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CHAPTER 1

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

L1 Numerical Summary of Data


L2 - Data Display and summary

Learning Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
- Explain

the concepts of
- sample mean, population mean,
- sample variance, population variance, sample standard
deviation,

Compute and interpret the sample mean, sample variance,


sample standard deviation, sample median, an sample range

Population Sample ( Definition)


Population:

A collection, or set, of individuals or objects or events


whose properties are to be analyzed.
( the number UTP students)

Sample:

A subset of the population. The number of individuals of a


sample is called the sample size.
( the number of engineering students in UTP)

Illustration of selection of a sample from a population

Population - Sample
Variable:
A characteristic of the objects in a population.

CGPA of UTP students (number)


Gender of an engineering graduate ( category: male or female)

Its value may change from one object to another in the


population

Univariate:
A data set consists of observations on a single variable.
( type of transmission in a car, automatic or manual)
Multivariate:
A data set arises when observations made on more than
one variable ( height and weight )
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Types of variables
Variable

Quantitative

Discrete
(e.g. number of houses,
Cars, accidents

Qualitative or categorical
(e.g. make of a computer, hair colour
Gender)

Continuous
(e.g. length, age, height,
Weight, time)

Statistics

Descriptive
Statistics

-Methods of organizing,
display, and describe
important features of
data by
* tables,
* graphs, and
* summary measures

Inferential
Statistics

-Methods that use sample


results to help make
decisions (inferences) or
predictions about a
population
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Numerical Summary : Mean

The mean is the balance point for a system


of unit weights at points x1, x2, ,xn

X10

X7

X3

X1

1.5

x x

X
5.5

X8 X2

X5 X4 X6

X9

6.5 7

8.5 9.5 10

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x 2 x10 55;

55
x
5.5
10
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Population mean (mu) :


Sum of all values
In the population

The population size

Sample mean
Sum of all values
In the sample

x
n

The sample size


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Numerical Summary : Variability

Population variance :

2
(
x
)

2
x

2
N

N

Population standard deviation is

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Numerical Summary : Variability

Sample Variance

1
1
2
2
s
(
x

x
)

S
;
S

(
x

x
)

XX
XX
n 1
n 1
2

1
2
S xx x n ( x ) x x
n
2

2
(
x
)

2
x

n
s2
n 1

Sample Standard Deviation: SD = s


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Exercise 1: (Example 4.1)


Find the mean, variance and standard deviation for the following
observations:
55 68 90 42 89 70
x 55 68 90 42 89 70 414

69
n

2
(
x
)
(414) 2

2
x
30334

n
6
s2

353.6
n 1
5
s 18.804

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Exercise 3: (L1)
Seven oxide thickness measurements of
wafers are studied to assess quality in a
semiconductor manufacturing process. The
data (in angstroms) are: 1264, 1280, 1301,
1300, 1292, 1307, and 1275. Calculate the
sample average, variance and standard
deviation.
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