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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

L2 - Data Display and summary

Learning Objectives:

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

- Explain

the concepts of

- sample mean, population mean,

- sample variance, population variance, sample standard

deviation,

sample standard deviation, sample median, an sample range

Population:

whose properties are to be analyzed.

( the number UTP students)

Sample:

sample is called the sample size.

( the number of engineering students in UTP)

Population - Sample

Variable:

A characteristic of the objects in a population.

Gender of an engineering graduate ( category: male or female)

population

Univariate:

A data set consists of observations on a single variable.

( type of transmission in a car, automatic or manual)

Multivariate:

A data set arises when observations made on more than

one variable ( height and weight )

5

Types of variables

Variable

Quantitative

Discrete

(e.g. number of houses,

Cars, accidents

Qualitative or categorical

(e.g. make of a computer, hair colour

Gender)

Continuous

(e.g. length, age, height,

Weight, time)

Statistics

Descriptive

Statistics

-Methods of organizing,

display, and describe

important features of

data by

* tables,

* graphs, and

* summary measures

Inferential

Statistics

results to help make

decisions (inferences) or

predictions about a

population

7

of unit weights at points x1, x2, ,xn

X10

X7

X3

X1

1.5

x x

X

5.5

X8 X2

X5 X4 X6

X9

6.5 7

8.5 9.5 10

11

x 2 x10 55;

55

x

5.5

10

8

Sum of all values

In the population

Sample mean

Sum of all values

In the sample

x

n

9

Population variance :

2

(

x

)

2

x

2

N

N

10

Sample Variance

1

1

2

2

s

(

x

x

)

S

;

S

(

x

x

)

XX

XX

n 1

n 1

2

1

2

S xx x n ( x ) x x

n

2

2

(

x

)

2

x

n

s2

n 1

11

Find the mean, variance and standard deviation for the following

observations:

55 68 90 42 89 70

x 55 68 90 42 89 70 414

69

n

2

(

x

)

(414) 2

2

x

30334

n

6

s2

353.6

n 1

5

s 18.804

12

Exercise 3: (L1)

Seven oxide thickness measurements of

wafers are studied to assess quality in a

semiconductor manufacturing process. The

data (in angstroms) are: 1264, 1280, 1301,

1300, 1292, 1307, and 1275. Calculate the

sample average, variance and standard

deviation.

13

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