2.4.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 317

5.2.4.4 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 318

5.2.4.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 319

5.2.4.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 319

5.2.4.7 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 320

5.2.4.8 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 320

5.2.4.8.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Surface of the liquid 321

5.3 Moving bodies

.......................................................................................................... 322

5.3.1 Transonic flow

...................................................................................................................

around an airfoil 322

5.3.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 323

5.3.1.2 Moving body

.................................................................................................................................................. 324

5.3.1.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 327

5.3.1.4 Making a two-dimensional grid based on an adapted

calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 328

5.3.1.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 329

5.3.1.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 330

5.3.1.7 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 331

5.3.1.8 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 332

5.3.1.8.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Mach number distribution 332

5.3.1.8.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Cp distribution 333

5.3.1.8.2.1

......................................................................................................................................

Create Cp 333

5.3.1.8.2.2

......................................................................................................................................

Create Plot along curve 335

5.3.2 Ball falling ...................................................................................................................

in viscous fluid 337

5.3.2.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 338

5.3.2.2 Moving body

.................................................................................................................................................. 339

5.3.2.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 340

5.3.2.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 341

5.3.2.5 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 341

5.3.2.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 342

5.3.2.7 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 342

FlowVision Help 8

5.3.2.7.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Ball velocity in time 342

5.3.3 Floating box

................................................................................................................... 343

5.3.3.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 344

5.3.3.2 Moving body

.................................................................................................................................................. 345

5.3.3.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 347

5.3.3.4 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 348

5.3.3.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 348

5.3.3.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 350

5.3.3.7 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 350

5.3.3.7.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Water surface 350

5.3.4 Floating boat

................................................................................................................... 351

5.3.4.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 351

5.3.4.2 Moving body

.................................................................................................................................................. 352

5.3.4.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 355

5.3.4.4 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 357

5.3.4.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 358

5.3.4.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 359

5.3.4.7 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 360

5.3.4.8 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 360

5.3.4.8.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Water surface 361

5.3.4.8.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Pressure distribution 362

5.3.5 Rotary compressor

................................................................................................................... 363

5.3.5.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 364

5.3.5.2 Moving bodies

.................................................................................................................................................. 364

5.3.5.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 366

5.3.5.4 Initial conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 367

5.3.5.5 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 368

5.3.5.6 Adaptation of the calculation grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 369

5.3.5.7 History

.................................................................................................................................................. 369

5.3.5.8 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 369

5.3.5.9 Visualization

.................................................................................................................................................. 370

5.3.5.9.1

...........................................................................................................................................

Distribution of gap cells 371

5.3.5.9.2

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity distribution 372

5.3.5.9.3

...........................................................................................................................................

Velocity variation 373

6.1 Deformable valve in channel

.......................................................................................................... 375

6.1.1 Preparing the

...................................................................................................................

project in Abaqus 375

6.1.1.1 Model

.................................................................................................................................................. 376

6.1.1.2 Direct coupling surface

.................................................................................................................................................. 377

6.1.1.3 INP file modification

.................................................................................................................................................. 377

6.1.1.4 Create a geometry for FlowVision

.................................................................................................................................................. 378

6.1.2 Preparing the

...................................................................................................................

project in FlowVision 378

6.1.2.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 378

6.1.2.2 Moving body

.................................................................................................................................................. 379

6.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 380

6.1.2.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 381

6.1.2.5 Adaptation

.................................................................................................................................................. 382

6.1.2.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 382

6.1.2.7 Modification of the project (FVPROJ) file

.................................................................................................................................................. 382

FlowVision Help 9

6.1.3 Preparing the

...................................................................................................................

project in MPManager 382

6.1.3.1 Connection with Solver-Agent

.................................................................................................................................................. 383

6.1.3.2 Select FlowVision project

.................................................................................................................................................. 383

6.1.3.3 General parameters

.................................................................................................................................................. 383

6.1.3.4 Select Abaqus project

.................................................................................................................................................. 384

6.1.3.5 Launch simulation

.................................................................................................................................................. 384

6.1.4 Visualization

................................................................................................................... 384

6.1.4.1 Velocity distribution

.................................................................................................................................................. 385

6.1.4.2 Pressure distribution

.................................................................................................................................................. 386

6.2 Optimization of orientation of an airfoil

.......................................................................................................... 388

6.2.1 Preparing project

...................................................................................................................

in FlowVision 388

6.2.1.1 Physical model

.................................................................................................................................................. 389

6.2.1.2 Moving bodies

.................................................................................................................................................. 389

6.2.1.3 Boundary conditions

.................................................................................................................................................. 390

6.2.1.4 Initial grid

.................................................................................................................................................. 392

6.2.1.5 Adaptation

.................................................................................................................................................. 393

6.2.1.6 Parameters of calculation

.................................................................................................................................................. 393

6.2.1.7 Optimization parameters

.................................................................................................................................................. 393

6.2.1.8 Optimization criteria

.................................................................................................................................................. 394

6.2.2 Setting up ...................................................................................................................

connection to IOSO 395

6.2.3 Preparing the

...................................................................................................................

project in IOSO 396

6.2.3.1 Optimization parameters

.................................................................................................................................................. 396

6.2.3.2 Optimization criteria

.................................................................................................................................................. 397

6.2.3.3 Setting up parallel computations

.................................................................................................................................................. 398

6.2.3.4 Running the optimization

.................................................................................................................................................. 400

6.2.3.5 Viewung results

.................................................................................................................................................. 401

FlowVision Help 10

1 Introduction

This manual describes how to solve typical flow problems with software FlowVision.

1. The first chapter describes in detail the main steps in creating and specifying a FlowVision project,

performing calculations, and analyzing results. Laminar flow in a tube is selected as an example.

2. The second chapter demonstrates how to work with the basic physical processes.

3. The third chapter demonstrates how to work with the additional modules and tools.

It is recommended to start with reading the first chapter and the corresponding sections of the User's Guide.

FlowVision Help 11

2 Notation

Notation Quantity Name in FlowVision Dimension

Sonic speed m s-1

a

Initial or entrance flow turbulization Pulsation

b

CFL Courant number CFL

Cp Specific heat capacity m2 s-2 K-1

Diameter of a tube m

D

A scalar variable

f

k Turbulent energy TurbEnergy m2 s-2

Length of a tube m

L

Initial or entrance turbulence length scale Turbulent length scale, m

l m

The Mach number MachNumber

M U/a

Mass of a body kg

m

Relative static pressure Pressure N m-2

p

Molecular Prandtl number

Pr

Turbulent Prandtl number Prandtl

Prt

Reynolds number

UD

Re

Sct

Temperature Temperature K

T

Characteristic velocity m s-1

U

Friction velocity m s-1

u

Entrance flow velocity m s-1

Vinl

Initial flow velocity m s-1

Vini

y Distance to the nearest wall DistanceToWall m

y

Dissipation rate of turbulent energy TurbDissipation m2 s-3

Molecular heat conductivity kg m s-3 K-1

t

Molecular kinematic viscosity m2 s-1

/

FlowVision Help 12

Turbulent kinematic viscosity m2 s-1

t t /

Density Density kg m-3

2

u

Time step s

ε

ω *

βk

FlowVision Help 13

This chapter describes in detail all the steps in specifying a FlowVision project, performing calculations, and

analyzing results. The control settings are defined in Preprocessor, the analysis tools are presented in

Postprocessor.

It is recommended to work with this example at first.

FlowVision Help 14

This exercise teaches you how to create a project, start computations, and analyze results.

Laminar flow is characterized by the Reynolds number Re, when it is lower then 103.

Dimensions:

Length of the tube L =2 [m]

Diameter of the tube D = 0.1 [m]

Inflow parameters

Velocity on the inlet: Vinl = 0.001 [ms-1]

Substance properties:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]

Re 10 2

μ 0.001

Geometry: Tube.wrl

Project: Lam_tube

The geometrical model of the computational domain is created in one of CAD systems and imported into

FlowVision.

The geometric model of the computational domain must satisfy the following requirements:

1. volumes that form the geometric model must be closed

2. volumes are nested in one another and do not intersect

The geometric model is transferred to FlowVision using one by one of the following standard formats:

FlowVision Help 15

1. surface mesh: VRML, STL, MESH (internal format)

2. volume mesh, based on which in FlowVision a corresponding surface mesh is built: ANSYS, NASTRAN,

ABAQUS

Fully prepared and painted the geometry of the computational domain is stored in the file Tube.wrl.

Loading geometrical model in FlowVision is performed from menu command File > Create, which opens a

dialog where you select the appropriate file. In this exercise select the file Tube.wrl.

After the geometry is loaded, enter the project name and the project location in the corresponding fields of the

Saving the project window and click OK.

After that the corresponding file folder of the project will be created and in the View window of Pre-

Postprocessor a geometric model will appear, and in the Project window appropriate Subregions will appear.

FlowVision Help 16

The program loads the geometry of the surface as a set of triangles. After loading the geometry, the triangles

are automatically merged into geometric group.

In order to show Groups in the project tree, specify using the menu command File > Preferences:

Display

Show all groups = Yes

FlowVision Help 17

List of Group is displayed in a tree in the Preprocessor in folder Region > Subregions > Subregion#0 >

Geometry > Region - Surface #0.

FlowVision Help 18

The number and boundaries of the groups depend on the geometry format and settings of Pre-Postprocessor.

If geometry format supports color information (eg WRL), then the triangles of the same color will be merged into

a single group. If the format does not support color information (eg, STL), then the triangles are arranged in

groups according to the magnitude of the Grouping angle. If the angle between the triangles is less than the

Grouping angle, they are combined into one group. This angle is specified by the parameter File >

Preferences > Geometry import > Grouping angle.

FlowVision Help 19

Substance

Phase

Model

FlowVision Help 20

3.1.3.1 Substance

In this example, a water flow is simulated, so we have to define one substance - water.

In order to specify a new substance, perform the following steps:

In the Preprocessor tab in the context menu of the Substances folder, select Create.

In the Properties window of Substance #0 in the Aggregative state field select Liquid

In the folder Substance #0 in the list of the physical properties of the substance you have to specify:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]

Specific heat

FlowVision Help 21

We do not need the remaining parameters, so you can leave them with the default value 0.

Note:

The aggregative state determines the list of physical properties, sound speed formula and equation of state.

3.1.3.2 Phase

To define the Phase, do the following:

In the context menu of a folder Phases select Create continuous.

o In the context menu of the Substances folder select Add/Remove

o Select Substance #0 from the list and add it to the phase:

FlowVision Help 22

In the folder Physical processes in the Properties window select the simulated processes. In this task the

following physical processes are required:

Motion Newtonian fluid

FlowVision Help 23

3.1.3.3 Model

In order to specify the Model select Create in the context menu of the Models folder.

This will create the Model #0 folder and its subfolders Phases and Phase interaction. In this exercise we

need only one phase. In order to add it to the Model you need in the context menu select Add/Remove and

select Phase #0 from the list.

Before setting the boundary conditions, it is necessary to specify the model for computational subdomain.

Specify in the properties window of Subregion #0 the following parameters:

Model = Model #0

FlowVision Help 24

In general, the procedure for setting the boundary conditions includes the following steps:

1. Creation boundary conditions

2. Assigning the boundary conditions

3. Setting parameters of the boundary conditions

The initial geometry for this problem was painted during its creation and stored in the WRL format, which

supports color information. Therefore, when loading the geometry, the program automatically created and

specify the boundary conditions on the surfaces of different colors. By default, all the boundary conditions are

of type Wall.

Changing the properties of boundary conditions is done in the Properties windows of elements of the folder

Boundary conditions in the Preprocessor tab of the project tree: Subregions > SubRegion #N > Boundary

conditions > B. Cond. #N.

FlowVision Help 25

Specify the following parameters in the Properties windows of the boundary conditions:

Boundary 1

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2

Name = Outlet

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0

Boundary 3

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

FlowVision Help 26

Mass velocity =1 [kg m-2 s-1]

Initial conditions are intended to define the values of the variables (Init. data) at the initial time in a certain part

of the computational domain (in/on some Object). Specifying Initial conditions in most cases does not affect

the final result of the calculations, but allows faster convergence of the solution and prevents some

disturbances occurring in the process of computation.

specifying Initial data

specifying an Object in/on which the Initial data would be applied

assigning a correspondence between the Object and the Initial data

Initial condition #0 are always presented in the computational domain, they are the default correspondence

between Initial data #0 and Computational space. Values of all variables in the Initial data #0 are equal to

0. Therefore, in order to specify the initial conditions corresponding to the undisturbed flow in the whole space,

it is enough to specify Init. data #0 (in the Model #0) with some velocity along the Z axis.

In the folder Models > Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0 in the element Velocity(Phase #0) define the

initial velocity along the axis Z:

Value

Z 0.001

.

FlowVision Help 27

1. rectangular

2. adaptive local refined 1)

2)

3. with a subgrid resolution of the geometry

Specifying the computational grid in FlowVision is divided into specifying of the Initial grid (the entry level

grid) and the grid adaptation (on a surface and/or in a volume).

In this example, we need to specify a uniform computational grid 20x20x50. To do this, in the project tree in

the Preprocessor tab specify the properties of the Initial grid:

nX = 20

nY = 20

nZ = 50

FlowVision Help 28

After you have specified the initial grid, it is displayed in the View window:

Notes:

1)

The adaptation enables resolution of small geometry details of the computational domain and high gradients

of the computed values.

2)

geometry resolution allows approximation of curvilinear boundaries on a rectangular grid.

FlowVision Help 29

3.1.7 Adaptation of computational grid

Adaptation is splitting or merging of cells of the computational grid up to the specified level in a volume or on a

surface. Splitting up n-th level includes halving the initial grid cells in each direction n times. Merging to the n-th

level involves merging the cells previously split to a level m (where m>n), to the level n.

Adaptation can be specified on the surface of some Boundary condition,as well as on a surface or in a

volume of some Object.

In this exercise, you must specify an adaptation on the boundary condition Wall. To do this, specify properties

of the boundary condition Wall:

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =2

FlowVision Help 30

Note:

In order to see the computational grid with adaptation, create a layer Computational grid on the

Computational space. The layer will be displayed after the calculation is done.

The final step in the preparation of the project is definition of Simulation controls (parameters that control the

computation).

These settings include: time step, the selection of the scheme for approximation of the equations in space and

in time, the frequency of autosave, etc.

These parameters are specified in the Solver tab of the project tree.

It is assumed that for most problems (except of specially specified) the user does not need to change the

standard Advanced settings. The only thing that you need to specify is the Time step. In FlowVision There

are two ways of specifying the time step: In seconds and Via CFL number (CFL number is the Courant-

Friedrichs-Levy number). In our exercise you can specify the time step in seconds as the constant time step

chosen by the user. In this exercise the characteristic dimension is length of the tube L. The transit time is the

time required for a hypothetical particle moving with the mean flow velocity V, to pass the characteristic

dimension :

L 2

τ own 0.1* 0.1* 200c

V 0.001

FlowVision Help 31

2. Specifying some Stopping conditions

Stopping conditions are specified prior to the computation in the Solver tab. You can define stop by:

1. At a certain moment of time.

2. After a certain number of iterations.

4. By values of residuals of user variables.

Residual values characterize the rate of change of the appropriate variables over time. The smaller are the

residuals, the less is the change of the target variables.

User values are integral user-defined variables and variables that are calculated on Characteristics, created in

Preprocessor.

In order to create a Stopping condition on a User value, you have to:

Create Global user variable or Characteristics

Create a Stop criterion on the created User value

Element Characteristics provides access to information about integral values of variables in the volume or on

the surface of an Object. Let's use the element Characteristics in order to view the evolution of average

pressure on inlet and automatically stop the computation when the average pressure value stops changing.

In order to specify the Characteristics, the first you need is to create an Object for visualization based on the

boundary condition Inlet. To do this, in the Preprocessor in the context menu of the boundary conditions Inlet

select the command Create supergroup > In Preprocessor.

FlowVision Help 32

Then in the folder Objects in the context menu of the Supergroup folder select the command Create

characteristics,and then, in the Create new characteristics block clickOK.

By default, on the Characteristics no variable is specified and Characteristics do not contain the main body of

data. In order to fill the Characteristics with information, specify the appropriate variable in the Properties

window of Characteristics #0:

FlowVision Help 33

Variable

Variable Pressure

in the Solver tab in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values,selectCreate.

in the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 specify:

Level = 0.00001

Object = Characteristics #0

Variable = <f surf.>

The value of <f surf.> is equal to the average value of the Variable selected in the Characteristics at the

surface or in the volume of the Object, on which the Characteristics was created. In this exercise <f surf.> is

the average pressure on the surface of the Supergroup, which was created in the boundary condition Inlet.

Level is the threshold value of the residual for the selected user value (<f surf.>). When the residual value for

the user is below the specified Level, then the computation stops.

FlowVision Help 34

Note:

In many other exercises in this guide stopping conditions are not specified. In these exercises stopping is done

at any time by decision of the user.

You can start the computation from Pre-Postprocessor or fromTerminal. In this exercise, start from Pre-

Postprocessor is described. Solver-Agent and license server must be running.

To start the computation, you have to authorize on Solver-Agent:

Enter your user name and password under which you are registered on the license server:

Click the button .

Click on Run new, select the new solver the list and click on Connect.

FlowVision Help 35

Project files will be located in two directories: Client and Server. The Client directory contains the client part

of the projects - the parts, which are opened in Pre-Postprocessor. The Server directory contains the server

part of the project - the parts, which are loaded on the solver. The client part of the project appears when you

create a project in Pre-Postprocessor. At the same time the client directory is determined. The server part of

the project appears in the Server directory after the first upload of the project to the solver. The server

directory is specified when a user is registered on Solver-Agent. If necessary, you can open the window with

the Solver-Agent's registration information, using the button (Edit solver agent user information) after

authorization on Solver-Agent. Client and Server directories can not be same, can not be nested within

each other, can not be the same as the installation directory or be nested in the the installation directory.

The computed results are stored in server part of the project. You can see the results of the computation in

Pre-Postprocessor only if the project is opened in Pre-Postprocessor, Pre-Postprocessor is connected to a

Solver synchronized with the Solver.

If necessary, the Server directory can be changed. However, you should remember that after that change all

the results of computations that were in the old Server directory will no longer be available after connection of

Pre-Postprocessor to Solver unless you have manually copied them to new directory.

After the project is uploaded to the solver, you can start the solver for computation. To start the solver for

computation, do the following steps:

Specify the starting parameters of the computation:

FlowVision Help 36

Before starting the computation we recommended that you specify Visualization to see the results of

computation in dynamics.

3.1.11 Visualization

Visualization of the computation results are only available if the proj ect is opened in Pre-Postprocessor and

loaded on a Solver.

Pre-Postprocessor and Solver must have connection between them.

Postprocessor provides the user with the following capabilities:

1. A set of standard methods of flow visualization in the View window

2. Interactive tuning of visualization parameters

3. Displaying integral values of variables in the View window

4. Indication of the visualization method in a separate Information window

To display the results of computation in Postprocessor you have to:

create and configure the corresponding object

create a layer or characteristics of required type on the object

select a variable and define the necessary settings of the layer or characteristics

Elements for visualization the results of the computation should be chosen depending on the type of data,

which are to be displayed:

Integral values:

Value of a variable on a surface and in a volume Characteristics

Local values:

Local values of a scalar variable along a line Plot along line

Plot along curve

Plot along ellipse

Local values of a scalar variable at a surface Color contours

Local values of a scalar variable in a volume Isosurface

Local values and directions of vector variable on a surface or in a Vectors

volume

Streamlines

FlowVision Help 37

For long-term computations we always recommend you to visualize data during the computation, as in this

case you can permanently control over the process of convergence of the solution and, if necessary, intervene

in the process of computation when the solution becomes numerically unstable.

To display information about the value of the pressure on inlet, you can use the element Characteristics,

created earlier to define a Stop criterion. Information from Characteristics is displayed in the Info window and

recorded into a text file. Recording the information into a text file allows you to monitor changing the variable

over time.

In order to record the contents of the Characteristics into the file, open the tab Postprocessor and specify in

the Properties window of Characteristics #0:

Save to file

Type = Automatic

To open the Info window, select theCharacteristics #0 in the project tree in Pre-Postprocessor and click on

*).

the toolbar button

FlowVision Help 38

All data is stored in a text GLO-file, which can be exported into Excel to plot the dynamics of values variation.

By default the GLO-file is saved into project directory in the server directory of the user. In order to download

the GLO-file from the server directory to to the client directory, do the following:

in the Project download window, which opens, select GLO files

FlowVision Help 39

To start Windows Explorer, which opens the client directory of the current project, use the menu command File

> Open Explorer.

In order to plot the variation of the pressure on inlet over time in any third-party graphics editor (Microsoft Excel,

Grapher, etc.), do the following steps:

FlowVision Help 40

Since a Stop criterion was created based on the <f surf.> *) variable, its variation can be displayed directly in

Plot tab of the Monitor window of Pre-Postprocessor.

Note:

*)

Variable <f surf.> in the Info window and in the Stop criterion and variable Avg in the GLO-file correspond

to the average value of Pressure on Inlet.

The layer Plot along line allows you to display the distribution of the scalar variable along the selected line as

a plot.

In this exercise, we will use the layer Plot along line on a Line object to visualize the distribution of

pressures along the tube axis.

Create in Postprocessor a Line object for visualization:

FlowVision Help 41

from the context menu of the folder Objects in Postprocessor select Create

the Create new object dialog box will open, select there Object type = Line

Object

Reference point

X 0

Y 0

Z 0.001

Direction

X 0

Y 0

Z 1

in the context menu of the Line #0 select Create layer

specify Layer type = Plot along line

FlowVision Help 42

Variable

Variable Pressure

In order to increase the number of points on which the plot is built, specify:

Number of points = 100

FlowVision Help 43

The layer Vectors visualize a vector field. The direction of the vector coincides with the direction of the vector

field at the starting point of the vector and the vector length is proportional to the modulus of the field at this

point.

In this exercise, we will use the layer Vectors on a Plane in order to visualize the vector field of velocity in the

plane of the flow.

In order to the layer do not obscure the geometry, specify:

in the Properties window of Plane #0 in the Postprocessor:

in the Properties window of the layer Solids

Clipped = Yes

in the context menu of the Plane #0 select Create layer

specify Layer type = Vectors

Variable > Variable = Velocity

In the View window a visualization of the velocity distribution in the plane of the flow will appear:

FlowVision Help 44

To increase the number of vectors in both directions, specify in the Properties window of the layer :

Grid

Size 1 = 10

Size 2 = 50

To paint the vectors with their absolute values, specify in the Properties window of the layer:

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Color = Black

FlowVision Help 45

The Color contours layer visualizes the distribution of a scalar variable using color transitions.

This example illustrates use of a layer Color contours for visualization of the value of velocity in the plane of

the circular cross section of the tube.

In Postprocessor create a Plane for visualization:

from the context menu of the folder Objects in Postprocessor select Create

in the Create new object dialog box select Type = Plane

In the Properties window of the new just created Plane #1, click on the button to direct the plane normal

along axis Z.

Create a layer Color contours on the Plane #1:

in the context menu of the Plane select Create layer

specify Layer type = Color contours

In the Properties window of the new layer Color contours specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

FlowVision Help 46

Color = Black

Note:

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus:

FlowVision Help 47

4 Physical processes

The examples of this chapter demonstrate how to model:

Motion of fluid

Heat thansfer

Turbulence

Mass transfer

Free surface

Radiation

Electrodynamics

FlowVision Help 48

In FlowVision implemented model of the flow of Newtonian fluid at any Mach numbers and two models of non-

Newtonian fluid flow at Mach numbers less than 0.3

In the properties of the Substance specify Aggregative state = Liquid.

In the properties of the Substance you have to specify values of the Molar mass, Density, Specific heat

capacity and, if necessary, the Viscosity.

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the velocity and pressure.

In order to simulate the laminar flow of gas at Mach number less than 0.3, it is necessary:

In the properties of the Substance specify Aggregative state = Gas.

In the properties of the Substance you have to specify values of the Molar mass, Density, Specific heat

capacity and, if necessary, the Viscosity.

Enable computations of equations of Motion.

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the velocity and pressure.

In order to simulate the laminar flow of gas at Mach number greater than 0.3, it is necessary:

In the properties of the Substance specify Aggregative state = Gas.

In the properties of the Substance you have to specify the computation of the Density by the ideal gas law,

the Molar mass and Specific heat capacity, and, if necessary, the values of Viscosity and Thermal

conductivity.

Enable calculation equations of Motion and Heat transfer.

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the velocity and pressure. In the simulation of flow

around bluff bodies it is desirable to specify some initial conditions around them corresponding to the

parameters of flow deceleration.

When simulating movement at Mach numbers greater than 1 it is recommended to specify constraints for the

computation.

A two-dimensional laminar external flow around a cylinder is considered in the example below.

FlowVision Help 49

Dimensions:

Cylinder diameter d = 0.02 [m]

Flow parameters:

Velocity V = 0.008 [ms-1]

Substance properties:

Density = 1.25 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 2 10-5 [kg m-1 s-1]

Reynolds number: Vdρ

Re 10

μ

Geometry: Cylinder_lam.WRL

Project: Cylinder_lam

FlowVision Help 50

4.1.1.1 Computational domain

For simulating the external flow it is necessary to create the geometry, which is a region of flow around a

streamlined body. Distance from the body to the outer limits of the area is recommended to place at least 10

times more then specific body size in order to boundary conditions defined on the given limits, does not disturb

the flow around the streamlined body.

FlowVision geometry can only be three-dimensional. Therefore, when simulating a two-dimensional flow in

plane XY when you prepare the geometry you have to: *)

1. create a two-dimensional sketch of the geometry of the computational domain in the plane XY

2. select a constant thickness of the geometry in the direction Z

FlowVision Help 51

Fully prepared and painted the geometry of the computational domain is in the file Cylinder_lam.WRL.

Notes:

*)

Further, when specifying a project, you must:

1. when you specify Boundary conditions on the surfaces of the planes of symmetry specify the boundary

conditions Symmetry

2. when you specify initial grid specify 1 cell in the direction along axis Z

In the folder Substances:

Create Substance #0

Specify the following properties of the Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density

FlowVision Help 52

Viscosity

Value = 2e-5 [kg m-1 s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the the folder Substances

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Create Model #0

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Specify in the folder Initial data #0:

X = 0.008 [m s-1]

Note:

*)

A gas moving with speed V < 0.17 M, behaves as an incompressible liquid, so the simulation of its motion

can be defined with either Aggregative state = Gas or Aggregative state = Liquid.

Model = Model #0

Specify the following boundary conditions:

FlowVision Help 53

Boundary 1

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2

Name = Symmetry

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 3

Name = Outlet

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 4

FlowVision Help 54

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 0.01 [kg m-2 s-1]

In this example, in order to better resolve the flow near the cylinder, it is necessary to specify a two-

dimensional non-uniform initial computational grid, condensed near the cylinder.

To specify a non-uniform computational grid, FlowVision provides the Initial grid editor. The Initial grid

editor is called by the button from the Properties window of the element Initial grid in the tree in the

Preprocessor tab in the project tree.

FlowVision Help 55

To specify in the Initial grid editor a non-uniform computational grid for OX, follow these steps:

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.05 [m]

h_max = 0.03 [m]

h_min = 0.001 [m]

o set Insert = -0.015

FlowVision Help 56

2)

Specify parameters of reference lines :

o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate x =-0.2 m (the leftmost line)

h = 0.03 [m]

o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate x =-0.015 m (the middle line)

h = 0.001 [m]

kh- =1

kh+ = 0.9

o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate x =0.4 m (the rightmost line)

h = 0.03 [m]

kh- = 0.5

FlowVision Help 57

To specify in the Initial grid editor a non-uniform computational grid for OY, follow these steps:

Click the Y button, to switch the editor to defining the grid across the Y axis

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.05 [m]

h_max = 0.03 [m]

h_min = 0.001 [m]

o set Insert = 0

2)

Specify parameters of reference lines :

o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate y =-0.2 m (the leftmost line)

h = 0.03 [m]

kh+ = 1.5

o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate y = 0 m (the middle line)

h = 0.001 [m]

kh- = 1.2

kh+ = 0.8

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o in the window of the Initial grid editor, select the line with coordinate y = 0.2 m (the rightmost line)

h = 0.03 [m]

kh- = 0.5

After entering all the parameters click on the OK button. This will open the Grid statistics window, which

displays the parameters of the created grid:

When starting the Initial grid editor specifies by default a uniform grid across OZ consisting of 12 lines. Since

in this exercise we solve a 2-dimensional problem, so after you exit the Initial grid editor you have to specify

in the properties of Initial grid:

nZ =1

After creation the Initial grid the program also creates in Postprocessor the Initial grid layer and displays its

image in the View window:

FlowVision Help 59

Notes:

1)

The values, which are specified in fields, are only applied after clicking on the Apply button.

2)

The values, which are specified in fields, are only applied after pressing on the Enter key the appropriate field

immediately after setting a value.

3)

In order to color the grid lines in black, specify Color=Black in the Properties window of the Initial grid

layer in Postprocessor.

In this example, you have to solve the boundary layer around the cylinder and a vortex shedding zone behind

the cylinder. For this it is necessary to make an adaptation of the grid in the volume of a box around the

cylinder.

Specifying grid adaptation in an object consists of two steps:

1. Specifying the object of adaptation

2. Specifying the adaptation criteria

In Preprocessor tab, in the context menu of the Objects folder, select Create

In the Create new object window select Object type = Box

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Location

Reference point

X = 0.01 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z = 0.005 [m]

Size

X = 0.05 [m]

Y = 0.04 [m]

Z = 0.01 [m]

In the context menu of the Adaptation folder, select Create.

In the Properties window of the new created element Adaptation #0 specify:

Activation = Yes

Object = Box #0

Max level =1

Split/Merge = Split

Zone = In volume

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Note:

In order to see the computational grid with adaptation, create a layer Computational grid on the

Computational space. The layer is displayed after its computation is done.

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4.1.1.6 Parameters of calculation

Specify the properties of the time step in the Solver tab of the Project window (Solver > Time step):

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.25 [s]

In this example we recommend that you specify stopping condition based on the X-component of the force

acting on the surface of the cylinder.

Create Characteristics:

In the Preprocessor tab, create a Supergroup on the surface of the boundary condition Wall using the

command Create supergroup > In Preprocessor from the context menu of the boundary condition's item

in the project tree.

Create Characteristics on the new just created Supergroup #0

In the Properties window of Characteristics #0 specify:

Characteristics

Variable

Variable = Pressure

in the Solver tab in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.

In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 specify:

Level = 1e-6

Object = Characteristics # 0 (Supergroup on "Wall")

Variable = F fluid

Component =X

4.1.1.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. The dynamics of the X-component of the force, which acts on the cylinder's surface.

2. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow.

3. Pressure distribution on the surface of the cylinder.

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4.1.1.8.1 Force variation

View the dynamics of X-component of the force acting on the cylinder, on the Plot tab in the Monitor window.

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

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Z =1

Create a new layer Vectors on Plane #0

In the Properties window of the new layer of Vectors, specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Grid

Size 1 = 100

Size 2 = 100

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.01

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Color = Black

In the Properties window of the new Color contours layer, specify:

Variable

FlowVision Help 65

Variable = Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 6.5e-5

Min = -4.5e-5

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Note:

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

Axi-symmetric laminar water flow with variable inlet velocity is considered in the given example.

Dimensions:

Length of the tube L = 0.5 [m]

Diameter of the tube D = 0.04 [m]

Inflow parameters:

Velocity on inlet: 2 t [m s-1]

Vinl 0.005 2 sin

1000

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]

Reynolds number: VinlDρ 0.01 0.04 1000

Re 400

μ 0.001

Geometry: Tube_VarMassFlow.STL

Project: Tube_VarMassFlow

FlowVision Help 66

4.1.2.1 Computational domain

In order to simulate the axisymmetric flow you should create a computational domain consisting of a sector

with a small opening degree (e.g., 1-2 degree)*).

Fully prepared geometry is located in the fileTube_VarMassFlow.STL.

Notes:

*)

Further, when specifying the project you have to:

1. When you specify Boundary conditions on the surfaces of the planes of symmetry, specify boundary

conditions Symmetry.

2. When you specify the Initial grid specify 1 cell in the direction of Z.

3. When you specify the Calculation parameters specify the Relative criterion for determining small cells.

In the folder Substances:

Create Substance #0

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

FlowVision Help 67

Add Substance #0 into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Create Model #0

Add Phase #0 into the folder Model #0 > Phases

Specify in the folder Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0:

X = 0.01 [m s-1]

Model = Model #0

When after your import of geometry the amount or arrangement of boundary conditions differ from those

desired, you should to specify the boundary conditions manually. Definition of boundary conditions consists of

3 steps:

1. Create boundary conditions

3. Specify parameters of the boundary conditions

To create a new boundary condition, select Create in the context menu of the Boundary conditions folder:

FlowVision Help 68

The Boundary conditions are placed on Groups. There are two ways of placing the Boundary conditions:

1. either in the View window

2. or in the Geometry folder

In order to place a Boundary condition on a Group in the View window do the following:

right-click to open the context menu

select a Boundary condition > B. Cond. #i

FlowVision Help 69

In order to place a Boundary condition on a Group in the Geometry folder do the following steps:

apply the menu command File > Preferences and specify:

Display

Show all groups = Yes

in the Properties of the respective Group in the folder Geometry > Region - Surface #0 specify:

Boundary condition =B. Cond. #i

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Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 3

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 4

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

In the Properties window of the boundary conditions for the velocity on Inlet change the type of entered

value from Constant to Formula:

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FlowVision Help 72

o In group of settings Variables & constants (on the tab All) expand item Integral > Integrated

Characteristics > Current time and double click on it.

o In the Variable identification window that appears, specify the name of the variable as "Time".

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o In group of settings Variables & constants (on the tab Constants) select Pi number and double

click on it.

o In the Constant identification window that appears, specify the name of the variable as "PI".

2 * PI *Time

5 * 2 sin

1000

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Click Accept

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4.1.2.4 Initial grid

nX = 100

nY = 20

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 10 [s]

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Small Cells

Criterion = Relative

Note:

By default, the Absolute criterion of the smallness of the cells is used. It defines that the cells, the final sizes

of which are less than a specified fraction of the original (non-truncated by the geometry), are merging together

with the neighboring cells. If we had used this criterion in this problem, then the cells located near the axis of

the tube would be merged with the neighboring cells, and the flow near the the axis would not be resolved by

this grid. In order to avoid this effect, the program provides the Relative criterion for small cells. Using this

criterion, a cell is merged with the neighboring cells when its size is smaller then the specified fraction of the

neighboring cell's size.

FlowVision Help 76

4.1.2.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0

In the Properties window of the Vectors specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Grid

Size 1 = 50

Size 2 = 11

Coloring

FlowVision Help 77

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Note:

The illustration shows the Velocity distribution at a certain moment of time. As the flow is non-stationary, so

the shown distribution does not correspond to the flow at other moments of time.

In this example we consider simulating of flow in a narrow two-dimensional channel using the Gap model.

The Gap model is used in conjunction with a given model of the flow and is designed for taking into account

the resistance created by a narrow channel. The Gap model avoids resolution of the narrow channel by the

grid. The Gap model is only applied in cells of the gap. The gap cells are cells, which locate between two

'gap-bounding' surfaces. Surfaces are 'gap-bounding' when the distance between them does not exceed the

specified maximal gap clearance. The gap cells are identified by FlowVision automatically.

Geometry Gap_Channel.WRL

Project Gap_Channel

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value = 0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

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Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Specify in the Properties window of Model #0:

Model = Model #0

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Boundaries 1 and 2

(You have to create two different boundary conditions, both of them has type "Wall")

Border 1 is the upper wall, and boundary 2 is the lower wall.

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 4 (input)

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 10 [kg m-2 s-1]

Boundary 5 (outlet)

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

In this example in order to better resolve the flow in the channel area, it is necessary to specify a two-

dimensional non-uniform computational grid, condensed near the channel.

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button to call the Initial grid editor.

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

fir axis OX

Grid parameters: 1)

FlowVision Help 80

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.1 [m]

h_max = 0.00025 [m]

h_min = 0.00005 [m]

Insert reference lines with coordinates:

x1 = 0.0035 [m]

x2 = 0.0045 [m]

Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0 2) [m]

h = 0.00025 [m]

Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0.0035 2) [m]

h = 0.00005 [m]

Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0.0045 2) [m]

h = 0.00005 [m]

Specify parameters of the reference line with coordinate = 0.008 2) [m]

h = 0.00025 [m]

nY =8

nZ =1

Notes:

1)

Values specified in these fields are only applied after clicking on the Apply button.

2)

Values specified in these fields are only applied after pressing on the Enter keyboard key.

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.001 [s]

4.1.3.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Distribution of gap cells

2. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow

FlowVision Help 81

4.1.3.5.1 Distribution of gap cells

In the Properties window of this layer Cell set specify:

Appearance

Mode = Lines

Object

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Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0

In theProperties window of the layer Vectors specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

On regular grid = No

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.2

Min =0

A model of the movement of oil in the reservoir with influence of gravity. From a wellbore with radius r oil is

pumped at a speed V. The upper layer with thickness h1 has larger resistance D1 and almost does not allow

the oil to go through. The lower layer has thickness h2 and lower resistance D2 and has a better capacity.

FlowVision Help 83

Dimensions:

Radius of the wellbore r =1 [m]

Thickness of the upper layer h1 =6 [m]

Thickness of the lower layer h2 =5 [m]

The flow rate in the wellbore:

Velocity: V = 0.1 [m s-1]

Parameters of the substance:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]

Geometry: Oil.STL

Project: Oil

In this problem, motion of the fluid in a gravitational field is simulated. Therefore, you have to specify the gravity

vector. Also, problems in which the motion of the fluid in a gravitational field is simulated, it is possible to count

the pressure in the computational domain not from the reference pressure, but from the equilibrium hydrostatic

pressure. This allows you to improve the accuracy of the computation and specify in the initial and boundary

conditions not the pressure with hydrostatic column, but the difference of pressure between the real and and

the equilibrium pressure. For this the hydrostatic parameters are to be specified.

Do the following steps in the project tree in the Preprocessor tab.

In the properties of the General settings specify:

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y = -9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

g-Point

X =0 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =0 [m]

g-Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

FlowVision Help 84

Create Substance #0

Specify the following properties of the Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Create Model #0

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

FlowVision Help 85

4.1.4.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Name = Symmetry

Type = Symmetry *)

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Total pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3

Name = Outlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

FlowVision Help 86

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = -100 [kg m-2 s-1]

Note:

*)

In order to set the boundary condition on the boundary corresponding to the slip without leakage, use the

Symmetry type of the border condition.

4.1.4.3 Modifiers

Modifiers are Subregion's elements that allow modifying the geometry and/or the solution in the area of their

application. In particular, you can use modifiers to specify a volume force, resistance, heat sources, etc.

specifying the area where the Modifier is applied

specifying the Modifier on/in this area

In this example, we need two resistances and, accordingly, we will specify two Modifiers.

In order to set the modifier, which corresponds to the main resistance of the wellbore do the following steps:

In Subregion #0 in the context menu of folder Modifiers, select Create.

In the Create new modifier window, which opens, select:

Objects = Computational space

FlowVision Help 87

Activation

Type = Permanent

Resistance coef. =5

In order to set the modifier, which corresponds to the resistance of the reservoir in the middle of the

computational domain, it is necessary to to create not only the modifier properties, but also an Object on

which the modifier will be applied.

In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.

In the Create new object window that appears, select Box.

In the Properties window of the Box #0 specify:

Location

Reference point

X = -5 [m]

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Y = -3 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Size

X = 10 [m]

Y =6 [m]

Z = 0.35 [m]

In Subregion #0 in the context menu of the folder Modifiers select Create.

Objects = Box #0

In the properties of the new modifier Resistance #1, which appears in the project tree, specify:

Activation

Type = Permanent

Resistance coef. = 500

To specify absence of the resistance in the borewell itself, create a modifier with zero resistance on an Object,

which corresponds to the borewell.

In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.

FlowVision Help 89

In the Properties window of Box #1 specify:

Location

Reference point

X = -0.5 [m]

Y = -6 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Size

X =1 [m]

Y = 10 [m]

Z = 0.35 [m]

In Subregion #0 in the context menu of the Modifiers folder, select Create.

In the Create new modifier window, which appears, specify:

Objects = Box #1

In the properties of the new modifier Resistance #2, which appears in the project tree, specify:

Activation

FlowVision Help 90

Type = Permanent

Resistance coef. =0

Modifiers of the same type are applied sequentially in order of their location in the folder Modifiers. Priority of

a Modifier is higher when it is located lower in the list. Thus, in the area, which is the set-theoretic intersection

of Box #0, Box #1, and Subregion #0, the Modifier is applied, which is specified in Box #1.

nX = 100

nY = 100

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 10 [s]

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Small Cells

Criterion = Relative

FlowVision Help 91

4.1.4.6 Stopping conditions

In this example problem, we recommend that you define the stopping condition by the static pressure at the

outlet.

Create Characteristics:

In the Preprocessor tab, create a supergroup on the surface of the boundary conditions Outlet using the

command of the context menu Create supergroup > In Preprocessor.

Create Characteristics for the just created Supergroup #0.

In the Properties window of Characteristics #0 specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

in the Solver tab in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.

In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 set:

Level = 1e-6

Object = Characteristics #0 (Supergroup on "Exit")

Variable = <f surf>

4.1.4.7 Visualization

Build:

1. Pressure distribution in the plane of the flow

2. Pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into account in the plane of the flow

FlowVision Help 92

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of Color contours #0 specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max =0

Min = -7

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

Note:

When a hydrostatic is given, the Pressure variable corresponds to the deviation from the equilibrium

hydrostatic pressure. To display pressure distribution relative to the reference pressure, without deduction of

the equilibrium hydrostatic pressure, you have to display pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into

account.

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4.1.4.7.2 Pressure distribution with hydrostatic taken into account

In the Properties window of Color contours #1 specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure (+ hydrostatic)

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 100000

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

An one-dimensional trans-sonic flow of inviscid zero-conductivity gas in the Laval nozzle is considered in the

given example.

FlowVision Help 94

Density: inl

= 1.29 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity =0 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat cp = 1009 [J (kg K)-1]

Inlet parameters:

Total pressure on the inlet P =6895 [Pa]

Total temperature on the inlet T =125 [K]

Outlet parameters

Pressure on the outlet Pst = 5171 [Pa]

Geometry: Nozzle.STL

Project: Nozzle

Specify the following parameters:

Reference values

Temperature = 125 [K]

Create Substance #0

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density = Ideal gas law

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

FlowVision Help 95

Create Model #0

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Note:

*)

When simulating the gas flow at Mach > 0.15 is necessary to consider the dependency of density on

pressure. To do this:

1. In the properties of the Substance you have to specify Aggregative state = Gas, the dependency of

Density by Ideal gas law and values of Molar mass and Specific heat.

2. In Physical processes turn on computation of the Heat transfer equations.

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Symmetry *)

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2

Type = Inlet/Outlet

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Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Total temperature

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Total pressure

Total pressure =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Velocity(Phase #0) = Inlet pressure

Pressure = -1724 [Pa]

Note:

*)

In order to set on a boundary a boundary condition corresponding to the slip without leakage, you have to use

the Symmetry type of boundary condition.

When simulating the flow in the nozzle it is recommended specify in the constriction of the nozzle values of

pressure and temperature equal to the input values, and in the expansion specify values of pressure and

temperature equal to the output values. When you specify such initial conditions, the pressure surge will be

located in the narrowest part of the nozzle, not on the inlet or the outlet, and the flow will be more stable.

To set the initial conditions in the nozzle expansion, you have to:

1. Specify the Initial data corresponding to the parameters of the flow on the outlet.

3. Specify the Initial conditions, which establish correspondence between the Object and the Initial data.

To set initial data corresponding to the parameters of the flow on the outlet, specify in Model #0 > Init. data

#0:

Pressure(Phase #0) = -1724 [Pa]

In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.

In the Create new object window that appears, select Box.

In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location

FlowVision Help 97

Reference point

X = 1.9 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Size

X = 1.3 [m]

Y = 0.4 [m]

Z = 0.4 [m]

In Subregion #0 in the context menu of the folder Initial conditions apply the Create command, which

creates Init. condition #0.

Object = Box #0

Init. data = Init. data #0

In the part of the computational domain, which is not covered by any Object containing the initial data, the

initial values of all variables are automatically set equal to 0. In this example, in the constriction of the nozzle

initial values are to be equal to the values on the input. Since the input values of all calculated variables are

equal to 0, you do not need to specify any additional initial conditions.

nX = 1000

nY =1

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL =1

Max step = 0.001 [s]

Note:

When simulating the gas flow at Mach number M>1 it is recommended to specify the step by the CFL number

and use the Convective CFL in a range from 1 to 10.

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4.1.5.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow.

2. Pressure distribution in the plane of the flow.

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on the Plane.

In the Properties window specify:

Variable

Variable MachNumber

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 1.6

Min = 0.2

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o In the Properties window of the Layer click button Palette > Operations > (Load palette from

file)

In the Properties window specify:

Variable

Variable Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max =0

Min = -5500

Load the thermal palette from the file heat.fvpal.

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4.1.6 Supersonic flow past wedge

In this example a supersonic flow around a 15-degree wedge in two-dimensional channel is simulated.

Dimensions:

Angle: = 15 [Deg]

Dimensions of the computational domain 6x 2x 1 [m x m x m]

Parameters of the substance:

Molar mass: M = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Viscosity: = 1.82 10-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat capacity cp = 1009 [J (kg K)-1]

Parameters on inlet:

Static pressure P = 101000 [Pa]

Temperature at infinity T = 273 [K]

Velocity on inlet Vinl = 600 [m s-1]

Geometry: Wedge.WRL

Project: Wedge

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4.1.6.1 Physical model

In the properties of Substance #0 specify:

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density = Ideal gas law

Viscosity

Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 0.026 [W (m K)-1]

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Specify in the folder Models > Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0:

X = 600 [m s-1]

Model = Model #0

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Boundary 1

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) Normal velocity with pressure

Velocity =600 [m s-1]

Pressure =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Pressure =0 [Pa]

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nX = 75

nY = 25

nZ =1

In this project it is necessary to solve the grid in the area of pressure surges. To provide this, specify

adaptation by the gradient of pressure.

In the folder Adaptation to solution specify:

Activation

Start in steps = 400

Duration in steps =1

Period in steps = 50

Max level =2

Cell number = 25000

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In properties of Adaptation to solution of #0 specify:

Activation = Yes

Variable = Pressure

Value/Gradient = To gradient

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Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL =1

Max step = 0.0001 [s]

4.1.6.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Pressure distribution in the plane of the

flow before the start of computation.

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4.1.6.6.1 Pressure distribution

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on the plane.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 2.5e5

Min =0

Method = Isolines

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

Note:

In order to view the computational grid with the adaptation, create the Computational grid layer on the

Computational space. The layer will be displayed after at least one step of computation is done.

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4.1.7 Hypersonic flow around sphere

Dimensions:

Radius of the sphere: R = 0.016 [m]

Substance: Air

Flow Settings:

Static pressure: P = 100000 [Pa]

Temperature at infinity: T = 273 [K]

Velocity at infinity: V =3830 [m s-1]

Mach number at infinity: M = 11.2

Geometry: Sphere.STL

Project: Sphere

Note:

Computation of this project may require long time and significant amount of computing resources.

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This problem require simulation of an axisymmetric external hypersonic flow. Therefore, you have to create a

computational domain, which is a region with flow around a streamlined body, which is a sector with a small

degree (eg 1-2 degrees). When the gas flows at a velocity corresponding to the Mach number > 0.1 it is

possible to use non-reflecting boundary conditions. They make less disturbance to the flow, so the distance

from the body to the limits of the region, in many cases, can be set less than 10x characteristic body size.

You can find fully prepared geometry of the computational domain is in the file Sphere.STL.

Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

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Create Model #0.

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2

Type = Non-reflecting

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

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X = 3830

Y =0

Z =0

Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

In supersonic and hypersonic external flow around bluff bodies we recommend to specify near the body initial

values of variables, corresponding to the parameters of flow deceleration, and in the rest of the domain specify

initial conditions, which are relevant to parameters of the undisturbed flow.

To set initial conditions, which are relevant to parameters of the undisturbed flow, in properties of the element

Model #0 > Init. data > Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity(Phase #0)

X = 3830 [m s-1]

To set initial conditions corresponding to the deceleration of the flow near the body, you have to:

1. Specify Initial data corresponding to the parameters of flow deceleration.

2. Specify an Object corresponding to the region around the sphere.

3. Specify Initial conditions, establishing correspondence between the Object and the Initial data.

In the context menu of the folder Model #0 > Init. data select Create.

In properties of the new just created element Init. data #1 specify:

Pressure (Phase #0) =1.65e7 *) [Pa]

*)

1.65e7 is notation for 1.65x107.

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In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.

In the dialog box Create new object, which opens, select Ellipsoid/sphere.

Location

Reference point

X = 0.003 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Parameters

Radius = 0.02 [m]

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In the Subregion#0 in the context menu of the folder Initial conditions, select Create:

Object = Ellipsoid/sphere #0

The initial conditions are applied sequentially in the order they appear in the folder Initial conditions. Priority

of an Initial condition is higher when the item is lower in the list1).. Thus, in the set-theoretic intersection of

Ellipsoid/spheres #0 and Subregion #0, in the initial moment time parameters of flow deceleration are set,

and parameters of the undisturbed flow are set in the rest of the domain .

Note:

1)

You can change priority of an Init. conditions element moving it in the list up and down using the context

menu commands Move Up and Move Down.

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4.1.7.5 Initial grid

To better solving the flow near the sphere in this example, specify a two-dimensional non-uniform computational

grid, condensed near the sphere.

In the Properties window, click on the Initial grid button call Initial grid editor

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters:

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.01 [m]

h_min = 0.0002 [m]

Insert the reference line with the coordinate:

x1 =0 [m]

h = 0.01 [m]

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h =0.0002 [m]

kh- = 1.07

kh+ = 0.97

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.208 [m]

h = 0.01 [m]

kh- =1

OY

Grid parameters:

kh_max =2

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h_min = 0.0002 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h =0.0002 [m]

kh+ = 0.95

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.112 [m]

h = 0.01 [m]

kh- =1

nZ =1

in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Convective CFL =1

Max step = 0.0001 [s]

Pressure abs, min. = 100 [Pa]

Pressure abs, max. = 108 [Pa]

Temperature abs, max. = 105 [K]

Velocity, max. = 105 [m s-1]

Small Cells

Criterion = Relative

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4.1.7.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow.

2. Pressure distribution in the plane of the flow.

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on the Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Mach number

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 12

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

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4.1.7.7.2 Pressure distribution

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 2e7

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

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In FlowVision a convection-diffusion model for heat transfer is implemented.

In properties of the Substance it is required to specify values of Density and Specific heat capacity, and, if

necessary, the value of the Thermal conductivity.

Enable calculation of the equation of Heat transfer.

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the Temperature.

Heat transfer in a solid body by means of conduction is considered in the given example.

Dimensions:

The length of the bar l =1 [m]

Parameters of the substance

Density = 7900 [kg m-3]

Specific heat cp = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

Inlet parameters:

Temperature on the hot wall Th = 100 [C]

Geometry: Conduct.STL

Project: Conduct

Create Substance #0.

In the properties of Substance #0 specify:

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Molar mass

Value = 0.056 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 7900 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 46 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In the folder Phase #0 > Substances load Substance #0.

In the Properties window of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes specify:

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

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Value = 100 [K]

Boundary 2

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Flux

Value = -4600 [W m-2]

nX = 100

nY =1

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 10000 [s]

4.2.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Temperature distribution along the length

of the bar before the start of computation.

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4.2.1.5.1 Temperature distribution

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on the Plane.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 100

Min =0

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4.2.2 Forced convection

Consider the simulation of laminar flow of cold water in a tube with a hot wall.

Dimensions:

Length of the tube L =2 [m]

Diameter of the tube D = 0.1 [m]

Inflow parameters:

Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 0.001 [m s-1]

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 10-3 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity = 0.6 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat cp = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Re 102

μ 0.001

Geometry: Tube.WRL

Project: ForceConvection

Create Substance #0.

In the properties of Substance #0 specify:

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Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 0.6 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Motion = Newtonian fluid

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity(Phase #0)

X =0 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z = 0.001 [m s-1]

Model = Model #0

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Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value = 90 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity =1 [kg m-2 s-1]

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4.2.2.3 Initial grid

nX = 20

nY = 20

nZ = 50

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 20 [s]

4.2.2.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build temperature distribution in the plane of

the flow before the start of computation.

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4.2.2.5.1 Temperature distribution

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 90

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

In this example, the simulation of laminar air flow in a rectangular cavity, vertical walls are maintained at

different temperatures (one cold and one hot), while the horizontal walls are insulated. Under the influence of

buoyancy due to a temperature difference arises dimensional convective motion.

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Inflow parameters:

The temperature of the hot wall: T = 50 [K]

Parameters of the fluid:

Molar mass M = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Viscosity = 1.82×10-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity = 0.026 [W (m K)-1]

Specific heat cp = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Rayleigh number: Ra = 105

Geometry: Natur_Convect.WRL

Project: Natur_Convect

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4.2.3.1 Physical model

Reference values

Temperature = 293 [K]

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y = -9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

g-Density = 1.224 [kg m-3]

Create Substance #0.

Specify properties of Substance #0:

Properties of child elements in the project tree:

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density = Ideal gas law

Viscosity

Value = 1.82 x 10-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

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Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value = 30 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

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Boundary 3

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

Boundary 4

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

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4.2.3.3 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.1 [m]

h_max = 0.00125 [m]

h_min = 0.0004 [m]

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x1 = 0.005 [m]

x2 = 0.025 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.0004 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.005 [m]

h = 0.00125 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.025 [m]

h = 0.00125 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.03 [m]

h = 0.0004 [m]

nY = 73

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.2 [s]

4.2.3.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow

2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

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4.2.3.5.1 Velocity distribution

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

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Variable

Variable = Velocity

Grid

Size 1 = 50

Size 2 = 50

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.075

Min =0

Note:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

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4.2.3.5.2 Temperature distribution

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 30

Min =0

Method = Isolines

Notes:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

FlowVision Help 135

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

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4.3 Turbulence

FlowVision mainly uses the following turbulence models:

2. Low-Reynolds k-ε model AKN

3. Quadratic k-ε model

4. SST model

5. SA model

In a Substance specify Aggregative state = Liquid or Gas.

In the properties of the Substance specify values of Density and Viscosity.

Enable computation of equations of the Motion and the corresponding Turbulence model.

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the parameters of the turbulence.

When using the Low-Reynolds k-ε model we recommend you to run a preliminary computation using the the

standard k-ε model.

If high gradients of the variables or divergence of the equations of turbulent transport appear in the process of

computation, we recommend to set a limiter on the maximum value of the turbulent viscosity, and also

specify non-zero background values of turbulent variables in initial conditions and boundary conditions.

The standard k-ε turbulence model is intended for simulation of flows with values of y+ > 3 and small pressure

gradients.

Consider an application of the k-ε turbulence model in an example of simulation of turbulent flow in a tube.

A turbulent flow is characterized by the Reynolds number (Re) more then 104.

FlowVision Help 137

Dimensions:

Length of the tube L =2 [m]

Diameter of the tube D = 0.1 [m]

Inflow parameters:

Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 10 [m s-1]

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Reynolds number: VinlDρ 10 0.1 1000

Re 10 6

μ 0.001

Geometry: Tube.WRL

Project: Tube_turb

Reference values

Temperature = 298 [K]

Pressure = 100000 [Pa]

Specify properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

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Turbulence = KES

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Z = 10 [m s-1]

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Name = Outlet

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Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 10000 [kg m-2 s-1]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value =0

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value =0 [m]

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nX = 20

nY = 20

nZ = 50

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.01 [s]

4.3.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Pressure variation on inlet

2. Turbulent viscosity distribution in the plane of the flow

3. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow

4. Pressure distribution along the axis of the tube

Create a Supergroup on BC Inlet using the Create supergroup > In Preprocessor command from the

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context menu.

Create Characteristics on the Supergroup

In Postprocessor in the Properties window of the Characteristics, specify:

Characteristics

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Save to file

Type = Automatic

Variable

Variable = TurbViscosity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.9

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

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4.3.1.5.3 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Grid

Size 1 = 10

Size 2 = 40

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 11.2

Min = 8.2

Notes:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button in the toolbar. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the

Palette group of settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

FlowVision Help 143

4.3.1.5.4 Pressure distribution

CreateLine #0.

In the Properties window of Line #0, specify:

Object

Reference point

X 0

Y 0

Z 0.001

Direction

X 0

Y 0

Z 1

Create a layer Plot along line on Line #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 13000

Min =0

Notes:

FlowVision Help 144

To display information about a layer, open the Info window. Select an item in the Postprocessor tab of

project tree and then click on the button in the toolbar.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

The Low-Reynolds k-ε turbulence model (AKN) with equilibrium wall functions can be used for simulation of

flows with small gradients at y+>3 and with no wall functions at 1<y+<3.

Consider the use of the Low-Reynolds turbulence model without wall functions for simulating the dynamic and

the thermal boundary layers on a plate.

Dimensions

FlowVision Help 145

domain

Width of the computational =1 [m]

domain

Length of the plate L= 1 [m]

Inflow parameters:

Plate temperature T = 20 [K]

Velocity on inlet V=1 [m s-1]

Temperature on inlet T= 0 [K]

Parameters of the substance

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1 s-1]

Thermal conductivity = 0.6 [W m-1 K-1]

Specific heat capacity cp= 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Re 106

μ 0.001

Geometry: Plate.WRL

Project: Plate

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of the Substances #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 0.6 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

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Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KES *)

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

X =0 [m s-1]

Y =1 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Pulsations (Phase #0)

Value = 0.0001

Turbulent scale (Phase #0)

Value = 0.001 [m]

Note:

*)

Before applying the Low-Reynolds k-ε turbulence model (AKN), you need to carry out a preliminary

computation using the Standard k-ε turbulence model (KES) with wall functions.

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4.3.2.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value = 20 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Value = 1000 [kg m-2s-1]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.0001

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.001 [m]

Boundary 4

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

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4.3.2.3 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.1 [m]

h_min = 0.0001 [m]

Parameters of reference lines:

Position =0 [m]

h = 0.0001 [m]

kh+ =1

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Position =1 [m]

h = 0.1 [m]

kh- = 0.5

OY

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.125 [m]

h_min = 0.002 [m]

Insert reference lines with coordinates:

y1 = -0.5 [m]

y2 = 0.5 [m]

Parameters of reference lines:

Position = -1 [m]

h = 0.125 [m]

Position = -0.5 [m]

h =0.002 [m]

kh- = 0.9

kh+ = 1.1

Position = 0.5 [m]

h =0.002 [m]

kh- = 0.9

kh+ = 1.1

Position =1 [m]

h = 0.125 [m]

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.01 [s]

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4.3.2.5 Preliminary computation

Do a preliminary computation using the Standard k-ε turbulence model (KES) of turbulence:

Run the project on computation.

Do 10 iterations.

Stop computation.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KEAKN

Wall interaction

Phase #0 = No wall functions *)

Run the project on computation for continuation.

Notes:

*)

When y+ < 3 over most of the surface of the wall, it is recommended to specify the Wall interaction= No

wall functions.

4.3.2.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation of the fluid:

1. Y+ distribution on a surface of the wall

FlowVision Help 152

4.3.2.6.1 Y+ distribution

Create a Supergroup on BC Wall using the Create supergroup > In Postprocessor command from the

context menu.

Create a layer Color contours on the Supergroup.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Y_plus

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max =3

Min = 1.5

FlowVision Help 153

4.3.2.6.2 Viscous friction distribution

Object

Reference point

X = 0.01

Y = -0.51

Z = 0.05

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Shear stress

Shift = 0.0001

FlowVision Help 154

Rotation angle = 180

The Quadratic k-ε turbulence model is intended for simulation of flows with values 30<y+<300 and recirculation

zones.

Consider the use of the k-ε quadratic turbulence model in the example of a flow over an opposite facing step.

Dimensions:

Step height D =1 [m]

Inflow parameters:

Fluid parameters:

Density =1 [kg m-3]

Viscosity =1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Reynolds number: VinlDρ 1.76 1 1

Re 105

μ 1.82 10 5

Geometry: BaskwardFacingStep.WRL

Project: BaskwardFacingStep

FlowVision Help 155

4.3.3.1 Physical model

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of the Substances #0:

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value =1 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KEQ

Create Model #0.

In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

X = 1.76 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Pulsations (Phase #0) = 0.095

Turbulence scale (Phase #0) = 0.05 [m]

Model = Model #0

FlowVision Help 156

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) =Symmetry

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) =Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 1.76 [kg m-2 s-1]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.095

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

FlowVision Help 157

Boundary 4

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

nX = 120

nY = 25

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 100

Max step =1 [s]

4.3.3.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Velocity distribution in the plane of the

flow before the start of computation.

FlowVision Help 158

4.3.3.5.1 Velocity distribution

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

On regular grid = No

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 1.8

Min =0

Note:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

The SST k-ε turbulence model is used for simulation of flows with a high degree of turbulence, with recirculation

zones and large back pressure gradients, and it also provides good results for free flows and flows with small

pressure gradients.

FlowVision Help 159

Consider the use of the SST k-ε turbulence model in the example of simulation of a turbulent flow around a

cube.

Dimensions:

Side of the cube d = 0.0254 [m]

The length of the computational domain 17.6d = 0.447 [m]

The width of the computational domain 11.6d = 0.294 [m]

Inflow parameters:

Velocity on inlet Vinl = 7.65 [m s-1]

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1.226 [kg m-3]

Viscosity =1.8325e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Reynolds number: Vinldρ 7.65 0.0254 1.226

Re 1.3 10 4

μ 1.8325 10 5

Geometry: Box.STL

Project: Box

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of the Substances #0:

FlowVision Help 160

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1.226 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = SST

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

X = 7.65 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Pulsations (Phase #0) = 0.05

Turbulence scale (Phase #0) = 0.00254 [m]

Model = Model #0

FlowVision Help 161

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Wall interaction

Phase #0 =No wall functions

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Fixed value

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) =Symmetry

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) =Symmetry

FlowVision Help 162

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 9.38 [kg m-2 s-1]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.05

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.00254 [m]

Boundary 4

Variables

Velocity = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy = Zero gradient

TurbDissipation = Zero gradient

FlowVision Help 163

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.03 [m]

h_min = 0.00075 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

x1 =0 [m]

Reference line parameters

h = 0.03 [m]

Position =0 [m]

h =0.00075 [m]

kh- =1

kh+ =1

Position = 0.3 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

OY

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.03 [m]

h_min = 0.00075 [m]

y1 =0 [m]

Reference line parameters

Position = -0.147 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

Position =0 [m]

h =0.00075 [m]

kh- =1 [m]

kh+ =1 [m]

Position = 0.147 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

FlowVision Help 164

nZ =1

In this example, you must resolve the vortex formation zone. For this it is necessary to make a grid adaptation

in the volume of a parallelepiped around the cube (you can see cells of the adapted computational grid after the

computation using the Computational grid layer).

1. Specifying an Object for the adaptation

2. Specifying adaptation criteria

In the context menu of the folder Objects, select Create.

In the Create new object window select Object type = Box.

In the Properties window of the Box #0 specify:

Location

Reference point

X = 0.01 [m]

Y =0 [m]

FlowVision Help 165

Z = 0.005 [m]

Size

X = 0.05 [m]

Y = 0.05 [m]

Z = 0.005 [m]

In the context menu of the folder Adaptation, select Create.

In the Properties window of the new just created element Adaptation #0 specify:

Activation = Yes

Object = Box #0

Max level =1

Split/Merge = Split

Zone = In volume

Note:

In order to see the computational grid adaptation, create on Plane #0 a layer Computational grid section.

FlowVision Help 166

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.0003 [s]

4.3.4.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Y+ distribution on the surface of the parallelepiped.

2. Velocity distribution in the plane of symmetry.

4.3.4.6.1 Y+ distribution

Create a Supergroup on BC Wall using the Create supergroup > In Postprocessor command from the

context menu.

Create a layer Color contours on the Supergroup.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Y_plus

FlowVision Help 167

Notes:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

Velocity distribution visualized as vectors displays generation of turbulent eddies, which form and go away from

the box some time after starting the computation (initially the fluid moves behind the box symmetrically and with

no eddies)

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

FlowVision Help 168

Grid

Size 1 = 100

Size 2 = 100

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 12

Min =0

Notes:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

The SA model is an one-parameter model, which was developed for aerospace applications. This model can be

used both in Low-Reynolds and Hi-Reynolds computations.

Low-Reynolds computations assume that the viscous boundary layer is resolved by a computational grid. We

recommend to build a grid with dimensionless distance y+ from the center of the wall cell to the wall does not

exceed 1 (the structure of the boundary layer is discussed in work H.Schlichting (1974) "Boundary layer

theory" Nauka, Moscow, 711 pages / Шлихтинг Г. (1974) "Теория пограничного слоя", Москва, Наука, 711

с.).

Consider the application of the SA model for the example problem of subsonic flow around airfoil at Reynolds

number Re = 1.68x106 and Mach number M = 0.3. In this example Hi-Reynolds computations are done, so a

quite coarse computational grid is built (the viscous boundary layer is not resolved) and wall functions are used.

FlowVision Help 169

Dimensions:

Chord length c = 0.256 [m]

Dimensions of the computational 5.3 x 5 x 0.00254 [m x m x m]

domain

Angle of attack =3°

Substance: Air

Inflow parameters:

Static pressure: P = 100000 [Pa]

Static temperature: T = 298 [K]

Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 103.83 [m s-1]

Reynolds number: Re = 1.68x106

Geometry: NACA0012_3deg.STL

Project: NACA0012_3deg

Note:

Computation of this project may require significant computing resources and a long time.

FlowVision Help 170

4.3.5.1 Physical model

Reference values

Temperature = 298 [K]

Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create a continuous Phase #0.

Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Turbulence = SA

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

In the folder Init. data #0 specify:

Velocity

X = 103.83 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Model = Model #0

FlowVision Help 171

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

FlowVision Help 172

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Non-reflecting

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

Value =0 [K]

Velocity at inf.

X = 103.83 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]

TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [m2 s-1]

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.

Specify the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.635 [m]

h_min = 0.0006415 [m]

Insert a reference line with a coordinate:

x1 =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54 [m]

FlowVision Help 173

h = 0.635 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h =0.0006415 [m]

kh- =1

kh+ = 0.95

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.794 [m]

h = 0.635 [m]

OY

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_min = 0.0006415 [m]

Insert a reference line with a coordinate:

y1 =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54

h =0.635 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h =0.0006415 [m]

kh- =1

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.54 [m]

h =0.635 [m]

nz =1

Specify adaptation on the surface of the wing. To do this, specify in the Properties window of the boundary

condition, which is set on the wing's surface:

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =3

Cell Strata =5

FlowVision Help 174

4.3.5.5 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Constant step = 1e-5 *) [s]

*)

This notation means 10-5.

Note:

In this problem, the time step is chosen approximately equal to 0.04 of the time of flight over the wing's chord.

L 0.256 5

own 0.04 * 0.04 * 10

V 103.83

4.3.5.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow.

2. Pressure distribution on the surface of the wing.

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable

Variable MachNumber

FlowVision Help 175

Method Isolines

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.4

Min = 0.2

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

Notes:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

Create a layer Color contours on the Supergroup.

In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 6000

Min = -6000

FlowVision Help 176

Notes:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

FlowVision Help 177

In FlowVision two mass transfer models are implemented:

1. The Mass transfer + Chemistry model simulates convective-diffusive mixing (with chemical reactions) of

several Substances.

2. The Combustion model simulates gas-phase combustion.

In order to simulate the mass transfer + chemistry of a liquid or a gas, do the following:

Create the required Substances.

In the properties of each Substance specify values of its Molar mass and Density.

In a Phase add more than one Substance and in the Phase's Physical processes specify Mass transfer =

Mixing + Chemistry.

If you want to simulate chemical reactions, set the parameters of the sources of appropriate substances in

child elements of the Mass transfer element.

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the concentration of Substances.

Create the substances that correspond to fuel, oxidizer, and combustion products.

For all these Substances specify Aggregative state = Gas.

In the properties of each Substance is required to specify the values of its Molar mass, Viscosity, Thermal

conductivity, Specific heat capacity, Enthalpy of formation, and its Density must be specified as

complying to the Ideal gas law.

Add Substances into the Phase in the following order:

o Fuel

o Oxidant

o Products of combustion

You have to enable in the Phase physical processes Movement, Heat transfer, and Mass transfer =

Combustion.

In the Combustion's parameters you have to specify Combustion model, stoichiometric coefficients (i_1,

i_2, i_3), temperature of ignition (T ignition), combustion limits Alpha min. and Alpha max.

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the concentration of the fuel, combustion products,

and the dispersion of fuel (when the Arrhenius-Magnussen combustion model is used).

Specify an Ignition / extinction zone modifier if it is necessary to initiate the combustion or define an

extinction zone.

In order to prevent a possible instability of the solution, we recommend to specify constraints for the

computation.

FlowVision Help 178

4.4.1 Mixing of non-reacting substances

Consider simulation of mixing air with pure oxygen and pure nitrogen.

Inflow parameters:

Mass flow rate of air Vair = 0.1 [kg m-2s-1]

Geometry: Mixture.WRL

Project: Mixture

Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create Substance #0.

FlowVision Help 179

Substances = Oxygen

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Load the properties of Substance #0 from the Substance Database:

Substances = Nitrogen

Phases = Gas

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add all Substances, which you have just created, into the folder Substances in the following

order 1):

o Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium)

o Nitrogen_Gas

o Air_Gas (equilibrium)

Mass transfer = Mixing + Chemistry

Turbulence = KES

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

Notes:

1)

When simulating the Mixing + Chemistry we recommend to place on the last place in the folder Phase #N

> Substances those Substance, which has higher mass fraction in this Phase.

FlowVision Help 180

4.4.1.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas(Phase #0) = Symmetry

FlowVision Help 181

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Value = 0.129 [kg m-2 s-1]

Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Value

Value =0

Value =0

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value =0

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value =0 [m]

Boundary 4

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Value = 1.4 [kg m-2 s-1]

#0)

Value =1

Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas (Phase #0) = Value

Value =0

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value =0

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value =0 [m]

Boundary 5

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

FlowVision Help 182

Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas = Value

(equilibrium) (Phase #0)

Value =0

Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas (Phase = Value

#0)

Value =1

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value =0

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value =0 [m]

Boundary 6

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Mass frac._ Oxygen_Gas = Zero gradient

(equilibrium) (Phase #0)

Mass frac._ Nitrogen_Gas (Phase = Zero gradient

#0)

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

nX = 200

nY = 100

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.1 [s]

FlowVision Help 183

4.4.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Concentration distribution in the plane of

the flow before the start of computation.

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable

Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"

Variable = Mass. frac. [Air_Gas (equilibrium)]

Note:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

FlowVision Help 184

4.4.2 Radioactive decay

Inflow parameters:

Flow rate: V =1 [m s-1]

Mass fraction of isotopes: Y = 10-3

Properties of sodium isotopes:

Molar mass M = 0.023 [kg mole-1]

Density = 925 [kg m-3]

Viscosity =6.68145 x 10-4 [kg m-1 s-1]

Thermal conductivity = 84.9 [W m-1 K-1]

Specific heat Cp = 1382 [J kg-1 K-1]

Geometry: Isotope.WRL

Project: Isotope

Reference values

Temperature = 373 [K]

Pressure = 101325 [Pa]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Sodium

Aggregative state = Liquid

Properties

Molar mass =Constant

Value = 0.023 [kg mole-1]

Density =Constant

FlowVision Help 185

Viscosity =Constant

Value = 6.68145 * 10-4 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity =Constant

Value = 84.9 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat =Constant

Value = 1382 [J kg-1 K-1]

Enthalpy of formation

Value =0 [J kg-1]

Copy Sodium

In the properties of this material set

Name = Isotope

Enthalpy of formation

Value = 106 [J kg-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0

InPhase #0 add the folderSubstancesby all agents in the following order:

Isotope

Sodium

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Mass transfer = Mixing + Chemistry

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

In the folder Phases in the properties of the phase #0 Physical Processes > > > Isotope Mass transfer set:

D = -1

FlowVision Help 186

4.4.2.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature (Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 925 [kg m-2 s-1]

Mass frac._ Isotope (Phase #0) = Value

Value = 10-3

Boundary 2

Variables

Temperature (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Mass frac._ Isotope (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature (Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Mass frac._ Isotope (Phase #0) = Symmetry

FlowVision Help 187

4.4.2.3 Initial grid

nX = 250

nY =1

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL =5

Diffusion CFL =5

Max step =1 [s]

4.4.2.5 Visualization

Build:

1. Isotope concentration distribution in the plane of the flow

2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

Object

FlowVision Help 188

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable

Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"

Variable = Mass. frac. [Isotope]

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 3

In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.35

Min =0

Palette

FlowVision Help 189

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

4.4.3 Combustion

Substances

Fuel = Natural Gas

Oxidant = Air

Inflow parameters:

Speed of natural gas: V = 75 [m s-1]

Pressure: P = 101 000 [Pa]

Mixture combustion parameters:

Steheometrichesky ratio of i_1 = 16.92

oxidant

Steheometrichesky ratio of i_2 = 17.92

combustion products

Flashpoint T = 923 [K]

Alpha min. α_min = 0.6

Alpha max. α_max = 1.9

Geometry: Combustion.WRL

Project: Combustion

FlowVision Help 190

4.4.3.1 Physical model

Reference values

Temperature = 298 [K]

Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

CreateSubstance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases =Gas

CreateSubstance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create a continuous Phase #0

Prirodnyy_Gas (equilibrium)

Air_Gas

Natural gas + air produkty_Gas (equilibrium)

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

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Mass transfer = Combustion

Turbulence = KES

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases

i_1 = 16.92

i_2 = 17.92

T ignition = 923 [K]

Alpha min. = 0.6

Alpha max. = 1.9

Note:

*)

In simulating the combustion of substances in Phase should go in the following order:

Fuel

Oxidant

Products of combustion

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4.4.3.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya (equilibrium) (Phase = Zero gradient

#0)

Masses. The share of natural gas + air produkty_Gas (equilibrium) = Zero gradient

(Phase #0)

Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Symmetry

Masses. The share of natural gas + air produkty_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0)= Symmetry

Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 50 [kg m-2s-1]

Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya (equilibrium) =Value

(Phase #0)

Value =1

Masses. The share of natural gas + air produkty_Gas =Value

(equilibrium)(Phase #0)

Value =0

Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) =Value

Value =0

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.03

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.0008 [m]

Boundary 4

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0

Velocity(Phase #0) = Inlet pressure

Value =0 [kg m-2s-1]

Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya =Value

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Value =0

Masses. The share of natural gas + air =Value

produkty_Gas (equilibrium)(Phase #0)

Value =0

Dispersion fuels (Phase #0) =Value

Value =0

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.03

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

4.4.3.3 Ignition

In this task, you must burn the fuel in the mixing of fuel with an oxidant. To do this, select amodifierIgnition.

area where is action of the Modifier

reference to the application of the Modifier

In the folder object is createdcone / cylinder

In the object properties windowcone / cylinder #0 set:

Location

Reference point

X = 0.1001 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Parameters

Height = 0.001 [m]

Radius 1 = 0.005 [m]

Radius of 2 = 0.005 [m]

Regular attitude. =1

Channel = Constant wall

Rel. channel = 0.8

In the context menu folder Modifiers, select Create

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Objects =Cone / cylinder #0

Activation

Type = Inactive

Type = Ignition

Note:

Modifier ignition is recommended to include from the beginning of the calculation, and only after for aborted.

After switching off the ignition Modifiers may be a temporary extinction of the flame.

In the initial dataset# 0:

Turbulence scale (Phase #0) = 0.01 [m]

Inthe Setup. dataset# 1:

X = 75 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Masses. The share of natural gaz_Gazovaya = 1

(equilibrium) (Phase #0)

Pulsations (Phase #0) = 0.03

Turbulence scale (Phase #0) =0.0008 [m]

In the object properties window cone/cylinder #1set:

Parameters

Height = 0.105 [m]

Radius 1 = 0.005 [m]

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Regular attitude. =1

CreateSetup. conditions # 1

InSubregion #0 InitialProperties window.# 1setof conditions:

Init. data =Init. data #1

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters

kh_max = 2

h_max =0.025 [m]

h_min = 0.0002 [m]

Insert a reference line with a coordinate:

x1 = 0.11 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.005 [m]

kh+ = 0.9

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.11 [m]

h =0.0002 [m]

kh- =1

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 1 [m]

h = 0.025 [m]

kh- = 0.9

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OY

Grid parameters

kh_max = 2

h_max =0.025 [m]

h_min = 0.0002 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0

h =0.0002 [m]

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.254 [m]

h =0.025 [m]

kh- =1

nz =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Constant step = 0.001 [s]

Specify in the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Advanced settings element:

Pressure abs, min. = 1000 [Pa]

Pressure abs, max. = 300000 [Pa]

Temperature abs, min. = 200 [K]

Temperature abs, max. = 3000 [K]

Density, min. = 0.01 [kg m-3]

Velocity, max. = 1000 [m s-1]

Small Cells

Criterion = Relative

On the Solver tab in the Properties window of the element Advanced settings:

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Start the project's computation.

On the Preprocessor tab in the Properties window of the modifier Ignition / extinction zone #0:

Activation

Type = Permanent

On the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 50

Max step = 0.0001 [s]

Start the computation for continuation.

On the Preprocessor tab in the Properties window of the modifier Ignition / extinction zone #0:

Activation

Type = Inactive

On the Solver tab in the Properties window of the Time step element,specify:

Convective CFL =1

Max step = 0.0001 [s]

and continue the computation again.

4.4.3.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Oxidant excess factor's distribution in the plane of the flow.

2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow.

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4.4.3.8.1 Oxidant excess factor's distribution

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the Color contours #0 specify:

Variable

Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"

Variable = Odds. excess oxidant recovery.

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max =2

Min = 0.4

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

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4.4.3.8.2 Temperature distribution

In the Properties window of the layer Color contours # 1 specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 1800

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

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InFlowVisionfor simulating free surface method is implemented VOF.

In order to simulate the movement of the liquid based on a free surface, it is necessary:

In the substances set Aggregative state = liquid

In the properties of the substance is required to specify the value of the density,

Create two phases, one phase to add substance and the calculation to include the equations of motion, and

the other phase is left blank,

Add both phases in one model, with the first on the list should be phase with the movement, and the second

- an empty phase,

Specify the appropriate boundary conditions for the variable phase volume, be sure to ask anywhere in the

computational domain initial value VOF = 1,

Use the time step is not more than 5 Surface CFL. When significant changes in shape of the free surface,

use a step corresponding to 1 superficial CFL.

In order to simulate the movement of the two liquids or a liquid and gas based interface, it is necessary:

Create two substances set Aggregate states of liquid / liquid or liquid / gas,

In the properties of the substance is required to specify the value of the density or density calculations on the

ideal gas law,

Create two phases, each phase is to add the relevant substances and enable the calculation of equations of

motion,

Add both phases in one model, with the first on the list should be phase, the density of matter in which more

Specify the appropriate boundary conditions for the VOF variables for each phase, be sure to ask anywhere

in the computational domain initial value VOF = 1,

Use the time step is not more than 5 Surface CFL. When significant changes in shape of the free surface,

use a step corresponding to 1 superficial CFL.

In this example, the simulated two-dimensional collapse of the dam. Part of the computational domain is filled

with water, which is separated by a partition. Initially, the partition is removed rapidly and begins to spread a

wave.

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Dimensions:

Dimensions of the axb =5x 3 [m × m]

computational domain

Dimensions of the liquid columnd × d = 2 x 2 [m x m]

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Geometry: Wave.STL

Project: Wave

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =-9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

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Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KES

Create a continuous Phase #1.

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Notes:

1. In this task, the motion of matter in the second phase can be neglected, so the Phase #1 Physical

processes are not set. At the same time, phase, in which the physical processes are not specified, must

always be second in the Model folder Phases.

2. When loading Phase #0 and #1 inthe PhaseModelautomatically will be the type of interaction phases-

continuous-vacuum, and in Phase #0 Physical processes appears element transfer phase

Model = Model #0

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Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry

Boundary 2

Type =Symmetry

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry

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4.5.1.3 Specifying water column

In the simulation of fluid motion, taking into account the free surface should always set the initial phase

distribution.

VOF

Value =1

create aBox #0

in the Properties window,set theparallelepiped # 0:

Location

Reference point

X =1 [m]

Y =1 [m]

Z = 0.025 [m]

Size

X =1.99 [m]

Y =1.99 [m]

Z = 0.05 [m]

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In order to define a mapping between the object and the initial data in the Subregion #0in the folderproperties

windowInitial conditionsInitial. conditionsset# 0:

Object = Box #0

Init. data = Initial. data #0

Thus, the volume of a parallelepiped set volume phase VoF = 1, which corresponds to the presence in the

initial time domain estimated water column with dimensions 2x2.

Note:

Since the initial data is assigned to all the cells, even partially in contact with the box, installsizeis somewhat

smaller parallelepiped required not to catch the extra cell.

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4.5.1.4 Initial grid

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.05 [m]

h_max = 0.125 [m]

h_min = 0.03 [m]

x1 =1 [m]

x2 =4 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 1 [m]

h = 0.125 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 4 [m]

h = 0.125 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 5 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

OY

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Grid parameters

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.05 [m]

h_max = 0.1 [m]

h_min = 0.03 [m]

Insert reference lines with coordinates:

y1 = 0.5 [m]

y2 = 2.5 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.5 [m]

h = 0.1 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.5 [m]

h = 0.1 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 3 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL =1

Surface CFL =1

Max step = 0.01 [s]

4.5.1.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build water distribution in the plane of

symmetry before the start of computation.

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4.5.1.6.1 Water distribution

In this example, consider the motion of a free two-dimensional jet in the gravity field

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Inlet parameters:

Flow rate V =3 [m s-1]

Initial angle of the flow to the horizon α = 45

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Geometry FreeJet.STL

Project: FreeJet

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =-9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Create a continuous Phase #1.

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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4.5.2.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Slip

Boundary 2

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 3000 [kg m-2 s-1]

VOF (Phase #0) = Value

Value =1

Boundary 3

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

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Value =0 [Pa]

VOF (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

In problems with a free surface is necessary that at the initial time in the present volume of fluid.

Properties window Init. data # 0#0 models:

Velocity

X = 2.12 [m s-1]

Y = 2.12 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

VOF

Value =1

In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location

Reference point

X = 0.1 [m]

Y = 0.1 [m]

Z = 0.05 [m]

The X axis

X =1

Y =1

Z =0

Size

X = 0.1 [m]

Y = 0.06 [m]

Z = 0.1 [m]

Object = Box #0

Init. data = Initial. data #0

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Note:

Clicking theApplybuttonin the Properties windowBox #0 vectors of the coordinate system of the parallelepiped

will be automatically redirected and proortonormirovany.

nX = 150

nY = 50

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL =1

Surface CFL =1

Max step = 0.01 [s]

4.5.2.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build water distribution before the start of

computation.

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4.5.2.6.1 Water distribution

In this example, consider the displacement of theoiltankwith water. At the start of the tank is completely filled

with oil. From the hole in the side wall of the tank water enters gradually displacing oil from the tank.

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Water parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Surface tension s = 0.073 [N m-1]

Oil parameters

Density = 500 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]

Surface tension s = 0.0647 [N m-1]

Inlet parameters:

Water feed rate V = 0.1 [m s-1]

Geometry TwoFluids.wrl

Project: TwoFluids

Define the following:

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =-9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

g-Point

X =0 [m]

Y = 0.25 [m]

Z =0 [m]

g-Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

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Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Surface tension

Value = 0.073 [N m-1]

CreateSubstance # 1

Specify the following properties of the substances # 1:

Molar mass

Density

Value = 500 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.01 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value =2688 [J kg-1 K-1]

Surface tension

Value =0.0647 [N m-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Create a continuous Phase #1.

In Phase #1 add Substance #1 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #1 > Physical processes:

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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Notes:

1. In this problem, amodel ofthe firstphaseshould go# 0,the density of matter in which more than inPhase # 1.

2. When loadingPhase #0 and# 1inthe PhaseModelautomatically will be the type ofinteraction phases-

continuous-continuous, and inPhase #0 andPhase # 1inphysical processeswill be an element oftransfer

phase.

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

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Value = 100 [kg m-2s-1]

VOF (Phase #0) = Value

Value =1

Velocity(Phase # 1) = Normal mass velocity

Value =0 [kg m-2s-1]

VOF (Phase # 1) = Value

Value =0

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry

Velocity(Phase # 1) = Slip

VOF (Phase # 1) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

VOF (Phase #0) =Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase # 1) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 4

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

VOF (Phase #0) =Symmetry

Velocity(Phase # 1) = No slip

VOF (Phase # 1) =Symmetry

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4.5.3.3 Initial conditions defining volumes of liquids

InModel #0 :

InInit. data #0 set:

VOF(Phase # 1)

Value =1

CreateNach.dannye # 1

InInit. data # 1set:

Value

X = 0.1 [m s-1]

VOF(Phase #0)

Value =1

In the folderobjects:

create aBox #0

in the Properties window,set theparallelepiped # 0:

Location

Reference point

X =0 [m]

Y = 0.06 [m]

Z = 0.005 [m]

Size

X = 0.04 [m]

Y = 0.035 [m]

Z = 0.01 [m]

InSubregion #0 :

Specify theInitialProperties window.conditions # 0:

Init. data = Initial. data #0

CreateSetup. conditions # 1

Specify theInitialProperties window.conditions # 1:

Object = Box #0

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nX = 50

nY = 100

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Surface CFL =1

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4.5.3.6 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build the liquid surface before the start of

computation.

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Consider the evaporation of droplets in the air under the influence of heating:

Inflow parameters:

Mass flow rate of air: V = 0.5522 [kg m-2 s-1]

Air temperature: Tair = 10 [K]

The share of water droplets: = 0.001 [kg m-2s-1]

The parameters of the heat source

Power P = 2e6 [W m-3]

Geometry: Drops.WRL

Project: Drops

Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

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Load the properties of Substance #0 from the Substance Database:

Substance = Water

Load the properties of Substance #0 from the Substance Database:

Substances = Water

Phases = Liquid

In the folder Phases:

Add the following substances in the folder Substances:

Water_Gas (equilibrium)

Air_Gas (equilibrium)

It is important that you add the Substances into the Phase using this order.

Motion = Newtonian fluid

Mass transfer = Mixing + Chemistry

Add Water_Liquid to folder Substances of Phase #1.

Specify properties of the folder Phase #1 > Physical processes:

Phase transfer = Convection & diffusion

Motion = Motion

Mass transfer = Mass transfer

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

In the folder Phase interaction in the properties window of the element Continuum-dispersed do:

o Specify:

Couple of substances

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[0]

Phase 0 = Water_Gas (equilibrium)

Phase 1 = Water_Liquid

Cd = Model1

Nu = Model1

Model of evaporation = Model1

Sh = Model1

Value =1

Temperature (Phase #0)

Value =0 [K]

Velocity (Phase #0)

Value

X =1 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

In substance Water_Gas (equilibrium) must also download the dependence of saturation pressure on

temperature from a text file:

In the Properties window, the saturation pressure of the substance Water_Gas (equilibrium),select the

type of the variable table f (x)

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In Windows Explorer, select the file p(x).txt in folder Tutorial > Samples > Geom and click Open

In the Select variable tab in the folder AllPhase #0,select the variable temperature and click Ok

FlowVision Help 226

FlowVision Help 227

4.6.1.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value = 10 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 0.5522 [kg m-2 s-1]

Mass frac._Water_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase =Value

#0)

Value =0

Volume Phase(Phase # 1) =Value

Value = 0.001

Temperature(Phase # 1) =Value

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase # 1) = Velocity of the particles

Velocity of the particles

X =1 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Diameter (Phase # 1) =Value

Value = 0.0001 [m]

Boundary 2

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Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

Mass frac._Water_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Symmetry

Volume Phase(Phase # 1) = Symmetry

Temperature(Phase # 1) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase # 1) = Slip

Diameter(Phase # 1) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Mass frac._Water_Gas (equilibrium) (Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Volume Phase(Phase # 1) = Permeable surface

Temperature(Phase # 1) = Permeable surface

Velocity(Phase # 1) = Permeable surface

Diameter (Phase # 1) =Value

4.6.1.3 Modifiers

In the Create new object window, which appears, select Box.

In the Properties window of the Box #0, specify:

Location

Reference point

X = 0.15 [m]

Y = 0.05 [m]

Z = 0.05 [m]

Size

X = 0.1 [m]

Y = 0.1 [m]

Z = 0.1 [m]

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In the Create new modifier window, specify:

Objects = Box #0

In the Volume heat source #0, which appear, define:

Activation

Type = Permanent

Volume heat source = 2e6 [W m-3]

nX = 104

nY =1

nZ =1

In the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 10

Diffusion CFL =1

Pressure gradient = Simple

4.6.1.6 Visualization

Specify visualizations:

1. Moisture vapor distribution in the plane of the flow

2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

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4.6.1.6.1 Moisture vapor distribution

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Category = Variables of phase "Phase #0"

Variable = Mass. frac [Water_Gas (equilibrium)]

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.03

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

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4.6.1.6.2 Temperature distribution

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 60

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

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4.7 Radiation

InFlowVisionfor simulating radiation implemented:

1. P1 radiation model

2. Model of an optically thin layer

In the properties of the substance is required to set the values of the density and specific heat capacity, and,

if necessary, the value of thermal conductivity,

Specify the appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the temperature and density of the radiation flux,

If signs of instability of the solution is recommended to reduce the time step.

Consider the one-dimensional simulation of radiation heat transfer in an opaque medium between two walls with

different temperatures.

Dimensions:

The length of the bar l =1 [m]

Inlet parameters:

The temperature of the hot wall T = 100 [K]

The temperature of the cold wall T =0 [K]

The absorption coefficient α = 100 [m-1]

Geometry: Radiation.WRL

Project: Radiation

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

FlowVision Help 233

Density

Value =1 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 10-10 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Radiation = P1

In the Properties window of Radiation, specify:

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Model = Model #0

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Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Radiation density(Phase# 0) = Rad. flux

Value =0

Boundary 2

Type = Wall

Variables

Value = 100 [K]

Radiation density(Phase# 0) = Calculated rad. flux

Blackness =1

Boundary 3

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [K]

Radiation density(Phase# 0) = Calculated rad. flux

Blackness =1

nX = 100

nY =1

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Constant step =1 [s]

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Note:

In the simulation of radiative heat transfer it is recommended to use a time step that is comparable to the

diffusion CFL.

4.7.1.5 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build a temperature distribution before the start of

computation.

Object

Reference point

X = -0.5 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z = 0.05 [m]

In the Properties window of the layer Plot along line #0 (Line #0) specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Number of points = 100

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4.8 Electrodynamics

The interaction of the two plates, which conduct electricity poorly. Between the upper ends of the plates (A and

B) are maintained at a constant voltage, and the lower ends of the plates (A1 and B1) are connected to short-

circuited conductor.

Dimensions:

The height of the plates h = 0.2 [m]

The distance between the plates d = 0.05 [m]

Inlet parameters:

The potential difference between A and UAB = 20 [V]

B

The potential difference between the A1 UA1B1 =0 [V]

and B1

The potential distribution in the dielectric U AB x

AA1 U (y) [V]

2 h

The potential distribution in the dielectric U AB y [V]

BB1 U (y)

2 d

Properties of substance between isolators

-1

Conductivity =1 [ m-1]

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Dielectric permittivity ε =1

Geometry: DielPlates.WRL

Project: DielPlates

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]]

Density

Value =1 [kg m-3]

Specific heat

Value = 1000 [J kg-1 K-1]

The electrical conductivity

-1

Value =1 [ m-1]

Value =1

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of the Physical processes:

EHD = Electrodynamics

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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4.8.1.2 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

In the properties of thepotential (Phase# 0)in theValuedata box,switch the way to set the value of a formula

In theFormula Editor,create a link to a coordinate on the X (Variablesand ConstantsAll X-

coordinate):

FlowVision Help 239

Specify the formula for the potential distribution in the insulator: 10*(COORD_X +0.01)/0.02

Click theApplybuttonin theproperties of thepotential (Phase# 0)

Specify the following boundary conditions (formula at the Border 2 and 3 are also given, as well as on the

Frontier 1):

Boundary 2

Type = Wall

Variables

Potential (Phase# 0) =Value

Value = -10*(COORD_X +0.01)/0.02 [V]

Boundary 3

Type = Wall

Variables

Potential (Phase# 0) =Value

Value =-10 *COORD_Y/0.0025 [V]

Boundary 4

Type = Wall

Variables

Potential (Phase# 0) =Value

Value =0 [V]

Border 5

Type = Symmetry

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Variables

Potential (Phase# 0) = Symmetry

Note:

Detailed description of the boundary conditions by using Equation Editor in Example Flow in a tube with

variable flow.

nX = 200

nY = 50

nZ =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step =1 [s]

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4.8.1.5 Visualization

Build:

1. Electrical intensity's distribution in a plane in the plane of symmetry.

2. Electrical intensity's distribution along a line on the horizontal axis.

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Electric field intensity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 4000

Min =0

Method = Isolines

Palette

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Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

In thePropertieswindow, set theLine #0:

Object

Reference point

X =0 [m]

Y = -0.0024 [m]

Z = 0.00125 [m]

Direction

X =0

Y =1

Z =0

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Electric field intensity

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Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 2050

Min = 2000

FlowVision Help 244

5 Advanced modules

This section describes the following additional featuresFlowVision:

1. Pairing

2. Rotation

3. Movable body

FlowVision Help 245

Conjugate problems - problems in which it is necessary to take into account the interaction between the

different subregions or different boundaries one Subregion.

Prepare a geometric model of the computational domain, consisting of several sub-areas,

On both sides of the surface, which will go mate subregions, set the boundary conditions are related,

Create Bundle, constraints and correspondence between the bond and communication conditions.

Consider laminar flow simulation viscous cold air tube with a thick metal wall heated from the outside.

Dimensions:

Length of the tube L = 0.1 [m]

The radius of the inside of the R = 0.015 [m]

tube

Wall Thickness d = 0.005 [m]

Inflow parameters:

Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 0.1 [m s-1]

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Fluid parameters:

Density =1 [kg m-3]

Viscosity =1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat cp = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Density = 7900 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity = 45 [W m-1K-1]

Heat capacity cp = 457 [J kg-1K-1]

Re 165

μ 1.82 10 5

Geometry: Conjugate_Convection.STL

Project: Conjugate_Convection

In the preparation of a geometric model based on one piece in such problems arises the problem of preparing

geometric model - there is a situation of so-called T-shaped surfaces.

To solve this problem, it is necessary to change the geometry of adding the thin walls where there were T-

shaped surface. On the border of the wall are given fictitious adiabatic boundary conditions. The disadvantage

of this method is that it distorts the picture physical process. If the problem is solved the energy equation, the

introduction of such walls will cause thermal bridges.

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Steel

Aggregative state = Solid

Molar mass

Value = 0.056 [kg mole-1]

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Density

Value = 7900 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 45 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create Substance #0

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Air

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value =1 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

In the Properties window,set thePhase#0:

Name = Steel

In the folderSubstancesPhaseSteelSteelload.

Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

In the Properties window, set thePhase #0:

Name = Air

In the folderSubstancesphaseairdownloadAir.

Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

FlowVision Help 248

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Create Model #0.

In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Steel

Add phase Steel into subfolder Steel > Phases.

CreateModel #0

In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Air

Add phase Air into subfolder Air > Phases.

In Init. data #0 set:

Velocity (Air)

X =0 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z = 0.1 [m s-1]

Specify the following boundary conditions (on the inner surface at the tube):

Boundary 1

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Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(air) = Value

Value =0 [C]

Velocity(Air) = Normal mass velocity

Value = 0.1 [kg (m2s)-1]

Boundary 2

Name = Outlet

Variables

Temperature(air) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Air) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3

Name = Wall

Type = Bound

In the Properties window of the Subregion between the outer and inner tubes set:

Name = Tube

Model = Steel

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Specify the following boundary conditions (on the inner surface of the tube and greater at the outer surface of

the tube):

Boundary 1

Name = Outer wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Steel) = Value

Value = 100 [C]

Boundary 2

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Steel) = Zero gradient

Boundary 3

Name = Inner wall

Type = Bound

In the Properties window of the Subregion inside inner tube set at:

Name = Flow

Model = Air

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Notes:

When setting the boundary conditions on the smaller tube must be chosen not only the surface but also the

side. On the outer side of the surface at the tube boundary conditions are given in the subregion tube, and on

the interior - the boundary conditions in a subregion within. In order to select the lower side surface of the tube

in the graph window, it is necessary:

go toselection modesurface in the graphics window by clicking Modes toolbar,or press and hold

downCtrl,

hover your mouse over the corresponding surface

click on the left mouse button,

if there was not an isolated surface, then pressing the left button repeatedly until until selected the desired

surface,

if not allocated by the party, it must be on a dedicated surface right-click and open the context menu, where

you select Select the other side:

Understand which side is selected, it is possible by the nature of the surface of the paint. Dedicated side

surface is painted in one tone without ornament, and the unselected side - in the same color as the selected,

Also, to select the surfaces you can use the tree Preprocessor Subregion > Subregion #i > Geometry >

Group #i. To the contents of the geometry folder displayed, you need in the File menu > Preferences >

Display define Show all groups = Yes. With a large number of nested sub-areas and geometric groups, this

method becomes preferable.

CreatingBundlesof two boundary conditions to the typeLinked

CreatingCommunication conditions

The mapping oftheligaments andthe communication conditions

CreateBundle # 0:

SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersboundary connections Bundles

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CreateCondition connection # 0:

In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Model # 1 = Steel

Model # 2 = Air

In yourcondition connection #0 in the context menuselectAddfolderBundles/ Remove

HighlightBundle #0 in the listare not selected,and then clickAdd >>

FlowVision Help 253

FlowVision Help 254

5.1.1.1.5 Initial grid

nX = 25

nY = 25

nZ = 25

In this example, you must make an adaptation network within subregions of continuous walls of the tube and

near the wall in a subregion of the flow.

To make an adaptation of the network within the Subregion Tube, create a criterion of adaptation:

In Subregion tube in the context menu folder Adaptation, select Create

In the Properties window created elementAdaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes

Object = Computational space

Max level =1

Split/Merge = Split

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Zone = In volume

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.1 [s]

5.1.1.1.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build temperature distribution in the plane of

the flow before the start of computation.

Clipped = Yes

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On thePlane #0 set:

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 100

Min =0

Palette

Operations = Load from File heat.fvpal

Geometry: Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part1.STL

Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part2.STL

Project: Conjugate_Convection_TConnect

In preparing the geometric model based on the so-called build T-shaped surfaces are correctly and there is no

need additionally to modify the geometric model, as in the previous example.

In this case, the geometric model of each subregion must be contained in a separate file. Assemble in the

establishment phase of the project when loading all files in FlowVision.

In order to create a project based on the assembly:

On the File menu, select Create assembly

In the window that appears on the list of available files with geometric models and select the files:

o Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part1.STL

o Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part2.STL

FlowVision Help 257

The selected files will be displayed in the panel Files in the assembly. The files are to be

displayed there in the following order:

1) Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part2.STL

2) Conj_Convection_TConnect_Part1.STL

This order is important, because the external subregion must be specified on the first place in the

list of assembly , and internal subregions on other places.

If necessary, change the display order of the files by selecting them in the Files in the assembly

panel and use the Up and/or Down buttons.

!

Click Ok

In the window Part intersection fix that appears leave the default settings and click Ok.

FlowVision Help 258

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Steel

Aggregative state = Solid

Molar mass

Density

Value = 7900 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 45 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 457 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create Substance #0

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Air

Aggregative state = Gas

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density

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Viscosity

Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0

Name = Steel

In the folderSubstancesPhaseSteelSteelload.

Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

In the Properties window,set thePhase# 0:

Name = Air

In the folderSubstancesphaseairdownloadAir.

Specify in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Create Model #0.

In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Steel

Add phase Steel into subfolder Steel > Phases.

CreateModel #0

In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Air

Add phase Air into subfolder Air > Phases.

InInit. data #0 set:

FlowVision Help 260

Velocity (Air)

X = 0.1 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

In the Properties window of the Subregion between external and internal surfaces, specify:

Name = Tube

Model = Steel

Define the following boundary conditions (on the inner side of the outer surface of the inner and outer surfaces):

Boundary 1

Name = Outer wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Steel) = Value

Value = 100 [C]

Boundary 2

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

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Boundary 3

Name = Inner wall

Type = Bound

In the Properties window Subregion within the inner surface of the set:

Name = Flow

Model = Air

Specify the following boundary conditions (on the inner surface at the tube):

Boundary 1

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(air) = Value

Value =0 [C]

Velocity(Air) = Normal mass velocity

Value = 0.1 [kg (m2s)-1]

Boundary 2

Name = Outlet

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Temperature(air) = Zero gradient

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Velocity(Air) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 3

Name = Wall

Type = Bound

CreatingCommunication conditions

The mapping oftheligaments andthe communication conditions

CreateBundle # 0:

SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersboundary connections Bundles

CreateCondition connection # 0:

SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderboundary connections Communication conditions

In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Model # 1 = Steel

Model # 2 = Air

FlowVision Help 263

In yourcondition connection #0 in the context menuselectAddfolderBundles/ Remove

HighlightBundle #0 in the listare not selected,and then clickAdd >>

FlowVision Help 264

FlowVision Help 265

5.1.1.2.5 Initial grid

nX = 25

nY = 25

nZ = 25

In this example, you must make adaptation of a grid within subregions of solid walls of the tube and near the

wall in a subregion of the flow.

To make adaptation of a grid within the Subregion tube, create a criterion of adaptation:

In Subregion tube in the context menu folder Adaptation, select Create

In the Properties window created element Adaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes

Object = Computational space

Max level =1

Split/Merge = Split

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Zone = In volume

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.1 [s]

5.1.1.2.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build temperature distribution in the plane of

the flow before the start of computation.

Clipped = Yes

On thePlane #0 set:

Object

FlowVision Help 267

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z = -1

Clipping object = Yes

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 100

Min =0

Palette

Operations = Load from File heat.fvpal

Consider the natural convection of air around the lamp bulb, heated from the inside by a filament.

Boundary parameters:

The temperature of the helix Ts =2400 [K]

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Air conditions:

Molar mass M = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Viscosity =1.82x10-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat cp = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Geometry: Lamp.STL

Project: Lamp

InFlowVisioncan create a surface from which the sub-region is formed after the creation of the project. Surface

geometry is imported from a file or created on the basis of objects Preprocessor. In this project, you must

create an outer surface of the Subregion, which is modeled by the movement of air.

In the folder Objects on the Preprocessor tab, create a Box.

In the Properties window,set theBox # 0:

Size

X = 0.5 [m]

Y = 0.5 [m]

Z = 0.5 [m]

In the context menu,selectBox #0 Build into the main geometry.

In the Properties window, set the created Subregion:

Name = Lamp

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

g-density = 1.286 [kg m-1s-1]

FlowVision Help 269

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Air

Aggregative state = Gas

Properties

Molar mass = Constant

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density = Ideal gas law

Viscosity =Constant

Thermal conductivity =Constant

Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat =Constant

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

CreateSubstance #0

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Name = Vacuum

Aggregative state = Solid

Properties

Density =Constant

Value = 0.001 [kg m-3]

Thermal conductivity =Constant

Specific heat =Constant

Value = 108 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase#0

In the Properties window,set thePhase#0:

Name = Air

Add SubstanceAir Substancesin the folderphaseair

Specify the air phase in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

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In thePropertieswindow, set thePhase# 0:

Name = Vacuum

Specify the vacuum phase in the Properties window of the folder Physical processes:

Radiation = P1

In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Air

Add phase Air into subfolder Air > Phases.

CreateModel #0

In the Properties window Model #0 set:

Name = Vacuum

Add phase Vacuum into subfolder Vacuum > Phases.

FlowVision Help 271

5.1.2.3 Boundary conditions

Model = Vacuum

Boundary 1

Type = Bound

Variables

Radiation density (Vacuum) = Calculated rad. flux

Blackness = 0.0001

Boundary 2

Name = Spiral

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature (Vacuum) = Value

Value = 2400 [K]

Radiation density (Vacuum) = Calculated rad. flux

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Blackness =1

Boundary 3

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature (Vacuum) = Zero gradient

Radiation density (Vacuum) = Calculated rad. flux

Blackness =1

Model = Air

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Boundary 1

Name = Glass bulb

Type = Bound

Boundary 2

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(air) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Air) = No slip

Boundary 3

Name = Outlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(air) = Value

Value =0 [C]

Velocity (Air) = Total pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Select Create from the context menu of the folder Bundles

List of unbound BC =External environment: Glass bulb

Select Createfrom the context menu of a folder Communication conditions

In the formation of the communication condition set:

Model # 1 = Vacuum

Model # 2 = Air

FlowVision Help 274

AddBundle #0

nX =5

nY =5

nZ =5

5.1.2.6 Adaptation

In the Properties window created elementAdaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes

Object = Computational space

Max level =4

Split/Merge = Split

Zone = In volume

In the Preprocessor object is created in the folder objectcone / cylinder

In the object properties windowcone / cylinder #0 set:

Location

Reference point

X =0 [m]

Y = -0.26 [m]

Z =0 [m]

The X

axis

X =0

Y =1

Z =0

Parameters

Height = 0.2 [m]

Radius 1 = 0.025 [m]

Radius of 2 = 0.025 [m]

Regular attitude. =1

FlowVision Help 275

In the Properties window created elementAdaptation # 1set:

Activation = Yes

Max level =4

Split/Merge = Split

Zone = In volume

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =5

Cell Strata =6

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 100

Max step =1 [s]

5.1.2.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

2. Temperature distribution in the plane of the flow

FlowVision Help 276

5.1.2.8.1 Velocity distribution

In the Properties window of the Vectors specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Grid

Size 1 = 100

Size 2 = 100

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 0.3

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

FlowVision Help 277

Color = Black

Note:

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

In the Properties window of the Color contours specify:

Variable

Variable = Temperature

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 14

Min =1

Method = Isolines

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

FlowVision Help 278

Note:

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

FlowVision Help 279

5.2 Rotation

FlowVisiontakes into account the rotation of the surfaces in the selected coordinate system. Thus, the

application can take into account both normal and tangential components of the rotation speed and only

tangential.

Create a local coordinate system and Rotation,

Specify a spin on the boundary condition, mounted on a rotating surface,

5.2.1 Rotor

In this example, the simulated turbulent viscous motion of an incompressible fluid between the rotating rotor

blades.

Dimensions:

Entrance length L = 0.17 [m]

Radius of the rotor R = 0.1 [m]

FlowVision Help 280

Inflow parameters:

Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 20 [m s-1]

Parameters of the substance:

Density =1 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 1.82 * 10-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Reynolds number: VinlDρ 20 0.05 1

Re 5*10 4

μ 1.82 10 5

Geometry: Rotor.STL

Project: Rotor

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value = 0.0289 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value =1 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 1.82e-5 [kg m-1s-1]

Thermal conductivity

Value = 0.026 [W m-1K-1]

Specific heat

Value = 1009 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify properties of folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KES

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CreateModel #0

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

5.2.1.2 Rotation

Create alocal coordinate systemrelative to which the rotation will occur

Sets therotationofthe localcoordinatesystem

SpecifyRotationon the surface

In the context menu of a folderlocal coordinate systems,selectCreate

Specify aSpin:

In the Local CS #0 in the context menu folderRotation, select Create

Specify the properties windowRotation #0

Direction

X =0

Y =0

FlowVision Help 282

Z =1

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

FlowVision Help 283

5.2.1.3 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

FlowVision Help 284

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3

Name = Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 4

Name = Blades

Type = Wall

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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5.2.1.4 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.

Specify using the Initial grid editor:

OZ

Grid parameters:

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.05 [m]

h_max = 0.01 [m]

h_min = 0.0025 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.0025 [m]

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.189 [m]

h = 0.01 [m]

kh- =1

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nX = 50

nY = 50

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =2

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.0001 [s]

5.2.1.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Pressure variation on inlet

2. Velocity distribution in the plane of rotation of the blades

CreateCharacteristicsonSupergroup,

In thePropertieswindow, set the Characteristics:

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Characteristics

Variable

Variable Pressure

Save to file

Type Automatic

After calculation, the GLO-open the file recorded with Characteristics and build a relationshipfrom

theAvgTime

Object

Reference point

X =0

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Y =0

Z = 0.01

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the Vectors specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

On regular grid = No

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 55

Min = 15

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

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5.2.2 Sector of a rotor

In this example, simulated movement of air between the vanes, the sector of the rotor 8. To speed up the

calculation of the motion is modeled in one sector of the rotor.

Dimensions:

Entrance length L = 0.17 [m]

Radius of the rotor R = 0.1 [m]

The thickness of the blade d = 0.05

Inflow parameters:

Mass velocity on inlet Vinl = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

Substance: = Air

Geometry: RotorSector.WRL

Project: RotorSector

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5.2.2.1 Making geometry of computational domain

In the simulation of the flow in the rotor, which consists of several identical sectors, to reduce the dimension of

the problem it is advisable to calculate the movement in one of the sectors. To do this:

during the preparation of the geometry cut from the full geometric model of the rotor is one of the periodic

sectors

when specifying the project to link the respective surfaces by periodic communication conditions

Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create continuous Phase #0.

Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

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Turbulence = KES

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Specify the initial data #0 folder:

Value = 0.01

Turbulence scale (Phase #0)

Value = 0.01 [m]

5.2.2.3 Rotation

In the context menu of a folderlocal coordinate systems,selectCreate

Specify aSpin:

Inthe Local CS #0 in the folder,create aRotationRotation #0

Specify the properties windowRotation #0

Direction

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

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5.2.2.4 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

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Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3

Name = Outlet

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 4

Name = Blades

Type = Wall

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 5

Name = Surface due 1_1

Type = Bound

Boundary 6

Name = Surface due 1_2

Type = Bound

Border 7

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Type = Bound

Border 8

Name = Surface due 2_2

Type = Bound

Upon binding of boundary conditions are not different sides of one surface, it is necessary to set the reference

point - for the control points the two binding surfaces which upon binding correspond to each other. It suffices

to give one pair of reference points for each bunch.

In the folderUnbound BCin the context menu of both linked boundary conditions selectCreate reference

point

In the properties window, the two reference points define their position so that when the binding surfaces are

matched to each other.

In the folderUnbound BCin the context menu of BCsurface due 1_1selectCreate reference point

In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates

X = -0.039199

Y = 0.028954

Z =0

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In the context menu of BCsurface due 1_2selectCreate reference point

In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates

X = -0.007244

Y = 0.048191

Z =0

In the context menu of BCsurface due 2_1selectCreate reference point

In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates

X = 0.004345

Y = 0.097904

Z =0

In the context menu of BCsurface due 2_1selectCreate reference point

In the Properties window,the reference point #0 set:

Coordinates

X = 0.072301

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Y = 0.066156

Z =0

SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersBundles

CreateCondition connection # 0:

SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderCommunication conditions

In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Model # 1 = Model #0

Model # 2 = Model #0

In theConditionelementconnection #0 in the context menu of a folder,selectAdd AllBundles

OZ

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Grid parameters

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.05 [m]

h_max = 0.01 [m]

h_min = 0.0025 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.0025 [m]

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.189 [m]

h = 0.01 [m]

kh- =1

nX = 25

nY = 25

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =2

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.0001 [s]

5.2.2.9 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Pressure variation on inlet

2. Velocity distribution in the plane of rotation of the blades

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5.2.2.9.1 Pressure variation

On BC Inlet create a Supergroup in Preprocessor (use in the context menu the command Create

supergroup > In Preprocessor).

Create Characteristics on this Supergroup.

In the Properties window, specify properties of the Characteristics:

Characteristics

Variable

Variable Pressure

Save to file

Type Automatic

After calculation, the GLO-open the file recorded with Characteristics and build a relationshipfrom

theAvgTime

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Object

Reference point

X =0

Y =0

Z = 0.01

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

On regular grid = No

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 55

Min =5

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

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5.2.3 Rotor+Stator

In this example, simulated movement of air between rotating rotor blades and the stator channel.

Dimensions:

Entrance length L = 0.17 [m]

Radius of the rotor R = 0.1 [m]

The thickness of the blade d = 0.05

Inflow parameters:

Mass velocity on inlet Vinl = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

Substance: = Air

Geometry: RotorStator.STL

Project: RotorStator

For simulating problems with the rotation of the surfaces in the computational domain, the outer boundary of

which is not a surface of revolution about a respective axis of rotation, it is necessary to divide the geometry

into several subregions. Thus, the outer boundaries of the subregions, which will be set rotating, have to be

present a surface of revolution about a respective axis. Relationship between subregions by usingTrailing

Terms connectionthat allows you to simulate the flow of liquid or gas between the subregions with respect to

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CreateRotation

Create a dividing surface

Divide Computational domain into subregions for separating surface

Create aSpin:

Create alocal coordinate system

Inthe Local CS #0 in the folder,create aRotationRotation #0

Direction

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

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Specify the properties windowCone / Cylinder#0

Location

The X axis

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Parameters:

Height = 0.02 [m]

Radius 1 = 0.1025 [m]

Regular attitude. =1

In the window,selectCopy surfacesofthelateral surface. Lower baseandupper basemust remain

unmarked

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In theCreate new sliding surface,specify:

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In the Properties windowSliding surface #0 set:

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

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Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Create a continuous Phase #0.

Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KES

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

Value = 0.01

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Value = 0.01 [m]

In the Properties window of the Subregion, which corresponds to the rotor (see illustration below) specify:

Name = Rotor

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

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Boundary 2

Name = Inlet

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Mass velocity = 20 [kg m-2 s-1]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3

Name = Surface connection

Type = Bound

Boundary 4

Name = Blades

Type = Wall

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

In the Properties window Subregion corresponding stator (see. Fig. Below), specify:

Name = Stator

Model = Model #0

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Boundary 1

Name = Wall

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Name = Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy (Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation (Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

Boundary 3

Name = Surface connection

Type = Bound

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5.2.3.4 Binding subregions

CreateBundle # 0:

SelectCreatefrom the context menuallfoldersBundles

CreateCondition connection # 0:

SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderCommunication conditions

In theformation of the communication conditionset:

Model # 1 = Model #0

Model # 2 = Model #0

In theConditionelementconnection #0 in the context menuselectAddfolderBundles/ Remove

AddBundle #0

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

OZ

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Grid parameters:

kh_max =2

d_min = 0.05 [m]

h_max = 0.01 [m]

h_min = 0.0025 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.0025 [m]

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.189 [m]

h = 0.01 [m]

kh- =1

nX = 75

nY = 70

In SubregionRotor:

In the properties ofthe boundary condition Blades,specify:

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =2

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =2

In SubregionStator:

In the properties of thesurface boundary condition duespecify:

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata =2

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5.2.3.7 Parameters of calculation

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 100

Moving CFL =1

Max step = 0.001 [s]

5.2.3.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Pressure variation on inlet

On BC Inlet create a Supergroup in Preprocessor (use in the context menu the command Create

supergroup > In Preprocessor).

CreateCharacteristicsonSupergroup,

In thePropertieswindow, set the Characteristics:

Variable

Variable Pressure

Save to file

Type Automatic

After calculation, the GLO-open the file recorded with Characteristics and build a relationshipfrom

theAvgTime

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5.2.3.8.2 Pressure distribution

Object

Reference point

X =0

Y =0

Z = 0.01

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

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Max = 13000

Min = -1000

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 3

Color = Black

Note:

In the current version of the program inaccuracies might appear in the displaying of layers when solving

problems with sliding surfaces.

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5.2.4 Rotating tank

In this example, the simulated rotation tank half filled with liquid.

Dimensions:

The height of the tank L =2 [m]

The radius of the tank R = 0.5 [m]

Parameters wall

Speed of rotation = 10 [Radian s-1]

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 100 [kg m-1s-1]

The liquid level h =1 [m]

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Geometry: Bak.STL

Project: Bak

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =-9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of thesubstances # 0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 100 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Create a continuous Phase # 1

Create Model #0.

Add phases Phase #0 andPhase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

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5.2.4.2 Rotation

In the context menu of a folderlocal coordinate systems,selectCreate

Specify aSpin:

Inthe Local CS #0 in the folder,create aRotationRotation #0

Specify the properties windowRotation #0

Direction

X =0

Y =1

Z =0

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5.2.4.3 Boundary conditions

Model = Model #0

Boundary 1, 2

Type = Wall

Local FR = Local FR #0

Rotation #0 = Rotation

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

VOF (Phase #0)

=Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Free Outlet

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Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

VOF (Phase #0)

= Zero gradient

in the properties of the elementNach.dannye # 0#0 models:

VOF

Value =1

In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location

Reference point

X =0 [m]

Y = 0.5 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Size

X =1 [m]

Y = 0.99 [m]

Z =1 [m]

Object = Box #0

Init. data = Initial. data #0

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5.2.4.5 Initial grid

nX = 20

nY = 40

nZ = 20

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

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Max level =2

Cell Strata =1

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Surface CFL =1

Max step =1 [s]

5.2.4.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build liquid surface before the start of

computation.

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5.2.4.8.1 Surface of the liquid

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Appearance

Shaded

Color = Blue

Notes:

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

FlowVision Help 322

FlowVisionallows adjusting the initial position and to simulate movement (translational or rotational), the

geometry of the individual parts. For this module is used Movable body. The geometry of the moving body is

loaded from files, files with similar basic geometry.

Create a geometric model of the moving bodies inFlowVisionor a third-party CAD system

Based on the created geometric models to create Imported objects,

Disable updating the moving bodies that will not move in the process of calculation,

Specify a law of motion of the moving bodies, which will be moved in the process of calculation,

Specify the appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the moving bodies,

It is advisable to use a time step of about 1 Surface CFL,

In the case where the movement of the moving bodies in an incompressible fluid under the influence of forces

exerted by the fluid oscillations occur, it is necessary to set the value of the compressibility factor in the

properties of the substance, if the oscillations are gone, the Movement including artificial compressibility and

set the values of the coefficients is damped.

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Dimensions:

Chord length: c = 0.3 [m]

Dimensions of the computational 13.8 x 12 x 0.1 [m x m x m]

domain

Angle of attack: = 2.31 °

Substance: = Air

Inlet parameters:

Static pressure: P = 109 000 [Pa]

Static temperature: T = 255.6 [K]

Velocity on inlet: Vinl =233,585 [m s-1]

Reynolds number: Re = 6.5 x 106

Geometry: RAE_2822_Domain.WRL

Project: RAE_2822

Note:

Calculation of the project may require significant computing resources and a long time.

Reference values

Temperature = 255.6 [K]

Pressure = 109000 [Pa]

Create Substance #0.

DownloadSubstance #0 ofthe Standard Base substances:

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

In the folderPhases:

Create a continuous Phase #0

Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

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Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Turbulence = SA

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

Velocity

X = 233585 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

In order to be able to define an angle of attack across the interface must be set as themovable bodyprofile.

Creating GeometryMoving body

Create a modifiermovable body

In the third-party apps geometric modeling and loaded intoFlowVisionasimported objects

InFlowVision

In this example, the geometry of the movable body is loaded duringFlowVisionfile. In order to get the geometry

of theMoving body:

SelectCreatefrom the context menu of a folderObjects

Specifytype=imported objects

Download the geometry of the moving body from a fileRAE_2822_Airfoil.STL

FlowVision Help 325

In the Properties window,set theSubregion # 0:

Model = Model #0

In the folder,create a newmodifiermodifiermovable bodyon the basis ofimported objects #0

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In theMoving bodyset:

The initial position

The X axis

X = 0.999187

Y = -0.04030

Z =0

In theMoving bodyset:

Update

Type = Disabled

Notes:

1. After you disable updates Moving body mass characteristics, translational motion, rotation, initial position,

limiters are unavailable for editing. Therefore the initial position must be set to disable the update.

2. When the update Moving body at each iteration occurs meshing. This operation is an expensive and takes

some CPU time. Therefore, for applications in which the movable body is not moving, it is recommended to

disable the update.

3. If there are several mobile phone, an update of at least one of them will lead to the updating of all the others.

FlowVision Help 327

Boundary 1

Type = Non-reflecting

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

Velocity at inf.

X = 233585 [m s-1]

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Y

Z

Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]

TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbKinViscosity(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

When simulating two-dimensional flow adaptation in the third direction arise extra cell. This can lead to a

substantial increase in the dimension of the problem by an unplanned direction. To avoid this, you can create

additional unplanned subregion located at a considerable distance from the settlement in the third direction

and, thus, reduce the number of cells obtained after adaptation to 1.

In the folder Objects on the Preprocessor tab, create a Box.

In the Properties window,set the Box #0:

Location

Reference point

X =0 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =2 [m]

Size

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X = 0.1 [m]

Y = 0.1 [m]

Z = 0.1 [m]

In the context menu,selectBox #0 Build into the main geometry.

Specify in the Initial grid editor:

X

Grid parameters:

kh_max = 2

h_max = 1.5 [m]

h_min = 0.0015 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

x1 =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -6 [m]

h = 1.5 [m]

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.0015 [m]

kh- = 0.97

kh+ = 0.97

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 7.8 [m]

h = 1.5 [m]

kh- = 0.83

Y

Grid parameters:

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kh_max = 2

h_max = 1.5 [m]

h_min = 0.0015 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

y1 =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -6 [m]

h = 1.5 [m]

kh+ = 1.4

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.0015 [m]

kh- =1

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 6 [m]

h = 1.5 [m]

kh- = 0.6

nZ =1

In this project it is necessary to solve the grid in the region of the boundary layer profile and the area of the

pressure jump. For this adaptation must be set on the surface of the profile and adapted to the pressure

gradient.

Specify adaptation to the boundary condition prescribed on the airfoil surface (boundary 3):

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =2

Cell Strata = 10

In the folder Adaptation to solution specify:

Activation

Type = Active by step

Start in steps = 500

Duration in steps =1

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Max level =3

Cell number = 300000

In properties of Adaptation to solution of #0 specify:

Activation = Yes

In properties of Adaptation to solution of #0 specify:

Variable = Pressure

Value/Gradient = To gradient

In the Properties window of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 10

Max step = 0.01 [s]

Pressure abs, min. = 100 [Pa]

Pressure abs, max. = 108 [Pa]

Temperature abs, max. = 105 [K]

Velocity, max. = 1500 [m s-1]

Small Cells

Criterion = Relative

Note:

Switching criterion for the relative smallness of the cells is necessary in order to received after the nonisobaric

subregion cells were calculated (similar to the example Flow in a tube with variable flow).

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5.3.1.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Mach Number distribution in the plane of the flow

2. Distribution of Average on the profile surface

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Color contours on Plane #0.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable MachNumber

FlowVision Help 333

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 1.1

Min = 0.3

Method = Isolines

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

5.3.1.8.2 Cp distribution

1. Creating a variable Cp

2. Creating a layer along the curve graph on Wed

5.3.1.8.2.1 Create Cp

In your User Variables > Local in the context menu select Create > Scalar

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menu Variables and Constants tab All in Phase #0 , select the variable pressure and call

boxidentification variable

in theidentification of the variable,specify the name under which the variable will be involved in the

formula

FlowVision Help 335

ClickAccept

Object

Reference point

X = -0.1

Y = -0.1

Z = 0.05

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In the Properties window, set the graphics along the curve:

Variable

Variable = UV #0

Shift = 0.0001

Number of points = 1000

Distribute Each curve =

Rotation angle = 90

The X axis

Mode = Manual

Length = 0.5

Appearance

Graphs

Visible =1

FlowVision Help 337

5.3.2 Ball falling in viscous fluid

In this example, we consider the problem of the fall of the ball by gravity inside the column of a viscous

incompressible fluid.

A fall in the fluid ball the force of gravity and the force of resistance.

For some time reached a stationary regime in which the velocity of the body relative to the fluid is constant.

Parameters of the ball

Radius R = 0.5 [m]

Density = 1500 [kg m-3]

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 1000 [kg m-1s-1]

Geometry FallingBall_Domain.STL

Project Falling_Ball

FlowVision Help 338

5.3.2.1 Physical model

Define the following:

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =-9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

g-Point

X =0 [m]

Y =5 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Layer

g-thickness = 30 [m]

g-density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 1000 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

FlowVision Help 339

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Comment:

Viscosity value = 1000 is set to accelerate convergence.

Model = Model #0

In thePreprocessorobject is created in the folder object Ellipsoid/sphere

In theellipsoid / Spheres#0 set:

Parameters

Radius = 0.5 [m]

Approximation

The number of partitions = 200

In the context menuellipsoid / Spheres# 0,select Copy as imported object

In the folderModifiersSubregion #0 createmovable bodybased onImported object #0

In theMoving body #0 set:

Mass Properties

Weight = 785.4 [kg]

Translational motion

VremyaCil [s]

X =0 [s]

Y =0 [s]

Z =0 [s]

Hydrosila [N]

X =No

Y = Yes

Z =No

Note:

1. Magnitude and GidroSily GidroMomenta program calculates automatically.

2. In order to place the body in the initial position, you must press

FlowVision Help 340

5.3.2.3 Boundary conditions

Boundary 1

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

Boundary 2

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = No slip

FlowVision Help 341

5.3.2.4 Initial grid

nX = 15

nY = 15

nZ = 15

In this embodiment, the grid should be adapted to the surface of the moving ball and drained previously adapted

cells that are far away from the ball. To do this, you must set two conditions of adaptation:

1. Splitting the cells on the surface of a sphere

2. Merging the cells in the volume away from the ball

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

FlowVision Help 342

Max level =4

Cell Strata =3

Specify in the adaptation:

Activation = Yes

Object = Computational space

Max level =0

Split/Merge = Merge

Zone = In volume

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 100

Surface CFL =1

Max step = 0.01 [s]

5.3.2.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build dependence of the velocity of the ball

from time to time before the start of computation.

FlowVision Help 343

CreateCharacteristicsforimported objects

In the Properties window, set the Characteristics:

Characteristics

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Save to file

Type = Automatic

After calculation, the GLO-download the file from the server part of the project through the File menu >

Download additional files > GLO-files

According to data from GLO-file plot the dependence of the velocity of the ball along the axis Y (Velocity.y)

from time to time (Time).

In this example, we consider the motion of a body with a displaced center of mass (= center of mass) on the

surface of the water and the generation of waves on the surface under the influence of body movement.

region

Body parameters

Dimensions axbxc = 0.2x0.05x0.1 [m x mxm]

Density = 500 [kg m-3]

FlowVision Help 344

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Geometry FloatingBox_Domain.WRL

Project FloatingBox

Define the following:

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =-9.8 [m s-2]

Z =0 [m s-2]

g-Point

X =0 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Layer

g-density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

FlowVision Help 345

Compressibility

Value = 4.44e-10 [m2N-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Create a continuous Phase #1

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Model = Model #0

Download the geometry imported from a file objectFloatingBox_Box.stl

In the folderModifiersSubregion 0 #create The movable bodyonimported objects #0

Mass Properties

Weight = 0.5 [kg]

The center of mass

X =0 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z = -0.005 [m]

Moment inertsii0

X = 0.00846 [kg m2]

Y =0 [kg m2]

Z =0 [kg m2]

Moment inertsii1

X =0 [kg m2]

Y = 0.00333 [kg m2]

Z =0 [kg m2]

FlowVision Help 346

Moment inertia2

X =0 [kg m2]

Y =0 [kg m2]

Z = 0.00333 [kg m2]

Translational motion

VremyaSil[s]

X =0 [s]

Y =0 [s]

Z =0 [s]

Hydrosila[N]

X = No

Y = Yes

Z = No

Rotation

Time points[s]

X =0 [s]

Y =0 [s]

Z =0 [s]

GidroMoment [N]

X = Yes

Y = No

Z =No

The initial position

Reference point

= 0.3

X [m]

= 0.05

Y [m]

= 0.15

Z [m]

Note:

In order to place the body in the initial position, you must press

FlowVision Help 347

5.3.3.3 Boundary conditions

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = No slip

VOF (Phase #0)

=Symmetry

Boundary 2

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0

VOF (Phase #0)

= Value

Value =1

Boundary 3

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity (Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0

VOF (Phase #0)

= Value

FlowVision Help 348

Value =0

VOF

Value =1

In the folderobjects:

create Box #0

Location

Reference point

X = 0.3 [m]

Y = -0.075 [m]

Z = 0.15 [m]

Size

X = 0.6 [m]

Y = 0.149 [m]

Z = 0.3 [m]

Object = Box #0

Init. data = Initial. data #0

FlowVision Help 349

OX

Grid parameters:

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.05 [m]

h_min = 0.03 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

x = 0.3 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.05 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.3 [m]

h = 0.03 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.6 [m]

h = 0.05 [m]

OY

Grid parameters:

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.025 [m]

h_min = 0.004 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

y =0 [m]

h = 0.025 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.004 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.15 [m]

h = 0.025 [m]

OZ

Grid parameters:

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.0375 [m]

h_min = 0.006 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

FlowVision Help 350

z = 0.15 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0

h = 0.0375 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.15 [m]

h = 0.006 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0.3 [m]

h = 0.0375 [m]

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Surface CFL =1

Max step = 0.1 [s]

5.3.3.7 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build Water surface before the start of

computation.

FlowVision Help 351

5.3.4 Floating boat

Body parameters

Weight m = 968 [kg]

Water parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Inlet Rate Vin = 4 [m s-1]

Geometry Boat_Domain.wrl

Project Boat

Note:

Calculation of the project may require significant computing resources and a long time.

Define the following:

Gravity vector

X =0 [m s-2]

Y =0 [m s-2]

Z =-9.8 [m s-2]

g-Point

FlowVision Help 352

X =0 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Layer

g-thickness = 12 [m]

g-density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Turbulence = KES

Create a continuous Phase #1

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 and Phase #1 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Model = Model #0

FlowVision Help 353

Create amovable body:

Download the geometry imported from a file object Boat_Body.WRL

In the folderModifiersSubregion 0 #create The movable bodyonimported objects #0

Mass Properties

Weight = 968 [kg]

The center of mass

X = 3.856 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z = -0.12 [m]

Moment inertsii0

X = 304 [kg m2]

Y =0 [kg m2]

Z =0 [kg m2]

Moment inertsii1

X =0 [kg m2]

Y = 6025 [kg m2]

Z =0 [kg m2]

Moment inertia2

X =0 [kg m2]

Y =0 [kg m2]

Z = 6080 [kg m2]

Translational motion

VremyaSil[s]

X =0 [s]

Y =0 [s]

Z =0 [s]

Hydrosila[N]

X = No

Y = No

Z = Yes

Rotation

VremyaMomentov[s]

=0

X [s]

=0

Y [s]

=0

Z [s]

GidroMoment [N]

FlowVision Help 354

X =No

Y = Yes

Z =No

The initial position

Reference point

=0

X [m]

=0

Y [m]

=0

Z [m]

Job rotation Rotation matrix

The X axis

= -1

X

=0

Y

=0

Z

Y-axis

=0

X

= -1

Y

=0

Z

FSI

Compliance = 0.0001 [m Pa-1]

Mobility = 0.05 [m2kg-1]

FlowVision Help 355

5.3.4.3 Boundary conditions

Boundary 1

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Value = 4000 [kg m-2 s-1]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

VOF (Phase #0)

= Value

Value =1

Boundary 2

Type = Inlet/Outlet

FlowVision Help 356

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity [kg m-2s-1]

Value = 4000

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value = 0.01 [m]

VOF (Phase #0)

= Zero gradient

Boundary 3

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

VOF (Phase #0)

=Symmetry

Boundary 4

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value = 0.01

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

VOF (Phase #0)

=Zero gradient

Border 5

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

VOF (Phase #0)

=Symmetry

FlowVision Help 357

5.3.4.4 Initial conditions

Velocity(Phase #0)

Value

X =4 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Pulsations(Phase #0)

Value = 0.01

Turbulence scale(Phase #0)

VOF (Phase #0)

Value =1

In the folderobjects:

create Box #0

In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location

Reference point

X =0 [m]

Y = -12.5 [m]

Z = -6 [m]

Size

X = 52 [m]

Y = 24.999 [m]

Z = 12 [m]

In Subregion #0:

In the Properties of Initial conditions #0 set:

Object = Box #0

Init. data = Initial. data #0

FlowVision Help 358

5.3.4.5 Initial grid

OX

Grid parameters

Mesh Type Step (hi)

f max =1

C max = 10

C min =1

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

x =0 [m]

Reference line parameters c coordinate =0 [m]

Odds

User left = -0.3

User Right = -0.1

Management = Yes

Grid spacing

User = 0.2

Parameters of reference line with coordinate= -26 [m]

Odds

User Right =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 26

User left =1

OY

Grid parameters

Mesh Type Step (hi)

f max =1

C max = 10

FlowVision Help 359

C min =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

Odds

User left = -0.05

Management = Yes

Grid spacing

User = 0.2

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -25 [m]

Odds

User Right =1

OZ

Grid parameters:

Mesh Type Step (hi)

f max =1

C max = 100

C min =0

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

z =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

Odds

User left =0

User Right =0

Management = Yes

Grid spacing

User = 0.05

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -12 [m]

Odds

User Right =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 12

User left =1

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

FlowVision Help 360

Max level =1

Cell Strata =4

Specify in theadaptation:

Activation = Yes

Object = Computational space

Max level =0

Split/Merge = Merge

Zone = In volume

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Surface CFL =1

Max step =1 [s]

5.3.4.8 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Water surface

2. Pressure distribution on the surface of the boat

FlowVision Help 361

5.3.4.8.1 Water surface

Appearance

Shaded

Color = Blue

In the Properties window of Plane #0 specify:

Object

Reference point

X =0 [m]

Y = -0.0001 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Normal

X =0

Y = -1

FlowVision Help 362

Z =0

Clipping object = Yes

Mirror = Yes

In the Properties window of the layer Solids specify:

Clipped = Yes

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Shift = 0.000001

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 2000

Min = -1200

Palette

FlowVision Help 363

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

Note:

In order to display only the surface of the interface and hide the surface of the phase-boundary of the

computational domain, it should be in the layersetVOFVolume = None.

Inflow parameters:

Pressure on inlet pin = 101000 [Pa]

FlowVision Help 364

Rotor

The angular velocity of the left rotor Wl = 600 [Radian s-1]

Substance = Air

Geometry Compressor_Domain.STL

Project Compressor

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create a continuous Phase #0.

Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Turbulence = KES

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Specify the properties window #0 models:

Model = Model #0

FlowVision Help 365

Download the geometry imported from a file object Compressor_Male.stl

In folder Modifiers in Subregion #0 create modifier Moving body on the Imported objects

Rotation

Speed of rotation

X =0 [Radian s-1]

Y =0 [Radian s-1]

Z = 600 [Radian s-1]

Download the geometry imported from a file object Compressor_Female.slt

In folder Modifiers in Subregion #0 create modifier Moving body on the Imported objects

Mass Properties

The center of mass

X = 0.085 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z =0 [m]

Rotation

Speed of rotation

X =0 [Radian s-1]

Y =0 [Radian s-1]

Z = -400 [Radian s-1]

FlowVision Help 366

5.3.5.3 Boundary conditions

Boundaries 1, 2, 3

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 4

FlowVision Help 367

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Total temperature

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Total pressure

Total pressure =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value =0

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value =0 [m]

Border 5

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Value

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Total pressure

Total pressure = 1000 [Pa]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value =0

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value =0 [m]

In the simulation of screw compressors is recommended in the area near the exit to set the initial values of the

variables equal to the output.

Pressure

Value = 1000 [Pa]

In the folderobjects:

create Box #0

In the Properties window of Box #0 specify:

Location

Reference point

FlowVision Help 368

X = 0.04275 [m]

Y = -0.095 [m]

Z = 0.005 [m]

Size

X = 0.05 [m]

Y = 0.08 [m]

Z = 0.012 [m]

Object = Box #0

nX = 18

nY = 22

FlowVision Help 369

nZ =5

Box # 1,create afolderObjects

Specify the following settings in the Properties windowof the parallelepiped # 1:

Location

Reference point

X = 0.0427 [m]

Y =0 [m]

Z = 0.005 [m]

Dimensions

X = 0.2 [m]

Y = 0.12 [m]

Z = 0.012 [m]

Create an elementAdaptation #0 in the folderAdaptation

In the Properties window created elementAdaptation #0 set:

Activation = Yes

Object = Box # 1

Max level =2

Split/Merge = Split

Zone = In volume

5.3.5.7 History

In order to display the history of the calculation, it is necessary:

preserve the history of calculation

create a layer for the visualization

start progressive download of calculation results with saving images to a file

in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

FlowVision Help 370

Autosavein thedataset:

History = Yes

Frequency

Type = On time

The number of = 0.0005 [s]

seconds

5.3.5.9 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Distribution of gap cells

2. Instant Velocity distribution plane of symmetry

3. The dynamics of the velocity field Time

FlowVision Help 371

5.3.5.9.1 Distribution of gap cells

In the Properties window of this layer Cell set specify:

Appearance

Method = Lines

Note:

Selection algorithm gap stretches cells, see section Flow in a channel using a model of the gap

FlowVision Help 372

5.3.5.9.2 Velocity distribution

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =0

Z =1

Create a layer Vectors on the plane.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

FlowVision Help 373

Grid

Size 1 = 50

Size 2 = 50

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 33

Min =0

Palette

Overlay

Enabled = Yes

Style = Style 1

run sequentially storing the image file in the Graphics window by button

Leave the default window size

after the end of the serial data loading stop saving images of the Graphics window to a file through the button

FlowVision Help 374

FlowVision Help 375

A two-dimensional channel, which is partially overlapped by a deformable valve, is simulated. The deformation

of the valve is modeled in Abaqus.

Inflow parameters:

Velocity V = 10 [m s-1]

Fluid parameters:

Density = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Parameters of the valve

Density = 3500 [kg m-3]

Young's modulus E = 3 x 109 [Pa]

Geometry Valve_Channel.WRL

1. Details of the model involved in the coupling analysis should be modeled using continuum or shell elements.

2. In the model interface surfaces for the direct coupling interface must be defined.

3. The interface surface must be:

closed

determined on a continuous mesh. The mesh should have no "duplicate" nodes, modified elements

and should not contain a surface of two meshes connected with TIE-contact.

FlowVision Help 376

6.1.1.1 Model

Dimensions

= 0.005

X [m]

FlowVision Help 377

Y = 0.05 [m]

Z = 0.02 [m]

The material parameters

Density = 3500 [kg m-3]

Young's modulus = 3 * 109 [Pa]

Poisson's ratio = 0.3

= Encastre (anchorage for all degrees of freedom of nodes of the lower

The boundary condition on the lower bound: U1=U2=U3=UR1=UR2=UR3=0)

surface

Grid

Cell number = 800

Type of elements = S3D8R

Solver = Standard

Assembly > Tools > Surface > Create > Name: DC_SURF, Type: Mash

Open the INP project file in a text editor. Add the following lines to the module STEP:

**

* CO-SIMULATION REGION, IMPORT

DC-surf, CF

**

FlowVision Help 378

* CO-SIMULATION REGION, EXPORT

DC-surf, COORD

**

* CO-SIMULATION CONTROLS, NAME = COSIM_CONTROLS, TIME INCREMENTATION = LOCKSTEP, TIME MARKS = YES

These lines are used to identify the coupling analysis with the other program. More details about these settings

can be found in theAbaqus Keywords Reference Manual:

* CO-SIMULATION

* CO-SIMULATION CONTROLS

* CO-SIMULATION REGION

In general, the input file of Abaqus data for finite element mesh of several objects, which can lead to the

creation of an open surface due upon import. In order to avoid such a situation, the objects involved in the

coupling analysis must be imported into FlowVision separately. For this purpose, based on the input file, you

must create a new file containing only the data for the finite element mesh imported object.

Thus, in the INP file will only have the contents of the following modules:

* Node

......................

......................

......................

* Element, type = C3D8R

......................

......................

......................

* End Part

It should be noted that for this problem the above operation is unnecessary, as the input file contains the

Abaqus finite element mesh of only one object (valve). When you import a file valve_stnd.INP FlowVision

automatically extract only the data containing three-dimensional network, ignoring the rest of the line.

Requirements to to the FlowVision's project:

The geometry of the deformable body has to be loaded from Abaqus to In FlowVision, and this geometry

must completely comply to the deformable geometry in the Abaqus project.

The geometry of the deformed body, loaded into FlowVision, must comply with the requirements to the

geometry in FlowVision (see. User's guide).

Create Substance #0.

Specify the following properties of Substance #0:

FlowVision Help 379

Molar mass

Value =0.018 [kg mole-1]

Density

Value = 1000 [kg m-3]

Viscosity

Value = 0.001 [kg m-1s-1]

Specific heat

Value = 4217 [J kg-1 K-1]

Create a continuous Phase #0.

In Phase #0 add Substance #0 into the folder Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Phase #0 > Physical processes:

Turbulence = KES

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Specify theinitial datafolder# 0:

X = 10 [m s-1]

Model = Model #0

Download the geometry of the Imported object from the file Valve_stnd.INP.

In the folder Modifiers Subregion 0 #create A moving body on the basis of imported objects

In the Properties window, set the Moving body:

The initial position

Reference point

X 0 [m]

Y -0.001 [m]

Z -0.01 [m]

Y-axis

X =0

Y =0

Z = -1

FlowVision Help 380

Note:

In order to see where the valve will be located when you start the calculation, it is necessary in its properties

window, click Add a body to the starting position

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Inlet/Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Normal mass velocity

Value = 10000 [kg m-2 s-1]

FlowVision Help 381

Value =0

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Turbulent scale

Value =0 [m]

Boundary 4

Type = Free Outlet

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Pressure

Value =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Boundary 5

Name = Valve

Type = Wall

Variables

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

nX = 60

nY =1

nZ = 20

FlowVision Help 382

6.1.2.5 Adaptation

In this problem, it is necessary to carry out the adaptation of the grid on the surface of the valve and merge

previously adapted cells, located away from the valve.

Specify adaptation on the surface of the valve. In the properties of the boundary condition set on the surface

of the valve, set:

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =4

Cell Strata =3

Activation = Yes

Object = Computational space

Max level =0

Split/Merge = Merge

Zone = In volume

Specify in the Solver tab in the properties of the Time step element:

Method = In seconds

Constant step = 0.05 [s]

Open the FVPROJ project file in a text editor. Add into the module <FVPROJECT> the following line:

<ConnectorID> MpmConnector </ConnectorID>

MPManager is a module designed to prepare coupling analysis of Abaqus and FlowVision. In MPManager

the following functionality is carried out:

Specifying connection Solver agent FlowVision

Project Selection FlowVision

Setting the exchange (general settings)

Project Selection Abaqus

Running the calculation

FlowVision Help 383

6.1.3.1 Connection with Solver-Agent

Select the operating mode The online mode (connected to solver agent)

FlowVision's Solver-Agent

Solver-Agent are installed

Port Port to connect to the Solver-Agent

Click Next

Specify in the Authorization window:

Password Password for the Solver-Agent

Name of the project Project Name FlowVision (server-side)

ClickNext

Note:

Before starting the calculation, you must create the server part of the project.

You can not start the calculation of the project that you downloaded in Solver, which is connected to pre-

postprocessor.

Step exchange

Absolute step exchange, s 0.05

Conversion Factors

Load 1

Relaxation parameters for the load

R1 0

R2 1

N1 0

N2 1

FlowVision Help 384

ClickNext

Running Abaqus

Run Abaqus automatically Yes

MPM-Agent IP IP address of the machine on which the

MPM-Agent and Abaqus

MPM-Agent port Port to connect to the MPM-Agent

Direct connection

Abaqus port Port for direct connection to Abaqus and

FlowVision (Direct coupling port settings

Abaqus)

Project Abaqus

The project file Local path to the Abaqus project

Parameters double

ClickNext

Note:

The project file name Abaqus provides no extension.

Notes:

1. The number of processors that are running a project is determined by the user.

2. If the parameters of the coupling analysis Abaqus - FlowVision already been set once, the calculation can

be started via the Terminal.

6.1.4 Visualization

To view the dynamics of the solution during the computation, build before the start of computation:

1. Velocity distribution in the plane of the flow.

2. Pressure distribution on the surface of the valve

FlowVision Help 385

Object

Normal

X =0

Y =1

Z =0

Create a layer Vectors on the Plane.

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Grid

Size 1 = 50

Size 2 = 20

Coloring

Variable

Variable = Velocity

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 35

Min =0

Palette

Operations = Load from File > heat.fvpal

Notes:

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

FlowVision Help 386

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

If you wish to hide some layers or objects displayed in the View window, use the Hide command from their

context menus.

Create a Supergroup on BC Valve using the Create supergroup > In Postprocessor command from the

context menu.

Create a layer Color contoursonSupergroup

In the Properties window of the layer specify:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Value range

Mode = Manual

Max = 1000000

Min = -25000

Notes:

FlowVision Help 387

To display the palette, which is used for coloring the vectors by their absolute value (modulus), you can use

the Info window or enable Overlay. To open the Info window, you have to select the layer in the tree of

Postprocessor and click the button. Overlay is turned on in the layer's properties in the Palette group of

settings.

context menus.

FlowVision Help 388

Optimization goal (criterion optmimizatsii) - to maximize the lift force acting on the profile.

Adjustable parameter (parameter optimization) - the angle of rotation to the flow profile (pitch angle).

Dimensions:

Chord length: c = 0.256 [m]

Dimensions of the computational 5.3 x 5 x 0.00254 [m x m x m]

domain

Substance: Air

Inlet parameters:

Static pressure: P = 100000 [Pa]

Static temperature: T = 298 [K]

Velocity on inlet: Vinl = 103.83 [m s-1]

Reynolds number: Re = 1.68x 106

Geometry: NACA0012_opt.WRL

Project: NACA0012_opt

FlowVision Help 389

6.2.1.1 Physical model

Reference values

Temperature = 298 [K]

Create Substance #0.

Load Substance #0 from the Standard substance database:

o In the context menu of Substances #0 select Load from SD > Standard.

Substances = Air

Phases = Gas (equilibrium)

Create a continuous Phase #0.

Add the Air_Gas (equilibrium) substance into the folder Phase #0 > Substances.

Specify in the properties of the folder Physical processes:

Heat transfer = Convection & conduction

Turbulence = KES *)

*)

This means the Standard k-ε turbulence model.

Create Model #0.

Add Phase #0 into subfolder Model #0 > Phases.

Specify the initial data folder# 0:

Velocity

X = 103.83 [m s-1]

Y =0 [m s-1]

Z =0 [m s-1]

Model = Model #0

FlowVision Help 390

Download the geometry of the moving body from a fileNACA0012_opt_Airfoil.WRL

In folder Modifiers in Subregion #0 create modifier Moving body on the Imported objects #0

Job rotation = The Aviation angles

FlowVision Help 391

Boundary 1

Type = Wall

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Zero gradient

Velocity(Phase #0) = Logarithm law

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Value in cell near wall

Boundary 2

Type = Symmetry

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Velocity(Phase #0) = Slip

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Symmetry

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) = Symmetry

Boundary 3

Type = Non-reflecting

Variables

Temperature(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

Value =0 [K]

Velocity(Phase #0) = Non-reflect.

Velocity at inf.

X = 103.83 [m s-1]

Y

Z

Pressure at inf. =0 [Pa]

TurbEnergy(Phase #0) = Pulsations

Value =0

TurbDissipation(Phase #0) =Turbulent scale

Value =0

FlowVision Help 392

6.2.1.4 Initial grid

In the Properties window of the Initial grid, click on the button , which opens the Initial grid editor.

Specify the Initial grid editor:

OX

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.635 [m]

h_min = 0.002 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

x1 =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54 [m]

h =0.635 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.002 [m]

kh- = 1.001

kh+ = 0.95

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.794 [m]

h =0.635 [m]

OY

Grid parameters

kh_max =2

h_max = 0.635 [m]

h_min = 0.002 [m]

Insert a reference lines with a coordinate:

x1 =0 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = -2.54 [m]

h =0.635 [m]

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 0 [m]

h = 0.002 [m]

kh- =1

FlowVision Help 393

kh+ =1

Parameters of reference line with coordinate = 2.54 [m]

h =0.635 [m]

nZ =1

6.2.1.5 Adaptation

Specify adaptation to the airfoil surface. In the properties of the boundary condition set on the airfoil surface

(boundary 1) specify:

Adaptation

Enabled = Yes

Max level =1

Cell Strata = 10

In the properties of the Time step element:

Convective CFL = 50

Max step =1 [s]

In the properties of theTerms stop length of time:

Starting =0 [s]

Stop = 0.05 [s]

In this problem, the parameter optimization is the rotation angle of the profile to the stream. In order to make it

accessible to change IOSO, should make it an external parameter.

In order to make the pitch angle external parameter:

In the context menu ofinitial position Pitch anglein the properties windowMoving body #0 to

highlightAdd to exposed parameters table...

FlowVision Help 394

In the window that appears,set the valueof the parameter identification=Pitch angle

After this update, you can disable the moving body. In theMoving bodyset:

Update

Type = Disabled

In this problem, the optimization criterion is the lift force. Also, as additional information it is advisable to

withdraw the force of resistance profile. In order to make their values available for reading IOSO, it is necessary

to make their output parameters.

Preprocessor tab

Create Propertiesforimported objects #0

In thePropertieswindow, specify0 # Characteristics:

Variable

Variable = Pressure

Solver tab

in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.

In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 set:

FlowVision Help 395

Name = Fx

Object = Characteristics #0 (imported object #0)

Variable Fl = F

Component =X

in the context menu of the folder Stopping conditions > User values, select Create.

In the Properties window of the new just created Stop criterion #0 set:

Name = Fy

Object = Characteristics #0 (importedobject #0 )

Variable Fl = F

Component =Y

Log on Solver-Agent:

FlowVision Help 396

Specify the parameters and run the project IOSO solver FlowVision

Otpimizatsiya Select the version IOSO, on which you will carry out the calculation

Solver Specify the startup mode solver FlowVision

Click Ok. The draft FlowVision automatically closes and opens the project IOSO

In the created project already defined mathematical model FlowVision with input and output files. Only required

to set up the parameters and criteria for the optimization and restrictions for them.

Specify the parameter optimization and changes in the boundaries of its IOSO:

Switch to the Statement of the Problem

FlowVision Help 397

Type =Independent

Specify:

The lower limit of-90

Top border= 0

ClickOk

In IOSO ntab andoutput parametersare displayed options made available for reading from FlowVision after the

calculation:

In FlowVision calculated forces acting on the flow from the side of the profile which are equal in magnitude and

opposite in sign to the forces acting on the flow profile from the side. In order to be used as the optimization

criterion coefficient of lift force acting on the profile side stream is necessary to add a synthetic parameter and

make it optimization criterion:

Specify the formula for the new value -RS2 / 16.17 and clickOK*

Specify:

FlowVision Help 398

Criterion=Maximize

Name = Cy

In this problem, as additional information is also advisable to display the drag coefficient and the coefficient of

aerodynamic efficiency, equal to the ratio of lift to drag force. To do this, you can create additional synthetic

parameters:

click ,

set formula for a new parameter -RS1 / 16.17 and clickOK*

specify the name of Cx,

click ,

set the formula for the new value RS1 / RS2 and clickOK*

specify the name of k.

Note:

*)If you specify a synthetic parameter that depends on the output parameters in the formula for the calculation

as the variables corresponding to the output parameters used by their ID, displayed on the tab ofthe Output

Parameters

Setting settlement units = Standard

place a check mark in the Enabled

specify:

Number of nodes =2

FlowVision Help 399

In the window that appearsIOSO PM. Mathematical modelplace a check mark in theCopy all files for

multiprocessor nodes:

FlowVision Help 400

Switch to theStatus:

After that will appear on the computational project launches FlowVision and time calculation of these projects

FlowVision Help 401

Stop optimization is recommended to carry out when the optimization results do not change much.

Once will be held over 10 settlements, will be available to view the results. In order to display the results of a

calculation, switch to theResultstabSearch History.

FlowVision Help 402

Bottom of the table, select thedisplay type=Table and Diagram

Specify:

The X axis

= Pitch angle

Y-axis

Cy =

FlowVision Help 403

SelectResults=Filtered

In the IOSO displays a graph of the lift from the pitch angle:

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