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ENGINEERING

DESIGN
GUIDELINES

WaboMBrace
Composite Strengthening System

Third Edition
May 2002

Watson Bowman Acme Corp.


95 Pineview Drive
Amherst, New York 14228
Phone: (716) 691-7566
Fax: (716) 691-9239
Website: www.wbacorp.com

Preface

The development of advanced polymers has led to the use of composite materials in
many industries including aerospace, automotive, defense, and shipbuilding. In the
past, economic factors and lack of an adequate knowledge base limited their use in the
construction industry. However, a decreasing trend of raw materials and manufacturing
costs have made these materials economically competitive with more traditional
construction materials. In addition, there now exist a wide number of research and
construction projects that have expanded the knowledge base for using composites in
construction.
Development of composite products for use in construction has led to the introduction of
composite structural shapes, composite bars and grids for concrete reinforcement, and
composite tendons for prestressed concrete. However, at the forefront of these
technologies is the use of externally bonded composite materials for strengthening
existing concrete structures. The most important characteristics of composite materials
in this application are: predominace of labor and shut-down costs as opposed to material
costs, time and site constraints, and log-term durability.
Externally bonded composite or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials were
introduced as an alternative to steel plate bonding in 1982. The initial research of
premanufactured FRP plate bonding began in Switzerland. FRP plate bonding was
developed analogous to steel plate bonding. In contrast to steel, FRP is lighter, easier to
install, and non-corrosive. Further development of this concept was done in Japan
where the FRP material was cast-in-place from its two components, fiber and polymer.
The Japanese development of this technology and of FRP materials in 1985 has directly
led to the key components used in the WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System.
The increasing consideration and usage of the system on strengthening projects are
indicators of the benefits of FRP technology.
Hundreds of technical papers and several proceedings related to externally bonded FRP
reinforcement are available. In fact, ASCE has begun a new publication entitled Journal
of Composites in Construction that deals exclusively with externally bonded FRP and
other composite material systems. ACI Committee 440 now serves to establish
standardized design criteria, testing procedures, and quality control measures for FRP in
concrete structures. This committees work is presently available as a state-of-the-art
report. However, draft documents for design and construction codes are currently being
circulated through the committee and should be available in the near future.
This design guide seeks to condense much of the current literature and conform to the
recommendations of ACI in order to provide the engineer with useful design reference.
It is envisioned that this guide will supplement future design codes, and through periodic
updates, reflect the most current research on externally bonded FRP reinforcement.

Copyright, 2002, Watson Bowman Acme Corp.


Watson Bowman Acme Corp
95 Pineview Drive
Amherst, New York 14228, USA
(716) 691-7566
This document is intended for use by only structural design and analysis professionals.
Those persons using these guidelines must have sufficient knowledge and experience
regarding the design, construction and repair of concrete structures, and be sufficiently
familiar with minimum design standards and codes. This document does not, nor is it
intended to, replace formal training with respect to the design, construction or repair of
concrete structures.
The equations and design procedures presented herein are considered as the most
current available in the technical literature. The referenced technical literature has been
peer reviewed by technical Journals, Associations and Conference organizers and the
authors assume no responsibility for referenced conclusions.
While every attempt has been made to verify and validate the contents and information
contained in this document, no guarantee or warranty, either expressed or implied
(including the warranties of merchantability or fitness of purpose), is offered regarding
universal adaptation of the equations and procedures presented herein. It is the
responsibility of the structural design and analysis professional to substantiate their
conclusions drawn from the equations and procedures presented in this guide. The
authors will not be held accountable for the conclusions, interpretations,
recommendations or analyses of others using these guidelines.
Printed in U.S.A

#114871

For additional information, visit the Watson Bowman Acme website at www.wbacorp.com
or contact your local Watson Bowman Acme Composite Specialist.
Technical and Application Inquires:
Mr. Steve Tysl
Bridge & WaboA-P-E
Compsoite Specialist
Watson Bowman Acme Corp
Tel: (216) 577-2812
stephan.tysl@wbacorp.com
Mr. Will Gold
Composite Engineering
Specialist
Watson Bowman Acme Corp
Tel: (216) 622-2690
will.gold@wbacorp.com
Tel: (216) 622-2690
Mr. Robert Snider
Parking & Architectural
Composite Specialist
Watson Bowman Acme Corp
Tel: (281)343-0089
robert.snider@wbacorp.com

BRIDGE & HIGHWAY


REGIONAL SALES CONTACTS:
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Canada - Master Representative

PARKING & OPEN AIR STRUCTURES


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ARCHITECTURAL
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Chapter 1 Format
1.1 SCOPE

1-2

1.2 PHILOSOPHY OF THE MANUAL

1-2

1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL

1-2

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 1
1.1

Format

Scope

This document is a guide to the engineering design of the WaboMBrace Composite


Strengthening System. The guide addresses strengthening of concrete structures using
externally bonded WaboMBrace Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) reinforcement.
An effort has been made to cover all types of strengthening that have been sufficiently
developed and tested for use in construction. This includes flexural strengthening, shear
strengthening, and improving the ductility of compression members1. Design provisions
for using the system to strengthen unreinforced, conventionally reinforced, and
prestressed concrete structures are given.
The material presented is specific in that it only addresses the unique considerations
that must be made when designing with the WaboMBrace System. The guide does not
deal with such issues as existing condition assessment, structural analysis, or traditional
concrete design. These issues should be understood by the reader and are covered in
great detail elsewhere2,3,4.

1.2 Philosophy of the Manual


This guide is intended for use by structural engineers and other technical professionals
for the design of strengthening systems using the WaboMBrace family of products. The
manual presents simple design procedures and equations to cover the most common
aspects of strengthening with the WaboMBrace System.
In addition to the analytical design topics, more general information is included regarding
typical applications, the nature and behavior of the materials used in the system, and the
installation procedures. This information is provided to give the engineer a physical
understanding of the system and so the engineer can make informed judgements on its
use.
Where possible, the procedures, equations, and notation used in this manual are
consistent with those found in ACI 318-955.

1.3

Organization of the Guide

The manual is organized into four major parts:


Part 1 presents general information about this guide and definitions of the terms that are
used throughout the guide.
Part 2 is a general description of the WaboMBrace System and its applications. This
section presents information that will help the reader understand the physical aspects of
the WaboMBrace technology. This section also serves as a source for the physical and
mechanical properties of the materials used in the WaboMBrace strengthening system.

1-2

05/30/02

Chapter 1  Format

Part 3 presents the procedures and equations used for designing with the WaboMBrace
strengthening system. Additional comment is made on the underlying theories and
principles that form these procedures and equations. Each chapter of this section deals
with a different strengthening concern. At the beginning of each chapter, a definition of
all notation used for the equations presented in the chapter is given. Design examples
are provided at the end of each chapter as aid to those not familiar with the design
process.
Part 4 addresses engineering practice. This section includes standard specifications
and general information.
The appendices include several design aids. These include tables giving typical areas
of CFRP reinforcement, flexural strengthened resistance factors, development lengths
for various sheet configurations, and strengthened column interaction diagrams. A list
and brief description of recently completed projects that utilize the WaboMBrace is also
given in the appendix.

Nanni, A. (1995), "Concrete Repair with Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement:


Examples from Japan," Concrete International, v. 17, no. 6, June, pp. 22-26.

Emmons, P., (1993), Concrete Repair and Maintenance Illustrated, R.S. Means
Company, Kingston, MA, 295 pg.

West, H., (1993), Fundamentals of Structural Analysis, J.W. Wiley and Sons, New
York, NY, 698 pg.

Nilson, A., (1997), Design of Concrete Structures 12th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY,
780 pg.

ACI 318 (1995), Building Codes and Requirements for Reinforced Concrete,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 369 pg.

05/30/02

1-3

Chapter 2 Definitions

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 2

2-2

Definitions

Auto-ignition temperature temperature at which a material will


spontaneously ignite (does not need an ignition source). This is typically a
much higher temperature than the flash point.

Composites composites are here defined as a matrix of polymeric material


reinforced by fibers with a discernable aspect ratio of length to thickness.

Concrete substrate  the concrete surface to which the FRP is bonded.

Coverage the area that a given volume of resin can cover.

Debonding Failure resulting from the FRP laminate detaching from the
concrete substrate at the bond line.

Delamination any of several failure modes resulting from the FRP laminate
progressively detaching from the concrete member along the direction of the
fibers. Note that this does not necessarily imply a failure along the bond line;
the failure could result from rupture of the concrete in the vicinity of the
laminate. Also peeling.

Dry fiber sheeta flexible sheet composed of several filaments of the fiber
material arranged with a common orientation in a flat plane. This is the
configuration of all fiber reinforcement systems used in the WaboMBrace
Composite System. Also unidirectional sheet, fiber sheet or, simply, sheet.

Durability the ability of a material or system to maintain its physical and


mechanical properties over time.

Fiber orientationthe orientation of the filaments in a dry fiber sheet. If the


orientation is expressed as an angle, this angle is taken with respect to the
strengthened members longitudinal axis.

Fiber sheet see Dry fiber sheet.

Fibers the load carrying elements in a composite material with a highly


oriented, defect free micro structure. The WaboMBrace Composite
Strengthening System is available in varieties of carbon or glass fibers.

Filamenta thread-like portion of the fiber material; this is the smallest unit of
a fibrous material.

Flash point Temperature at which a material will ignite in the presence of


an ignition source (i.e., flame or spark).

Glass transition temperature Temperature at which a polymer material


transforms from a brittle (or glassy) state to a softened (or rubbery) state.

Laminate the final composite system after all components have been
installed and cured.

Peeling see Delamination.

Ply a unit of FRP material consisting of one layer of dry fiber sheet.

05/30/02

Chapter 2  Definitions

Pot life the length of time after adding hardener to an epoxy resin that the resin
can no longer be rolled or troweled. Also working time (for WaboMBrace resins)

Primer the first epoxy resin coat used to fill the concrete pore structure and to
provide adequate bond to the concrete substrate.

Putty a thick, paste-like epoxy which is used to fill surface defects in the concrete
substrate.

Rehabilitation  restoring the structural capacity of a damaged element to a its


capacity before the damage/degradation.

Resins the composite material matrix that binds the fibers together, allows load
transfer between fibers, and protects the fibers from the environment. The
WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System uses thermosetting epoxy resins.

Retrofit  increasing the structural capacity of an element in good condition to


accommodate a change in loading.

Saturant the epoxy resin that is used to impregnate the dry fiber sheet.

Sheet see Dry fiber sheet.

Topcoat a finish coat used to protect the composite material from UV exposure,
chemical splash, and abrasion. The topcoat also serves an aesthetic purpose by
mimicking the color of the concrete substrate.

Tow multi-filament strands of carbon or glass fiber.

Unidirectional sheet see Dry fiber sheet.

Working time see Pot life.

05/30/02

2-3

3
The WaboMBrace
System

Chapter 3
The WaboMBrace Composite
Strengthening System

3.1 General Description


3.2 Material Components
3.2.1 WaboMBrace
Primer
3.2.2 WaboMBrace Putty

3.2.3 Wabo MBrace


Saturant

3.2.4 Wabo MBrace Fiber


Reinforcement
3.2.5 WaboMBrace
Topcoat,

Wabo MBrace ATX ,


and WaboMBrace
Topcoat FRL

3.1

General Description
The WaboMBrace System is comprised of four basic
components that, when combined, form a high-strength fiber
reinforced polymer (FRP) laminate. The FRP laminate may
be used as external reinforcement for strengthening existing
concrete and masonry structures. This technology offers a
cost-effective alternative to conventional strengthening
techniques such as steel plate bonding, steel jackets, section
enlargement, and other techniques. The fibers are bonded
by the use of three epoxy-based resins. The resins used are
Primer,
WaboMBrace
Putty
and
WaboMBrace
WaboMBrace Saturant. An optional final layer of either
Topcoat,
WaboMBrace
ATX
or
WaboMBrace

Wabo MBrace Topcoat FRL may be used. The components


of the WaboMBrace System are illustrated in Fig. 3.1 and
are described in the following section.

3.3 Applications and Use


3.4 Installation Procedures
3.5 References
3.2

Material Components
Topcoat
2nd R esin C oat
Fiber R einforcem ent
1st R esin C oat
Putty
Prim er

Figure 3.1 Components of the WaboMBrace


Composite Strengthening System
3.2.1

WaboMBrace Primer
WaboMBrace Primer is essential in providing an adequate
surface for bonding the WaboMBrace fibers and resins to
the base concrete. This first coat is a 100% solids epoxy based
material with a relatively low viscosity. The viscosity of the
WaboMBrace Primer is formulated to penetrate the pore

5/02

3-1

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Design Guidelines


structure of the concrete. It is standard practice to prepare the concrete substrate by
sandblasting the concrete surface to open the pore structure of the concrete.
WaboMBrace Primer is typically applied using a short or medium nap roller.
3.2.2

WaboMBrace Putty
WaboMBrace Putty is a thick, paste-like epoxy that is used to fill bug holes and surface
defects up to 1/4 inch (5 mm) deep. The primary purpose of the putty is to provide a
smooth, level bond surface in order to maximize the contact area of the FRP to the
concrete. WaboMBrace Putty can also be used for leveling and patching small holes. If
the base concrete has deep holes or large areas of damage, the defective concrete area
should be chipped out to reveal sound material and replaced with repair mortar. If the
concrete substrate is level and in good condition, the putty may not be required.
WaboMBrace Putty is typically applied with a trowel.

3.2.3

WaboMBrace Saturant
WaboMBrace Saturant is the polymer matrix component of the FRP laminate. It is used
to impregnate the dry fibers. The saturant maintains the fibers in their intended
orientation and distributes stress among the fibers. The saturant also protects the fibers
from abrasion and environmental effects.
The saturant is a bisphenol A epoxy resin. It is formulated to quickly wet the fibers and
hold the tow sheet in place while the WaboMBrace System cures. The viscosity of
WaboMBrace Saturant allows easy handling and overhead application of the fiber sheet.
WaboMBrace Saturant is typically applied with a medium nap roller.

3.2.4

WaboMBrace Fiber Reinforcement


High strength fibers are the key load carrying
component of the WaboMBrace Composite
Strengthening System. The WaboMBrace
System is available with high strength carbon
fibers, high modulus carbon fibers, E-glass
fibers, or Aramid fibers. Each of these fibers
has high strength to weight and stiffness to
weight ratios. The fibers are assembled into a
standard unidirectional sheet supplied in
nominal 20 in (500 mm)widths.
The tensile behavior of each of the fibers used
in the WaboMBrace system are compared in the graph. Detailed mechanical properties
of both the fibers and epoxy
600
resins are provided in Chapter
4.
500

Stress (ks

400

300

200

100

0
0

3-2

0.005

0.01

0.015

Strain (in/in)

0.02

0.025

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Chapter 3  The WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System

3.2.4.1

WaboMBrace Carbon Fibers

WaboMBrace carbon fibers are manufactured by pyrolizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN)


based precursor fibers at temperatures near 2700 qF (1500 qC). The result of the
pyrolization process is a highly
Carbon Fiber Properties
aligned, cross-linked chain of
carbon
atoms.
The
exact
x
Very high strength and stiffness
mechanical properties of the
x
Excellent moisture and chemical resistance
fibers, including the tensile
x
Highly resistant to fatigue and creep rupture
modulus of elasticity, can be
x
Thermally stable up to 3500 F
adjusted by altering several,
x
Low impact resistance
carefully controlled variables
x
Conductive
during
the
manufacturing
x Susceptible to galvanic corrosion
process. The carbon fiber
filaments are assembled into
untwisted tows that are then used to create a continuous unidirectional sheet. High
strength carbon fibers compose the CF 130, 145, and 160 unidirectional sheets, and high
modulus carbon fibers are used for the CF 530 unidirectional sheet.
3.2.4.2

WaboMBrace Glass Fibers

WaboMBrace glass fibers are


manufactured by drawing molten
glass through a die or a bushing.
The resulting E type glass
filaments are grouped into tows
that are then assembled into the
continuous EG 900 unidirectional
sheet.

Glass Fiber Properties


x
x
x
x

High strength, low stiffness


Sensitive to moisture and alkalinity
Low resistance to fatigue and creep rupture
Soften at temperatures over 1500 F
Highly insulative

E-glass fibers are high strength but low stiffness.


elongation capacity.
3.2.4.3

They, therefore, have very high

WaboMBrace Aramid Fibers

Aramid fibers are manufactured by polymerization of amine and carboxcylic acid. The
result is an ultra-high molecular weight aromatic polyamide (aramid). The aramid
material is then spun into individual filaments. The aramid fibers are woven into the
continuous AK 60 unidirectional sheet.

Aramid Fiber Properties

Aramid fibers have high strength,


excellent toughness, and are resistant to
impact and abrasion. Aramid may be
used in lieu of carbon fiber in situations
where a non-conductive material is
needed. Aramid does degrade under
exposure to ultraviolet light and should
x
be protected. In addition, aramid
fibers absorb moisture which can lead to a reduction in their tensile properties. Since
aramid is an organic compound, aramid fibers are sensitive to temperature extremes.
Typical aramid fibers have a usable temperature range of +/- 350q F.
x
x
x
x
x
x

5/02

High strength
Excellent chemical resistance
Resistant to fatigue and creep rupture
Usable temperature range +/- 350q F
Excellent impact resistance
Low conductivity
Sensitive to UV exposure and moisture

3-3

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Design Guidelines


3.2.4.4

Custom Fiber Architectures

Other fiber architectures such as hybrid sheets using two or more fiber types, plain weave
fabrics, and sheets with specific fiber areal weights may be available for special
applications. Contact an WaboMBrace service representative for more information.
3.2.5

WaboMBrace Topcoat, WaboMBrace ATX , and WaboMBrace Topcoat FRL


The final component to the WaboMBrace Strengthening System is one of three finish
coats that are specified as an option. These products provide protection from ultraviolet
light (UV), chemical splash, and abrasion. WaboMBrace Topcoat FRL provides
additional resistance to smoke generation and flame spread. The Topcoat FRL enables the
system to achieve a Class I (Class A) fire resistance per ASTM E841. Other topcoat systems
may be used for specific environmental exposure conditions. All topcoats mimic the color
of concrete, so they are also used to provide a uniform color to repaired concrete
members.

Figure 3.2 Wabo MBrace installation before and after the application of Topcoat
ATX
3.3

Applications and Use


The WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System was developed as a cost-effective
alternate to conventional strengthening techniques. The high strength fiber sheets can be
installed quickly and easily on flat surfaces, around columns or beams, and in areas with
limited access. The system has been used and tested for increasing the flexural capacity of
beams, slabs and columns, the shear capacity of beams, columns and walls and the
ductility of columns.
Increases in flexural capacity are achieved by bonding the system to the tension face of a
member in bending. Shear capacity may be improved by wrapping the system
transversely around a member or orienting fibers perpendicular to potential shear cracks.
The ductility of columns may be enhanced by confining the column by wrapping the
system completely around the column in the hoop direction.

3.4

Installation Procedures
The WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System is installed exclusively by an
international network of selected contractors. The contractors within the network are
experienced and receive additional training in concrete repair and strengthening
techniques, product information, installation methods and quality control measures.

3-4

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Chapter 3  The WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


The installation procedures are provided to give the reader a general understanding of the
steps involved in construction*. The WaboMBrace composite strengthening system can
easily be installed on properly prepared, sound concrete surfaces in a series of eight steps.
The system is installed using wet lay-up techniques. That is, the fiber materials are
placed on the surface dry and then impregnated with epoxy resins in place to form the
FRP laminate.
x

Step 1: Stabilizing the Concrete Substrate

Prior to installing the WaboMBrace composite strengthening system the concrete


substrate must be prepared to accept the system. The integrity of the system depends on
the quality and strength of the concrete as well as the bond between the FRP and the
concrete. Cracks, spalls and corroding reinforcing steel need to be repaired prior to
installing the WaboMBrace System.
Spalls and other types of damage should be removed and patched with suitable repair
mortars such as Master Builders Emaco R320 or Emaco R350 surface renovation
mortars. If repairs using form and pour techniques are required, the use of Emaco S88CA, Emaco S77-CR or Emaco S66-CR structural repair mortar is recommended.
All cracks greater that 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) in width and subject to movement (thermal,
vibration, etc.) should be epoxy injected using Master Builders SCB injection technology.
Corroding reinforcing steel should be cleaned (or replaced) before installing the
WaboMBrace System. FRP systems, like conventional strengthening techniques are not
intended to resist or arrest the enormous and incalculable expansive forces generated by
continuing corrosion of the reinforcing steel.
x

Step 2: Surface Preparation

The surface of the concrete should be free of loose and unsound materials. All laitance,
dust, dirt, oil, curing compound, etc. should be removed. Mechanical abrasion techniques
(e.g. abrasive blasting, grinding), water blasting or other approved methods should be
used to open the pore structure of the concrete prior to applying the WaboMBrace
primer. The surface should be profiled to a minimum ICRI CSP 3 surface texture.
x

Step 3: Application of WaboMBrace Primer

The WaboMBrace primer is applied to the properly prepared concrete surface using a
short or medium nap roller.
x

Step 4: Application of WaboMBrace Putty

The WaboMBrace putty is applied to the primed surface using a trowel. The putty
should be used to fill any surface defects; complete coverage is not necessary. The putty
may be applied immediately after priming the surface without waiting for the primer to
cure.
x

Step 5: Application of First Coat of WaboMBrace Saturant

The WaboMBrace saturant is applied to the primed and puttied surface with a medium
nap roller. The saturant can be installed immediately after application of the primer and
putty (before cure) or long after the application of the primer and putty. If the saturant is
installed after cure of the putty and primer, the surface should be wiped clean with a dry
cloth. (Solvents should not be used to clean the surface.)
The saturant is blue in color and should be applied to a thickness of 18 to 22 mils. The
volume of saturant used depends on the FRP sheet used.

More detailed information regarding the installation process as well as construction specifications
are available from Master Builders.

5/02

3-5

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Design Guidelines


x

Step 6: Application of WaboMBrace Fiber Sheet

The fiber sheets should be measured and pre-cut prior to installing on the surface. The
sheet is placed on the concrete surface and gently pressed into the saturant. Prior to
removing the backing paper, a squeegee or trowel may be used to remove any air bubbles.
After the backing paper is removed a ribbed roller is rolled in the direction of the fibers to
facilitate impregnation by separating the fibers. The ribbed roller should never be used in
a direction transverse to the fibers since fibers could be damaged. Streaks of blue colored
saturant should be visible on the fiber sheet after rolling.
x

Step 7: Application of Second Coat of WaboMBrace Saturant

A second coat of saturant is applied immediately after placing and rolling the fiber sheet.
The second coat of saturant is applied to the FRP sheet with a medium nap roller to a
thickness of 18 to 22 mils. More saturant is required for the WaboMBrace WaboMBrace
EG 900 sheets because they are thicker than the carbon sheets.
x

Step 8: Application of Additional Fiber Plies

If required, additional fiber plies may be installed by re-saturating the surface after the
second saturant coat is applied and repeating Steps 4, 5 and 6. This process should be
repeated for as many plies as are necessary. After completion of this step, the fiber sheet
layers are completely encapsulated in laminate form.
x

Step 9: Application of WaboMBrace Finish Coats (Optional)

After the saturant has cured tack free, one of the WaboMBrace finish coats may be
applied for protection or aesthetic purposes.
3.5
1

References

ASTM E84 Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, Vol. 04.07.

3-6

5/02

Chapter 4 Technical Data


4.1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

4-2

4.2 COVERAGE

4-3

4.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES

4-4

4.4 FIBER SELECTION GUIDELINES

4-6

4.5 REFERENCES

4-8

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 4

Technical Data

4.1 Physical Properties


This section is presented to acquaint the user to the physical appearance and handling
properties of WaboMBrace resins. In general, the WaboMBrace resins are easy to mix
and apply. All are formulated for both over-head and side-wall applications and provide
adequate time for application.
While the WaboMBrace resins are formulated with the applicator in mind, some people
may be sensitive to the epoxy resins and curing agents contained within. As with most
chemicals, proper ventilation, as well as eye and skin protection should be provided.
Material Data Safety Sheets (MSDS) are always provided with each shipment of
WaboMBrace resins. These should be kept on file at the job-site and referred to in case
of an accident.
Table 4.1 Master Table of Physical Properties for WaboMBrace Resins
Color
Part A
Part B
Mixed
Solids
VOC content
Mix ratio by volume
Part A/Part B
Mix ratio by mass
(weight) Part A/Part B
Mixed viscosity at 25 C
(77 F)
Working time at 25 C
(77 F)
Flash point
Part A
Part B
Clean-up

WaboMBrace Primer

WaboMBrace Putty

WaboMBrace Saturant

Amber
Clear
Amber
100%
0.89 lb/gal (107 g/L)
3/1

Tan
Charcoal
Tan (see Note 5)
100%
0.74 lb/gal (89 g/L)
3/1

Blue
Clear
Blue
100%
0.17 lb/gal (20 g/L)
3/1

100/30

100/30

100/34

400 cps (see Note 1)

45,000 cps

1,350 cps

20 minutes (see Note 2)

40 minutes

45 minutes

204 qF (95 qC)


210 qF (99 qC)
230 qF (110 qC)
200 qF (93 qC)
200 qF (93 qC)
200 qF (93 qC)
T-410 (see Note 3),
T-410,
T-410,
Methyl ethyl ketone, or
Methyl ethyl ketone, or
Methyl ethyl ketone, or
Acetone
Acetone
Acetone
Shelf life
18 months (see Note 4)
18 months
18 months
Note 1: The viscosity of fluids is measured in centipoise (cps) and is relative to the viscosity of water. For
comparison, water has a viscosity of 1 cps, motor oil has a viscosity of 500 cps, pancake syrup is 2,500 cps,
catsup is 50,000 cps and peanut butter is 250,000 cps.
Note 2: Working time is based on a 1 gal (3.8 L) sample.
Note 3: T-410 is available through Master Builders, Inc.
Note 4: When stored in original, sealed containers at 72 qF (20 qC).
Note 5: Thoroughly mixed material has no color streaks.

Typical of many fluids, WaboMBrace resins show reduced viscosity with increasing
temperature. In addition, increased temperatures accelerate the cure of epoxy. Because
these two properties are dependent on temperature, substantial differences in the working
time or pot life are expected. Such behavior is depicted in
Table 4.2. In
Table

4-2

05/30/02

Chapter 4  Technical Data

4.2, the reported viscosity is the initial mixed viscosity of the resin and hardener (Part A
and Part B) stored and mixed at the respective temperature. As the epoxy reaction
advances and the temperature of the mixed components rises, the viscosity will increase
until full cure. The working time is the length of time after which the resin can no longer
be easily rolled or troweled.
Table 4.2 Temperature vs. Viscosity
Mixed Viscosity (cps)

Temperature
Wabo MBrace
Primer

WaboMBrace Putty

WaboMBrace
Saturant

1,200
400
200

74,000
45,000
33,000

2,500
1,600
900

50 qF (10 qC)
77 qF (25 qC)
90 qF (32 qC)

Note: Based on a standard Brookfield method.

Table 4.3 Temperature vs. Working Time


Working Time (min)

Temperature

Wabo MBrace
Primer

WaboMBrace Putty

WaboMBrace
Saturant

75
20
10

95
40
15

200
45
15

50 qF (10 qC)
77 qF (25 qC)
90 qF (32 qC)
Note: Based on 1 gal (3.8 L) sample.

It is common practice to mix only the amount of material needed to coat a given area
within the applicators ability. Working times can be extended by spreading the material
immediately after mixing and by keeping materials out of direct sunlight in warm
weather. In extreme warm weather cases, the resins can be cooled prior to mixing by
immersing unopened containers in ice water.
4.2 Coverage
In general, the area that a particular volume of resin can cover (coverage) is dependent on
the surface texture and porosity of the substrate. Additionally, the viscosity of the resin
will also control the amount of penetration and thus, the overall coverage. Because of the
variability of field conditions, coverage is presented as a typical range of values.
Table 4.4 Typical Resin Coverage

Product

Type of Application

WaboMBrace Primer
WaboMBrace Putty
WaboMBrace Saturant
(CF 130 and CF 530)

First coat roller


Filler coat trowel
Saturation and
Subsequent coats
roller

Surface
Rough
ft2/gal
(m2/L)
200 (4.9)
6 (0.15)
Not
applicable

Texture
Smooth
ft2/gal
(m2/L)
250 (6.1)
12 (0.29)
55 (1.3)
(total)

Cured
Thickness
mils (mm)
3 (0.07)
Varies
20 (0.5)
(total)

Note 1: 1 mil = 0.001 in.


Note 2: Coverage of EG 900 is 27 ft2/gal (0.65 m2/L)

05/30/02

4-3

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

4.3 Engineering Properties


The overall engineering or mechanical properties of the WaboMBrace composite system
are greatly influenced by the fibers. For typical design purposes, only the tensile strength
and tensile modulus of the fiber is considered. These values are determined by tensile
testing of FRP specimens1. Ultimate strength is determined by using the net area of the
fiber embedded in cured saturant. Design strength is determined by reducing the average
ultimate strength by three standard deviations. The stress-strain curve for WaboMBrace
fibers are typical of fiber reinforced polymers and show linear behavior up to ultimate
stress followed by brittle failure. For example, the stress-strain curve for WaboMBrace
CF 130, a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy, is shown in Figure 4.1. The stress in Figure 4.1
was computed using the net fiber area.
Table 4.5 Design Values for WaboMBrace Fibers
WaboMBrace Fiber
CF 130 High Tensile Carbon
CF 530 High Modulus Carbon
EG 900 E-Glass

Ultimate
Strength
ksi (MPa)
620 (4275)
584 (4027)
251 (1730)

Design
Strength
ksi (MPa)
550 (3790)
510 (3517)
220 (1517)

Tensile
Modulus
ksi (MPa)
33,000 (228,000)
54,000 (372,000)
10,500 (72,400)

700
600

Stress (ksi)

500
400
300
200
100
0
0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

Strain

Figure 4.1 Representative stress-strain curve from tensile test data,


WaboMBrace CF 130 carbon fiber.
The design numbers should be further reduced by appropriate factors depending if LRFD
or ASD methods are used.
With regard to the design assumption that bond between the composite and concrete
substrate is perfect, it is necessary for all materials within the bond line to be stronger
4-4

05/30/02

Chapter 4  Technical Data

and more resilient than the concrete. For this reason, the tensile, compressive and flexural
properties of the neat resins are presented. Also, for those interested in performing micromechanical design and analysis, these values can be used for the constitutive materials
properties. Please note that micro-mechanical treatment of the WaboMBrace System is
beyond the scope of this manual. For additional information, contact your Watson
Bowman Acme Composite Specialist.
The term neat resins refers to a sample of cured epoxy resin with no reinforcing fiber
materials present. For testing, neat resins are mixed, cast into sheets and allowed to cure.
After full cure is achieved, typically 7 days at 72 qF (20 qC) and 40% relative humidity,
samples are machined from the sheets and tested to determine particular engineering
properties.
Because of the viscoelastic behavior of the WaboMBrace resins, the temperature and
strain rates during testing are important parameters that greatly influence the strength and
stiffness of the constitutive materials. Therefore, to provide repeatable results, testing is
performed according to appropriate ASTM standards.
Table 4.6 Tension: Neat Resin Properties ASTM D-6382
Maximum Stress
psi (MPa)
Stress at Yield
psi (MPa)
Stress at Rupture
psi (MPa)
Strain at Max. Stress
Strain at Yield
Strain at Rupture
Elastic Modulus
psi (MPa)
Poissons Ratio

WaboMBrace
Primer

WaboMBrace Putty

WaboMBrace
Saturant

2500 (17.2)

2200 (15.2)

8000 (55.2)

2100 (14.5)

1900 (13.1)

7800 (53.8)

2500 (17.2)

2100 (14.5)

7900 (54.5)

0.400
0.040
0.400
104,000 (715)

0.060
0.020
0.070
260,000 (1790)

0.030
0.025
0.035
440,000 (3035)

0.48

0.48

0.40

Note: Properties determined at 72 qF (20 qC) and 40% relative humidity.

05/30/02

4-5

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Table 4.7 Flexure: Neat Resin Properties ASTM D-7903


Maximum Stress
psi (MPa)
Stress at Yield
psi (MPa)
Stress at Rupture
psi (MPa)
Strain at Max. Stress
Strain at Yield
Strain at Rupture
Flexural Modulus
psi (MPa)

WaboMBrace
Primer

WaboMBrace
Putty

WaboMBrace
Saturant

3500 (24.1)

4000 (27.6)

20,000 (138)

3500 (24.1)
Large deformation
with no rupture.
0.060
0.050
Large deformation
with no rupture.

3800 (26.2)

20,000 (138)

3700 (25.5)
0.060
0.040

18,000 (124)
0.042
0.038

0.070

0.050

86,300 (595)

130,000 (895)

540,000 (3724)

Note: Properties determined at 72 qF (20 qC) and 40% relative humidity.

Table 4.8 Compression: Neat Resin Properties ASTM D-6954


WaboMBrace
Primer

WaboMBrace
Putty

WaboMBrace
Saturant

Maximum Stress
psi (MPa)
4100 (28.3)
3300 (22.8)
12,500 (86.2)
Stress at Yield
psi (MPa)
3800 (26.2)
3300 (22.8)
12,500 (86.2)
Strain at Max.
Stress
0.100
0.100
0.050
Strain at Yield
0.040
0.050
0.050
Compressive
Modulus, psi (MPa) 97,000 (670)
156,000 (1075)
380,000 (2620)
Note: Properties determined at 72 qF (20 qC) and 40% relative humidity.
4.4 Fiber Selection Guidelines
Three different reinforcing fibers are available with the WaboMBrace Composite
Strengthening System CF 130, CF 530, and EG 900. Each strengthening application
should be carefully evaluated to determine the most appropriate reinforcing fiber. Factors
to consider in selecting a fiber type include the type of loading (sustained or event),
environmental exposure conditions, and project economics. The intent of this section is to
present the engineer with some general guidelines that will aid in selecting an appropriate
reinforcing fiber.
Carbon fibers, such as those used in CF 130 and CF 530 reinforcement, possess high
strength, high modulus and are unaffected by typical environmental exposure conditions.
4-6

05/30/02

Chapter 4  Technical Data

Carbon fiber has also been shown to resist high stresses for sustained periods without
failing due to creep rupture*. E-glass fibers used in EG 900 reinforcement allow for a
reduced material cost, but possess lower strength and modulus than carbon fibers. E-glass
fibers also do not exhibit the superior long-term behavior of carbon fibers. In general, Eglass fibers have been shown to degrade over time when exposed to moisture and other
environmental conditions. Eventually, E-glass fibers will fail due to creep rupture at
sustained stresses greater than 30% of ultimate. To provide a safeguard against
environmental and creep degradation, duration and environmental strength reduction
factors, CD and CE are applied to the design values. These reduction factors limit the
allowable stress to levels that environmental and sustained stress effects are no longer a
concern. These values are tabulated in Table 6.1.1. The tabulated strength reduction
factors are determined by long term durability testing of FRP tensile specimens without
protective coatings. Therefore, designs using these strength reduction factors will be
conservative.
The high strength, high modulus and negligible creep rupture behavior make carbon
fibers ideal for flexural and shear strengthening applications. Because fibers used for
these applications typically carry high levels of sustained stress, E-glass fibers will
require large strength reduction factors to prevent creep rupture. In most cases this results
in repairs that lack efficiency in materials use and project economics. In contrast, the
excellent resistance to environmental exposures makes carbon fiber ideal for applications
in harsh environments.
The two carbon fiber types available (CF 130 and CF 530) give the engineer the ability to
select a material with either very high strength or very high modulus. Due to its higher
strength and higher elongation at failure, CF 130 is best used when the ultimate behavior
of a concrete element needs to be improved. In applications where serviceability
(deflection, allowable stresses, etc.) is the main concern, CF 530 may be a more
appropriate choice due to its higher modulus. However, since bonded FRP reinforcement
in general do not dramatically effect serviceability, CF 130 will be best suited for the
majority of applications.
E-glass fibers are ideal for event loading conditions (seismic, blast, etc.) where the lack
of sustained stresses in the fiber eliminate problems with creep rupture. For these
conditions, low cost EG 900 fiber is most appropriate. In harsh environments, redundant
use of material and protective coatings can compensate for environmental degradation of
the E-glass fibers over time.

Creep rupture is a phenomenon unique to FRP materials. Sustained, long-term stresses can cause certain
fibers to fail suddenly after a passage of time. The duration to cause failure is dependent on the magnitude
of the sustained stress, with higher stresses shortening the time to failure. The phenomenon is similar to
fatigue in metals except that the stresses are constant rather than cyclic. In fact, creep rupture is also known
as static fatigue since the sustained load vs. time curves resemble classic S-N curves.

05/30/02

4-7

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

4.5

References

ASTM D-3039, Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite
Materials, Vol. 15.03.

ASTM D-638, Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, Vol. 08.01.

ASTM D-790, Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced
Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials. Vol. 08.01.

ASTM D-695, Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics, Vol. 08.01.

4-8

05/30/02

Chapter 5 Durability
5.1 GENERAL

5-2

5.2 ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE

5-2

5.3 CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

5-3

5.4 FIRE

5-3

5.4.1

Surface Flammability

5-4

5.4.2

Structural Fire Ratings

5-4

5.5 REFERENCES

5-4

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 5

Durability

5.1 General
At room temperature, moisture, atmospheric chemicals, solvents, bases and weak acids
do not affect bare carbon fiber1. Oxidizing agents and temperatures above
660 qF (350 qC)2 can also degrade bare carbon fiber. In the presence of an epoxy matrix,
the carbon fibers are protected from chemical attack.
In the following sections, data was generated by fabricating standard tensile specimens
per ASTM D-30393, cured with MBrace Saturant, exposing the specimens to various
conditions for 1,000, 3,000 and 10,000 hours, then testing the specimens to failure. In
addition to tensile data, the apparent interlaminar shear strength (commonly known as the
short beam shear test) was determined using ASTM D-23444. These tests were
performed without a protective finish coat to determine the resiliency of the MBrace
System. For permanent repairs, it is recommended to include a finish coat for added
protection and for aesthetic reasons. Protective coating systems should be selected based
on environmental exposure conditions and chemical resistance requirements. Data
presented is for the most commonly used carbon fiber, WaboMBrace CF 130.
5.2 Environmental Exposure
The physical properties of polymer materials subjected to hot and moist conditions
eventually degrade because of moisture diffusion. Because moisture diffusion is largely
influenced by elevated temperatures, data was generated for specimens exposed to 100%
RH at 100 qF per ASTM D-22475 and 20% RH at 140qF per ASTM D-30456. Results of
this testing are presented in Table 5.1.
The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light and freezing and thawing has also been investigated.
Table 5.1 shows the residual properties of specimens exposed to 100 UV/condensation
and 20 freeze/thaw cycles.
The most important concern in FRP repair is maintaining strain compatibility between the
fibers and the base concrete. Research has shown that up to 50 saturated freeze/thaw
cycles can be tolerated with no noticeable degradation to the adhesive/concrete interface
or significant change in overall flexural performance7. Appropriate safety factors will
ensure long term performance.

5-2

05/30/02

Chapter 5  Durability

Table 5.1 Environmental Exposure, WaboMBrace CF 130


Ultimate
Tensile
Strength (ksi)
639 r 27

Tensile
Modulus
(ksi)
32,200 r 1,600

591 r 25
540 r 17
Due 2/99

1.78 r 0.06

Interlaminar
Shear
Strength (ksi)
7.7 r 0.3

34,000 r 1,400
33,200 r 400
Due 2/99

1.59 r 0.08
1.51 r 0.06
Due 2/99

7.6 r 0.1
7.2 r 0.1
Due 2/99

637 r 23
582 r 12
Due 2/99

33,400 r 1,200
32,600 r 900
Due 2/99

1.73 r 0.08
1.67 r 0.05
Due 2/99

9.5 r 0.2
8.6 r 0.4
Due 2/99

100 Cycles

644 r 37

33,600 r 1.2

1.76 r 0.09

8.4 r 0.3

Freeze/Thaw
20 Cycles

561 r 29

33,300 r 1,700

1.57 r 0.06

7.5 r 0.1

Exposure Type
Control
100% RH/100 qF
1,000 h
3,000 h
10,000 h
20% RH/140 qF
1,000 h
3,000 h
10,000 h
UV/Condensation

Failure Strain
(%)

5.3 Chemical Exposure


The WaboMBrace System is tolerant of mild chemical exposure such as salt-water
immersion per ASTM D-11418 and alkali immersion (pH 9.5 at 73 qF) per ASTM C5819. Results of this testing is presented in Table 5.2.
Table 5.2 Chemical Exposure, WaboMBrace CF 130
Exposure Type
Control
Salt Water
1,000 h
3,000 h
10,000 h
pH 9.5
1,000 h
3,000 h
10,000 h
Diesel Fuel
4h

Ultimate
Tensile Strength
(ksi)
639 r 27

Tensile
Modulus
(ksi)
32,200 r 1,600

1.78 r 0.06

Interlaminar
Shear Strength
(ksi)
7.7 r 0.3

619 r 25
623 r 23
Due 2/99

33,600 r 500
33,900 r 1,100
Due 2/99

1.70 r 0.05
1.74 r 0.07
Due 2/99

7.5 r 0.2
7.6 r 0.4
Due 2/99

597 r 27
585 r 35
Due 2/99

32,900 r 1,300
31,800 r 800
Due 2/99

1.70 r 0.11
1.70 r 0.09
Due 2/99

7.6 r 0.1
7.2 r 0.6
Due 2/99

589 r 9

34,100 r 1.5

1.61 r 0.08

8.2 r 0.1

Failure Strain
(%)

5.4 Fire
Investigating two related issues can satisfactorily treat the issue of fire durability. The
first issue is that of surface flammability and the second is that of structural integrity.

05/30/02

5-3

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

5.4.1 Surface Flammability


Surface finishes such as paints and wall coverings are classified by ASTM E-8410 by
determining the flame spread and smoke generation of the material when exposed to a
controlled heat source and ignition point. The goal of this testing is to determine how fast
a flame spreads over a given area and to determine the density of the resulting smoke.
The amount of smoke generated is of concern to fire code authorities because in most
cases the loss of life is caused by smoke inhalation and not because of collapsing
structures.
Laboratory tests indicate that because of the heat sink behavior contributed by the
concrete substrate, flame spread on the WaboMBrace System is suppressed. Current
research indicates that the WaboMBrace System applied on concrete without a finish
coat can be classified by ASTM E84 with Class III fire rating.
Independent testing by Omega Point Research in San Antonio, Texas has determined that
the WaboMBrace Carbon Fiber system coated with WaboMBrace Topcoat FRL meets
the requirements of ASTM E84 Class I. Two coats at 160 ft2/gallon/coat of
WaboMBrace Topcoat FRL on the WaboMBrace Carbon Fiber system is recognized
by model building codes for unrestricted use in buildings subject to flame spread and
smoke generation limits.
5.4.2 Structural Fire Ratings
In order to prevent structural collapse, the design philosophy of the WaboMBrace
System is to treat the repair as supplemental reinforcement. Because of the supplemental
strength contribution to the overall structure, the new service loads are less than the
original ultimate load of the structure (see Chapter 6). This same situation exists with
steel plate bonding, but has traditionally been ignored.
Currently, there are no accepted standards or failure criteria for structures that are either
completely built of or repaired with FRP materials. There exists a need for all interested
parties to establish rational guidelines and standards. Until that time, the concept of
supplemental reinforcement for repair must suffice.
5.5

References

Judd, N.C.W., The Chemical Resistance of Carbon Fibers and a Carbon


Fiber/Polyester Composite, Proceedings of the First International Conference on
Carbon Fibers, Plastics Institute, 1971, p. 258.

McKee, D.W. and Mimeault, V.J., Surface Properties of Carbon Fibers, Chemistry
and Physics of Carbon, Vol. 8, Marcel Dekker, 1973, p. 235.

ASTM D-3039, Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite
Materials, Vol. 15.03.

ASTM D-2344, Test Method for Apparent Interlaminar Shear Strength of Parallel Fiber
Composites by Short-Beam Method, Vol. 15.03.

5-4

05/30/02

Chapter 5  Durability

ASTM D-2247, Practice for Testing Water Resistance of Coatings in 100% Relative
Humidity, Vol. 06.01.

ASTM D-3045, Practice for Heat Aging of Plastics Without Load, Vol. 08.02.

Tysl, S.R., Imbrogno, M. and Miller, B.D., Effect of Surface Delamination on the
Freeze/Thaw Durability of CFRP-Reinforced Concrete Beams, Durability of Fibre
Reinforced Polymer Composites for Construction, Benmokrane. B., and Rahman, H.,
Editors, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, 1998, pp. 317-324.

ASTM D-1141, Specification for Substitute Ocean Water, Vol. 11.02.

ASTM C-581, Practice for Determining Chemical Resistance of Thermosetting Resins


Used in Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Structures Intended for Liquid Service, Vol. 08.04.

10

ASTM E-84, Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials,
Vol. 04-07.

05/30/02

5-5

Chapter 6
Flexural Strengthening

Flexural Strengthening
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Design Approach
6.2 Existing Condition
Assessment
6.2.1 Initial Strains in
Cracked Concrete
6.2.2 Initial Strains in
Uncracked Concrete
6.3 Preliminary Design
6.3.1 Existing Shear
Strength
6.3.2 Existing Stiffness
6.3.3 Controlling Working
Stress
6.4 Ultimate Strength
Analysis
6.4.1 Reinforced Concrete
6.4.2 Prestressed
Concrete
6.4.3 Summary of Strength
Equations
6.5 Ductility
6.5.1 Unreinforced
Concrete
6.5.2 Reinforced Concrete
6.5.3 Prestressed
Concrete
6.6 Serviceability
Requirements
6.6.1 Working Stress
Analysis
6.6.2 Deflections of
Strengthened Beams
6.6.3 Crack Widths
6.7 Examples from Practice
6.7.1 Retrofit of an
Existing Reinforced
Concrete Bridge
Slab

6.1

Introduction
It has been well understood that bonding FRP reinforcement
to the tension face of a concrete flexural member with fibers
oriented along the length of the member will provide an
1, 2, 3
Increases in flexural
increase in flexural capacity.
capacity from 10% to 160% have been documented.
However, when taking into account ductility and
serviceability limits, increases of 5% to 40% are more
reasonable for actual design cases.
In this chapter, the material characteristics presented in Part
2 and information about the existing concrete member are
used to develop equations and procedures for computing the
increase in flexural capacity that may be achieved with an

Wabo MBrace strengthening system. In addition, criteria


are suggested for maintaining a reasonable level of ductility
in the member as well as ensuring serviceability. Specific
guidance on addressing both regularly reinforced and
prestressed members is given.
This chapter deals only with the design and analysis of
member cross sections. Complete design of WaboMBrace
flexural reinforcement requires an investigation of the bond
strength and other aspects covered in Chapter 10.
Furthermore, guidance on detailing the system for specific
flexural elements, such as slabs, is given in Part 5.

6.8 References

5/99

6-1

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

Symbols and Notation


Ac

Area of gross concrete section (in.2)

Acr

Area of concrete compression zone after cracking (in.2)

Af

Total area of fiber contained in the FRP laminate = n tf wf (in.2)

Ap

Area of prestressing steel (in.2)

As

Area of tension steel (in.2)

A's

Area of compression steel (in.2)

Width of the section (in.)

Depth to the neutral axis (in.)

cb

Distance from the neutral axis of the gross concrete section to the bonded substrate (in.)

CD

Tensile strength reduction factor for FRP subjected to sustained loading

CE

Tensile strength reduction factor for FRP subjected to environmental conditions

Depth to the tension steel reinforcement centroid (in.)

d'

Depth to the compression steel centroid (in.)

dp

Depth to the prestressing steel centroid (in.)

Eccentricity of the prestressing force with respect to the neutral axis of the gross concrete
section. Positive eccentricities cause compression on the bonded substrate. (in.)

Ec

Approximate elastic modulus of concrete in compression (psi)

Ef

Elastic modulus of the FRP fiber material (psi)

Ep

Modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons (psi)

Es

Elastic modulus of reinforcing steel (psi)

ff

Stress level developed in the FRP (psi)

ffu

Design strength of the FRP material (psi)

fps

Stress level in prestressing tendons (psi)

fpu

Ultimate strength of prestressing tendons (psi)

fpy

Yield strength of prestressing tendons (psi)

fs

Stress level in the tension steel (psi)

fy

Yield strength of mild steel (psi)

fs

Stress level in the compression steel (psi)

Total height of the section and depth to the FRP flexural reinforcement (in.)

Icr

Moment of inertia of the cracked concrete section (in.4)

Ig

Moment of inertia of the gross concrete section (in.4)

Ratio of the depth to the elastic neutral axis to the effective depth, d

l1

The sum of the lengths of loaded spans that are connected with a continuous, unbonded
prestressing tendon (in.)

l2

The length of an unbonded tendon between end anchorages (in.)

ln

Clear span of the beam (in.)

6-2

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

Symbols and Notation


Mip

Moment due to loads in place at the time of FRP installation (mainly dead loads) not including
moments caused by eccentric prestressing forces. (lb.-in.)

Mn

Nominal moment capacity of a section (lb.-in.)

Ms

Moment due to service loads (lb.-in.)

Mu

Moment due to factored loads (lb.-in.)

Number of fiber plies

Pe

Effective prestress force at the time of FRP installation (lb.)

rg

Radius of gyration of the gross concrete section = I g / A g (in.)

tf

Thickness of one ply of fiber sheet (in.)

Vn

Nominal shear strength (lb.)

Vu

Ultimate shear strength (lb.)

wf

Total width of the FRP laminate (in.)

:u

Bond reduction factor for unbonded tendons at the ultimate limit state

E1

Multiplier on c to determine the depth of an equivalent rectangular stress distribution for


concrete

Hb

Strain level in the concrete substrate developed by a given bending moment.


positive. (in./in.)

Hbi

Strain level in the concrete substrate at the time of FRP installation. Tension is positive. (in./in.)

Hc

Maximum compressive strain level in the concrete (in./in.)

H'c

Strain level in the concrete corresponding to the peak value of stress, f'c (in./in.)

Hcu

Maximum usable compressive strain in the concrete = 0.003 (in./in.)

Hf

Strain level in the FRP developed by a given bending moment (in./in.)

Hfu

Ultimate strain (elongation) of the FRP material (in./in.)

Hp

Total strain level in prestressing tendons (in./in.)

Hpu

Ultimate elongation of prestressing tendons (in./in.)

Hs

Strain level in the tension steel (in./in.)

Hs

Strain level in the compression steel (in./in.)

Hsy

Strain level in the tension steel at its yield point = fy/Es (in./in.)

Strength reduction factor for flexure

Multiplier on f'c to determine the intensity of an equivalent rectangular stress distribution for
concrete

6-3

Tension is

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WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

6.1.1

Design Approach
The design of bonded FRP reinforcement for flexural members is based on limit states
principles. Strength, ductility and serviceability requirements should all be investigated.
The design process requires investigating several possible failure modes and limit states.
The recommended design procedure outlined in this chapter is to obtain a preliminary
area of FRP and modify this area based on a comprehensive analysis of the section for
strength, ductility, and serviceability. Analysis calculations are necessarily iterative, and
implementation of computer programs to automate the iteration process is highly
recommended.
This chapter addresses the analysis and design of sections only. After the area of FRP is
determined for critical sections, the reinforcement should be appropriately detailed for the
structure being considered. Proper detailing of reinforcement is presented in Chapter 10
and Part 5.
The following assumptions apply to this chapter:
*

1)

There no slip between the FRP and the bonded substrate

2)

Plane sections remain plane (Bernoullis principle)

3)

Loads in place at the time of FRP installation are within the structures
elastic range

4)

The existing conditions have been competently evaluated (including steel


areas and properties, concrete strengths, effective prestressing forces, etc.)

The procedures outlined in this chapter use the load factors and strength reduction factors
stipulated in ACI 3184. Engineers may wish to incorporate additional safety factors
according to uncertainties with the existing structure or degradation of the bonded
concrete substrate.

6.2

Existing Condition Assessment


Externally bonded reinforcement is typically installed unstressed. However, the surface to
which it is bonded is typically under stresses due to the structures self weight,
prestressing forces, or any other loads present at the time of installation. The strain in the
FRP will, therefore, be different than the strain in the concrete substrate. In order to apply
strain compatibility, the existing state of strain on the surface of the concrete substrate
must be assessed. This initial strain level may then be subtracted from the strain level in
the concrete substrate (determined by strain compatibility) to find the strain level in the
FRP as shown in Equation (6-1).

Hf
6.2.1

Hb  Hbi d Hfu

(6-1)

Initial Strains in Cracked Concrete


Typically a reinforced concrete structure, at some point in its history, will experience a
bending moment greater than its cracking moment. Initial strains may be determined
using cracked section properties of the unstrengthened section. Under the assumption
that the moment in place at the time of FRP installation is within the elastic range of the
section, the initial strain in the concrete substrate may be determined from Equation (6-2).

H bi

M ip (h  kd)
I cr E c

(6-2)

This assumption is valid only if the there is perfect bond between the FRP and the substrate. It is
recognized that perfect bond does not exist and that there is some shear deformation of the adhesive
resulting in some relative slip between the FRP and the substrate. However, the relative magnitude
of the strain differential between the FRP and the substrate is such that it may be neglected in design.

6-4

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Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

6.2.2

Initial Strains in Uncracked Concrete


There are situations where the section remains uncracked at the time of FRP installation
(particularly in the case of prestressed concrete). If this is true, the concrete is still
effective in tension and the initial state of strain may be determined from a simple
homogeneous, elastic section analysis (Equation 6-3).

H bi

6.3

Mipcb
Ig E c

Pe
AcEc

ec
1  b

rg2

(6-3)

Preliminary Design
Before proceeding with a comprehensive analysis and design of the strengthening
system, some initial computations should be performed to determine whether it is possible
to achieve the desired load level. The maximum load level that may be achieved may be
governed by flexural failure, shear failure, deflection limitations, or allowable stress
limitations.
Initial considerations of the following criteria should be made. Each of the criteria listed
should be checked with the structural geometry and material properties of the existing
structure and the load conditions required for the strengthened structure.
6.3.1

Existing Shear Strength


The load level that can be achieved may be controlled by the existing structures shear
strength. Therefore, after the repair, the nominal shear strength of the beam should be
greater than the shear force caused by increased loads from strengthening. This
requirement is defined by Equation (6-4).

IVn ,existing t Vu ,strengthened

(6-4)

For concrete beams, it may be possible to provide additional shear strength with FRP
shear reinforcement bonded to the sides of the beam (see Chapter 7).

6-5

6.3.2

Existing Stiffness
Bonded FRP does not significantly change the stiffness of a flexural member. Although
some additional stiffness may be achieved, the increase is typically not great. Deflection
computations using the existing section properties and the loads on the strengthened
structure will provide a reasonable estimate of service deflections.

6.3.3

Controlling Working Stress


The use of FRP for flexural strengthening is most useful in tension controlled sections.
Bonded FRP will not be as effective if the section is compression controlled. Therefore,
an initial check of the working stress in the concrete using the existing section properties
and the existing load condition should be performed. If the working stress in the concrete
exceeds the allowable value, the effectiveness of FRP reinforcement will be limited.

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WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

6.4

Ultimate Strength Analysis


The ultimate limit state analysis is used to calculate the capacity of the section by
combining stress equilibrium, strain compatibility, and the constitutive laws of the materials
at failure. The stress and strain distributions at ultimate are shown in Figure 6.1. The
b
Jf'c

Hc
d'

H's

f's

E1c

f's

Hbi

Hf

fs

fs

Hs
ff

ff

Hb

Figure 6.1 Strain and stress distribution in a RC section at ultimate


non-linear stress strain behavior of concrete may be replaced, for computational ease, by
a rectangular stress block with dimensions Jf'c x E1c. Note that the Whitney stress block
employed by ACI 3184 is not always valid. See discussion in Section 6.4.1.2.
The ultimate strength of a flexural member strengthened with FRP is generally controlled
by either failure of the concrete by compression crushing or failure of the FRP by tensile
fracture. In order to assess the nominal moment capacity of the beam, it is important to
determine if these failures occur before or after yielding of the existing steel. As a result,
the overall behavior of the member will be dramatically affected by limiting failure mode.
The following list summarizes the possible flexural failure modes. For any given section, it
is necessary to determine which failure mode will control.
1)

Concrete crushing before steel yielding

2)

FRP rupture before steel yielding

3)

Steel yielding followed by concrete crushing

4)

Steel yielding followed by FRP rupture

In addition to these flexural failure modes, other localized premature failures at the
concrete / FRP interface are possible5, 6. However, these failure modes can be avoided
through proper detailing of the FRP reinforcement. Guidelines for detailing FRP
reinforcement are given in Chapter 10.
6.4.1

Reinforced Concrete
The general equation for the nominal moment capacity of a reinforced concrete section
strengthened with FRP flexural reinforcement is given in Equation (6-5).

Mn

E c
E c

E c

A s f s d  1  A cs f sc 1  d c  0.85A f f f h  1
2
2

(6-5)

The term fs indicates that the reinforcing steel is not necessarily at its yield stress. Addition
of FRP to the beam may result in over-reinforcement for moment capacity thus the steel
will not yield. The 0.85 factor applied to the moment contribution of the FRP reinforcement
is additional to the three standard deviation reduction of the strength of the FRP. The
additional 0.85 reduction term is to be used at the discretion of the engineer.

6-6

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

The stresses in each of the materials will depend on the strain distribution and the
governing failure mode. Because of the number of variables involved, there is no direct
procedure for determining the strain distribution and failure mode. Instead, a trial and
error procedure is necessary. This procedure involves first estimating the depth to the
neutral axis, c, and determining the failure mode based on this estimate. The estimated
depth to the neutral axis may be confirmed or modified based on strain compatibility, the
constitutive laws of the materials, and internal force equilibrium. In most situations, a first
estimate of c = 0.15d is reasonable.
With the estimate of c, the failure mode may be checked by the following criteria:

h c
, failure is controlled by concrete crushing.
c

If H fu  H bi ! H cu

h c
, failure is controlled by FRP rupture.
c

If H fu  H bi  H cu

6.4.1.1
Failure by Concrete Crushing
When failure is governed by concrete crushing, the strain in the concrete at failure will be
at its maximum usable strain, Hcu.

Hc

Hcu

(6-6)

Strain levels in the tension steel and compression steel may be determined based on this
known strain level in the concrete and the assumed neutral axis position.

Hs

dc
H cu

(6-7)

H cs

c  dc
H cu

(6-8)

The strain in the FRP may be determined by finding the strain in the concrete substrate at
ultimate and subtracting the strain in the concrete substrate at the time of FRP installation.

h c
H cu
 H bi
c

Hf

(6-9)

Because the concrete is at its maximum usable strain level, the rectangular stress block
specified in ACI 318 may be used to approximate the actual non-linear stress distribution
in the concrete (i.e. J = 0.85, E1 from ACI 318 Chapter 10.2.7.3)4. Stresses in the steel may
be considered proportional to strains below the yield point and should be taken as the
yield stress for strains beyond the yield point (use an elastic-plastic assumption).

fs

EsHs d f y

(6-10)

f sc

E s H cs d f y

(6-11)

The FRP sheet may be taken as linear-elastic to failure.

ff

E f Hf

(6-12)

The estimated value of c may then be checked against the value obtained from Equation
(6-13), to satisfy equilibrium of the internal stress resultants.

6-7

A s f s  A cs f sc  A f f f
0.85f cc E1 b

(6-13)

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WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

6.4.1.2

Failure by FRP Rupture


The calculation procedure used to compute the nominal moment capacity of a section
when failure is governed by FRP rupture is similar. In this case, the known value of strain
in the FRP may be used in conjunction with the estimated neutral axis location to
determine the strain level in each of the materials.

Hf

H fu

H b  H bi

(6-24)

Hc

Hfu  Hbi

hc

(6-15)

Hs

H fu  H bi d  c

(6-16)

H cs

H fu  H bi c  d

(6-17)

h c

h c

Stresses in the steel can again be determined by Equations (6-10) and (6-11), and the
stress in the FRP, ff, may be taken as the ultimate tensile strength, ffu. Because the
concrete does not reach its ultimate strain in compression, the Whitney stress block (used
by ACI 3184) is not appropriate. The stress resultant for concrete should be determined
from an appropriate non-linear stress-strain relationship or by a rectangular stress block
suitable for the particular level of strain in the concrete. Parameters for such a stress
block are given in Equations (6-18) and (6-19)7. These values may also be determined
from Figures A.1 and A.2 in Appendix A.

E1

2

J
where H cc

>

4 H c H cc  tan 1 H c H cc

H c H cc ln 1  H c2

0.90ln 1  H c2 H cc2
E1H c H cc

H cc2

(6-18)

(6-19)

1.71f cc
is computed in radians.
1 H
, and tan c

Ec
H' c

Using the equivalent stress block method, the internal force equilibrium equation is given
in Equation (6-20). This equation is again used to check the estimated depth to the
neutral axis.

6.4.2

(6-20)

Prestressed Concrete
The analysis of a prestressed concrete section strengthened with FRP flexural
reinforcement is analogous to that of a partially prestressed beam. The nominal moment
capacity of a prestressed concrete section may be determined from Equation (6-23).

Mn

6-8

A s f s  A cs f sc  A f f fu
Jf cc E1 b

E c
E c

A p f ps d p  1  0.85A f f f h  1
2
2

(6-23)

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

A similar approach involving estimating the depth to the neutral axis is required to
determine the stress levels in each of the materials. The estimate on the neutral axis
depth must be checked by finding the strain and stress levels in all of the materials and
substituting them into Equation (6-42).

A p f ps  A f f fu

(6-42)

Jf ccE1b

If failure is governed by concrete crushing, Equations (6-6) to (6-12) may be used to


determine the strain and stress levels in the FRP and mild reinforcing steel. If failure is
governed by FRP rupture, Equations (6-24) to (6-19) apply.
The total strain in the prestressing tendons is due to strains at three load stages as shown
in Figure 6.2.

2
3

Load Stage 1:

Prestress Alone
(Effective)

Load Stage 2:

Decompression of
Prestressing Steel

Load Stage 3:

Ultimate Load

1
Prestressing Steel
Centroid
Hp3

Hp1

Hp2
Hp

Figure 6.2 Strain distribution in a PC section at various stages of loading


First, the strain in the tendons due to the initial application of the prestress force and any
subsequent losses may be determined from Equation (6-25).

H p1

Pe
ApEp

(6-25)

The second load stage is at decompression of the concrete at the level of the tendons.

Hp2

Pe e 2
1 2
A c E c
r

(6-26)

After decompression, the strain in the tendons may be determined by strain compatibility if
the tendons are bonded to the concrete. The strain level in the tendons at the third load
stage may be determined from Equation (6-27) for concrete crushing or Equation (6-28)
for FRP rupture.

H p3

H p3

6-9

dp  c
for concrete crushing
Hcu

c
dp  c
for FRP rupture

h c

H fu  H bi

(6-27)

(6-28)

05/02

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

The total strain in the tendons is then the sum of the strains at each load stage as in
Equation (6-29).

Hp

H p1  H p 2  H p 3

(6-29)

The stress in the tendons should be determined from an appropriate equation for the
stress-strain relationship of the particular prestressing steel. The PCI Handbook gives the
following equations for Grade 250 and 270 tendons8.

f ps

HpEp
for H p d 0.008

75
for Grade 270 steel
f 
 2000 for H p ! 0.008
pu H p  0.0065

(6-210)

f ps

for H p d 0.008
HpEp

58
f 
 2000 for H p ! 0.008
pu H p  0.006

(6-211)

for Grade 250 steel

In some rare cases, the strain levels in the tendons may be high enough to cause tensile
fracture of the prestressing steel. For this reason, the strain in the prestressing steel
should be limited to a value below 0.03.
6.4.2.1
Special Consideration for Unbonded Tendons
When the tendons are bonded to the surrounding concrete as in the case of pre-tensioned
tendons or post-tensioned tendons in grouted ducts, it is reasonable to assume that the
strain in the tendons due to loading stage 3 is the same as that in the surrounding
concrete. If the tendons are unbonded as in the case of post-tensioned tendons in
greased ducts, the tendons are free to slip relative to the surrounding concrete. The strain
in the tendon does not, therefore, correspond to the strain level in the surrounding
concrete, and strain compatibility does not exist. ACI addresses this by providing
separate equations for the stress in unbonded tendons at ultimate. However, these
equations are only applicable for the traditional concrete crushing failure mode. In the
case of an FRP strengthened section, failure may be controlled by FRP rupture. Thus, a
different approach is needed.
One of the most convenient methods of dealing with unbonded tendons is to proceed as if
the strains were compatible and then apply a bond reduction factor to account for the
tendon slip. An accepted formulation for the bond reduction factor is available in the
9
literature and is given in Equation (6-30). This bond reduction coefficient is valid for a
continuous beam loaded with a uniformly distributed load. Reduction factors for other
conditions are also available.

:u

3.0 l1
ln d p l2

(6-30)

In this equation l1 is the length of all the loaded spans that a continuous tendon covers
and l2 is the length of the tendon between end anchorages. With this reduction factor, the
total strain in the unbonded tendons may be found by Equation (6-31) where the strains at
the various load levels are those given in Equations (6-25) through (6-28).

Hp

H p1  H p 2  : u H p3

(6-31)

It has been further recognized that unbonded tendons will rupture at an average stress
well below the ultimate strength of the prestressing steel. It is suggested that the stress in
the tendons at ultimate be limited to below the yield stress for unbonded tendons. The
stress will therefore be proportional to the strain and may be expressed as Equation
(6-32).

f ps

6-10

H p E p d 0.94f py

(6-32)

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

6.4.3

6.5

Summary of Strength Equations


The ultimate strength of any section may be computed by assuming a strain distribution
(estimating the depth to the neutral axis), determining the governing mode of failure, and
checking or revising the assumption based on stress equilibrium. Once the actual strain
and stress distribution is found through trial and error, the nominal moment capacity may
be determined by computing the moment of resistance of the stress resultants.

Ductility
The use of FRP as a means of flexural strengthening will compromise the ductility of the
original system. Figure 6.3 shows the idealized moment curvature relationships of a
bonded FRP strengthened beam. Significant increases in moment capacity with FRP
sheets are afforded at the sake of ductility. In many cases, the loss of ductility is
negligible. However, sections that experience a significant loss in ductility must be
addressed. The approach taken by this manual follows the philosophy of ACI 318
Appendix B, where a section with low ductility must compensate with a higher strength
4
reserve . The higher reserve of strength is achieved by applying a strength reduction
factor of 0.70 to brittle sections as opposed to 0.90 for ductile sections.

Strengthened with 3 plies

Strengthened with 2 plies

Moment

Strengthened with 1 ply

Unstrengthened

Curvature

Figure 6.3 Typical idealized moment curvature relationship for various degrees of
strengthening (RC beams)
Concrete crushing or FRP rupture before yielding of the steel is both brittle failure modes.
Steel yielding followed by concrete crushing provides some level of ductility depending on
how far the steel is strained over the yield strain. Steel yielding followed by FRP rupture is
typically ductile because the level of strain needed to rupture FRP is significantly higher
than the strain level needed to yield the steel. Additionally, the tension steel and FRP
sheet are at a similar distance from the neutral axis.
In addition to failure modes at the ultimate limit state, ductility is also affected by the
service condition. If the tension steel yields at service load levels, both ductility and
residual stresses become of concern. Working stress limits presented in Section 6.6 will
guard against such circumstances.

6-11

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WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

6.5.1

Unreinforced Concrete
Although using externally bonded FRP as primary reinforcement may not be
recommended, the designer may want to ignore the contribution of steel reinforcement
due to degradation problems. If no steel is considered in the design of the strengthening
system, then the failure should be considered to be brittle. Thus, the strength reduction
factor used should be I = 0.70 to ensure an adequate reserve of strength.

6.5.2

Reinforced Concrete
The only brittle failure mode a reinforced concrete section could experience is concrete
crushing. Lower ductility is also a concern in sections that, at ultimate, only strain the
steel to levels between the yield strain and twice the yield strain. These sections in
traditional reinforced concrete design have reinforcement ratios roughly between the
balanced reinforcement ratio and 75% of the balanced reinforcement ratio. These
sections must also have a higher reserve of strength than more ductile sections.
It is, therefore, recommended to use a strength reduction factor given by Equation (6-33),
where s is the strain in the steel at the ultimate limit state determined from Equation (67).

0.90

I 0.50  0.20 s
H sy

0
.
70

for

H s t 2H sy

for H sy  H s  2H sy
for

(6-33)

H s d H sy

This equation sets the reduction factor at 0.90 for ductile sections where the steel is
strained over twice its yield strain, 0.70 for brittle sections where the steel does not yield,
and provides a linear transition for the reduction factor between these two extremes. This
is presented graphically in Figure 6.4.
I

0.90

0.70

Hsy

2Hsy

Steel Strain at
Ultimate

Figure 6.4 Graph representing the strength reduction factor as a function of


the ductility
6.5.3

6-12

Prestressed Concrete
The addition of FRP reinforcement to a prestressed flexural element does not dramatically
affect its ductility. It is recommended that the strength reduction factor of 0.90 be
maintained for all prestressed concrete sections.

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

6.6

Serviceability Requirements
Serviceability limit states are crucial to obtaining a well-designed strengthening system.
The significant increases in the ultimate capacity of a section afforded by FRP
reinforcement are not achieved by substantial increases in stiffness (though some
additional stiffness is obtained). When the demand on a flexural element is increased, it is
important, therefore, to determine the effects the increase will have on the service load
stresses and deflections.
6.6.1

Working Stress Analysis


Insuring that the working stresses of an FRP reinforced section fall within allowable
ranges is important in maintaining safe levels of ductility and performance under cyclic
loading. Care must be taken to avoid yielding the steel at service load levels. Unlike
traditional reinforced concrete design, it is necessary to check allowable stresses in
addition to the ultimate limit state.
6.6.1.1
Allowable Stresses
The allowable stresses for each of the various materials are listed in Table 6.1. The
allowable stress in the concrete and mild compression steel are taken directly from code
4
requirements . For mild tension steel, a higher allowable stress is suggested due to the
presence of an additional material capable of carrying tensile stress (i.e. the FRP). The
allowable stresses in the FRP materials are suggested to maintain their long-term
performance10. Further reductions to the allowable stress may be prescribed by using the
duration and environmental factors, CD and CE. Subjected to sustained load greater than
30% of ultimate for glass fibers and 95% of ultimate for carbon fibers, the fibers may fail
due to creep rupture. The duration factor reflects this behavior. The environmental factor
is determined from long term coupon testing in harsh conditions without protective
coatings (see Chapter 5 Durability). The environmental factor reflects degradation
under extreme conditions. Using these allowable stresses, performance of these
materials under sustained loading or environmental exposure will not be compromised.

Material

Table 6.1 Allowable stresses in materials


Allowable Stress

Concrete (Compression)

0.45f'c

Mild Tension Steel

0.80fy

Mild Compression Steel

0.40fy

Prestressing Steel

0.74fpu < 0.82fpy

Carbon FRP (tension)

0.33CDCEffu

Glass FRP (tension)

0.33CDCEffu

Table 6.1.1 FRP Adjustment Factors


FRP Material

6-13

Duration Factor, CD

Environmental Factor, CE

Carbon Fiber

1.00

0.65 1.00

Glass Fiber

0.30

0.60 1.00

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WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

6.6.1.2

Working Stresses in Reinforced Concrete


The computation of working stresses in reinforced concrete involves determining the
depth of the cracked neutral axis (assuming linear-elastic behavior of all materials) and
computing the stresses in each material based on the service moment. The stress and
strain distribution for working stress analysis is shown in Figure 6.5. Similar to
conventional reinforced concrete, the depth to the neutral axis at service may be
computed by taking the first moment of the areas of the transformed section. The
transformed area of the FRP may be obtained by multiplying the area of FRP by the
modular ratio of FRP to concrete. Although this method ignores the difference in the initial
strain level of the FRP, the initial strain level does not greatly influence the depth to the
elastic neutral axis.

b
fc

Hc
d'

f's

H's

kd

fs

Hs
ff

Hbi

Hf
Hb

Figure 6.5: Strain and stress distribution for a working stress analysis
The stresses in each of the materials may be determined by Equations (6-34) to (6-37).

fs

>M

E
f s c
Es

fc
f sc
ff

6-14

 H bi A f E f h  kd

d  kd E s
3
A s E s d  kd d  kd  A cs E s kd  d c kd  d c  A f E f h  kd h  k
3
3
3
s

E
f s f
Es

fs

kd

d  kd

kd  d c
d  kd

h  kd

d  kd  H bi E f

(6-34)

(6-35)

(6-126)

(6-37)

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

Deflections of Strengthened Beams


The cracked section properties of the strengthened section may be determined by using a
transformed area of FRP according to its modular ratio, and the effective moment of
inertia may be found by the traditional fashion (ACI 318-95 Equation 9-7). In computing
the effective moment of inertia, the maximum moment at the time deflections are
computed, Ma, should be taken equal to the full service moment. However, immediate
deflections should only be computed for moments applied after the strengthening is
completed, (Ms Mip).11, 12, 13

6.6.3

Crack Widths
The crack width at service should be investigated using the Gergely-Lutz equation used in
conventional reinforced concrete design4. The effect of the FRP may be neglected in this
calculation. Available research has shown the presence of FRP to reduce the crack size
and spacing, however its effect cannot be quantified at this time. Ignoring the contribution
of the FRP will be conservative.

Examples from Practice


Retrofit of an Existing Reinforced Concrete Bridge Slab14
The 70-year-old, solid-slab,
concrete bridge required
strengthening in order to
accommodate current traffic
loads. Based on analysis,
the new service loads will
produce a maximum positive
bending moment of Ms = 42
kipft/ft, and the total factored
loads result in a design
moment of Mu = 66 kift/ft.
An assessment of the
existing bridge condition
yields the section information
given in 6.6. Testing and
research into the material properties result in a nominal concrete strength fc = 3000 psi and
a yield strength for the mild steel of fy = 30,000 psi. Upon inspection, the concrete is in
good condition and no signs of active
corrosion are present.
b = 12

h = 18.5

6.7.1

d = 16.5

6.7

6.6.2

As = 1.5 in2/ft

As a means of strengthening this structure


to accommodate the larger loads, the
WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening
System was employed. The following
outlines the design procedure used to

determine the amount of Wabo MBrace


reinforcement required.

x
Determine
the
flexural
capacity
and
strengthening is required

existing
whether

Af = ?

Figure 6.6 Geometry of unit strip


for Example 6.7.1

6-15

05/02

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

(1.5 in 2 )(30,000 psi)


0.85(3000 psi)(12 in )

Asf y
0.85 f cc b

1.47 in

IM n

IA s f y d 
2

1.47 in

0.90(1.5 in 2 )(30,000 psi)16.5 in 

IM n

638,500 in lbs

53.2 kip ft  M u

638,500 in lbs

66 kip ft ? Strengthening req' d

The existing capacity is 25% below the design moment capacity. It is reasonable that the
WaboMBrace System will be capable of correcting this deficiency. WaboMBrace CF
130 is selected for its high strength and excellent performance under sustained and cyclic
loading.
x

Estimate the amount of CF 130 required.


It is recommended to design the area of FRP by making a rough estimate of the required
area based on the additional tensile force, T, required to equilibrate the moment
deficiency. Do note, however, that this is a rough estimate and should be modified based
on a full analysis.

M u  IM n
0.90 d

A f ,est

(66 kip ft  53.2 kip ft ) u 12 in ft


0.90(16.5 in )

T
I 0.85 f fu

10.34 kips
0.90 0.85 550 ksi

10.34 kips

0.0246 in 2

Based on this area, the width of FRP may be computed. For a slab, a series of evenly
spaced FRP strips is typically used. Thus, the estimated width becomes:

wf

Af
n tf

0.0246 in 2
1(0.0065 in )

3.8 in ? Try 1 ply, 4 in. wide Af = 0.026 in2

The actual flexural capacity must now be computed.


x

Find the existing state of strain on the soffit


Based on an existing condition assessment, the total moment in place at the time that the
FRP will be installed is Mip = 20 kipft. The existing state of strain may be computed for
this moment assuming that the section is cracked.

H bi

M ip (h  kd)
I cr E c

from Equation (6-2).

The multiplier on the beam depth, d, to find the cracked neutral axis position is k = 0.326.
Further, the cracked moment of inertia is Icr = 2570 in4. The strain level on the soffit at the
time of FRP installation, thus becomes:

H bi
x

(20 kip ft u 12 in / ft )(18.5 in  0.326 16.5 in )


(2570 in 4 )(2850 ksi)

430 PH

Estimate c, and adjust by trial and error


A first estimate of c = 0.15d is used. Thus, c = 0.15(16.5 in) = 2.475 in is the first estimate.

6-16

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

Find the mode of failure for the estimated c

h c
? H cu

H fu  H bi

18.5  2.475
0.017  0.000430 ? 0.003

2.475

0.01743  0.01942 ? FRP Rupture


x

Find the strain level in each of the materials

0.017

Hf

H fu

Hc

H fu  H bi

Hs

H fu  H bi d  c 0.01743 16.5  2.475

h c

2.475

18.5  2.475

0.01743

h c

18.5  2.475

0.00263

0.0149

Find the stress level in the FRP and steel


ff = ffu = 550 ksi
fs = fsy = 30 ksi since Hs >> Hsy

Find the parameters to define an equivalent concrete stress block

H cc
Hc
H cc
E1

J
x

1.71 f cc
Ec

1.71(2500 psi)
2,850,000 psi

0.0015

0.00263
1.635
0.0015
2

4> H c H cc  a tan H c H cc @

H c

0.90ln 1  H c2 H cc2
E1H c H cc

2

4> 1.635  a tan 1.635 @

0.847


1.635 ln 1  (1.635)
0.90ln 1  (1.635) 0.845

H cc ln 1  H c2 H cc2

0.847 1.635

Check the estimate on c

A s f s  Acs f sc  A f f f
Jf cc E1b

1.5 in 2 (30,000 psi)  0  (0.026 in 2 )(550,000 psi)


0.845(2500 psi)0.847(12 in )

2.300 in

2.300 in z 2.475 in ? A revision is required by iterating values of c.


x

A summary of the trial and error procedure is given in Table 6.2.


Table 6.2 Summary of trial and error calculations to obtain c
cest
(in)

Failure
Mode

Hf

ff
(ksi)

Hs

fs
(ksi)

Hc

E1

ccalc
(in)

2.475

FRP

0.017

550

0.0152

30

0.00269

0.847

0.845

2.300

2.400

FRP

0.017

550

0.0152

30

0.00259

0.840

0.849

2.311

2.330

FRP

0.017

550

0.0152

30

0.00251

0.833

0.851

2.323

Thus, the value of c is taken as 2.33 in.


6-17

05/02

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

Compute the nominal moment capacity

Mn

Mn
x

E c
E c

E c

A s f s d  1  A cs f sc 1  d c  0.85A f f f h  1
2
2
2

0.833(2.33)
0.833(2.33)

1.5(30)16.5 
 0  0.85(0.026)(550)18.5 

2
2

912 kip in 76 kip ft

Compute the design moment capacity


Because the strain in the steel at ultimate is much greater than twice its yield strain, the
section retains sufficient ductility. The I factor is therefore taken as 0.90.

IM n

0.90(76 kip ft )

68.4 kip ft ! M u

66 kip ft

9O.K.

Check serviceability by checking working stresses


x

Compute the elastic depth to the cracked neutral axis, kd.


By taking the first moments of the areas of concrete, steel (transformed to concrete), and
FRP (transformed to concrete), the following expression is obtained:

(kd) 2 b
 n s A s d  kd  n f A f h  kd 0
2
33000 ksi
(kd) 2 12in 29000 ksi
(1.5 in 2 )(16.5in  kd) 
(0.026 in 2 )(18.5in  kd)

2
2771 ksi
2771 ksi

Solving this quadratic, the depth to the neutral axis is kd = 5.185 inches (k = 0.314).

6-18

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

fs

Compute the stress in the steel at a service moment of Ms = 42 kip-ft = 504 kip-in.

>M

 H bi A f E f h  kd

d  kd E s
3
A s E s d  kd d  kd  A cs E s kd  d c kd  d c  A f E f h  kd h  kd
3
3
3

5.185

(16.5  5.185)(29000)
504  0.00039(0.026)(33000)18.5 
3

5.185
5.185

1.5(29000)16.5 
(16.5  5.185)  0  (0.026)(33000)18.5 
(18.5  5.185)
3
3

f s 22.41 ksi  0.80f y 24 ksi 9O.K.


x

Compute the maximum compressive stress in the concrete at service

fc

E
f s c
Es

fc

1106 psi ! 0.45f cc

Compute the stress in the FRP at service

ff

ff
x

E
f s f
Es

kd

d  kd

2771 5.185
22.57 ksi
1.106 ksi

29000 16.5  5.185


1350 psi 9O.K.

h  kd

d  kd  H bi E f

33 18.5  5.45
 0.00044(33000 ksi) 15.76 ksi
22.53 ksi
29 16.5  5.45

16.9 ksi  0.33C D C E f fu

0.33( 0.95 )( 0.65 )550 ksi

112 ksi

9O.K.

Conclusions

Based on the analysis, one ply of FRP with a width of 4 per 12 width of beam will be sufficient to
strengthen the bridge. The final design could call for a 10 wide one-ply strip spaced at 30 on center for
constructability and material economy. Because the WaboMBrace CF 130 sheets come in 20 wide rolls,
these strips are easily field cut.
As evidence of the validity of this design example, a full size mock-up of a unit strip of this
bridge slab was tested to failure. The experimental beam was constructed using similar
materials and the exact section and span dimensions. Figure 6.7 shows the experimental
load deflection curve as compared to the theoretical curve that is based on the principles
presented in this chapter. These curves show reasonable correlation. In addition, the
predicted failure mode, FRP rupture, was the mode of failure observed during testing.

6-19

05/02

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Engineering Guidelines

60000

FRP Rupture
FRP Rupture

50000

Concrete
Crushing

Load (lbs)

40000

Concrete
Crushing

30000

Theoretical (Before Strengthening)

20000

Experimental (Before Strengthening)


Theoretical (After Strengthening)

10000

Experimental (After Strengthening)

0
0

Deflection (in)
Figure 6.7 Experimental validation of Example 6.7.1

6.8

References

Kobayashi, A., Endoh, M., Kuroda, H., and Kliger, H., (1995). Use of Carbon Fiber Tow Sheet
Reinforcement for Improved Bridge Capacity Ratings in Japan, Proceedings of the International
SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, May 8-11.

Nanni, A., (1995). "Concrete Repair with Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement: Examples from Japan,"
Concrete International, v. 17, no. 6, June, pp. 22-26.

ACI-318, (1995). "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete." American Concrete Institute.

Triantafillou, T. C. and Plevris, N., (1992). "Strengthening of RC Beams with Epoxy-Bonded FibreComposite Materials," Materials and Structures, Vol. 25, pp. 201-211.

Oehlers, D. J., (1992). Reinforced Concrete Beams with Plates Glued to Their Soffits, Journal of
Structural Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 8, August, pp. 2023-2038.

Todeschini, C., Bianchini, A, and Kesler, C. (1982) "Behavior of Concrete Columns Reinforced with High
Strength Steels." ACI Journal, Proceedings, Vol. 61, No. 6, pp 701-716, November-December

PCI Design Handbook Edition 3 (1985), Precast Concrete Institute

Namaan, A. and Alkhairi, F. (1991) "Stress at Ultimate in Unbonded Post-Tensioning Tendons: Part 2 -Proposed Methodology." ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 88, No. 6, November-December, pp 683-692.

6-20

05/02

Chapter 6  Flexural Strengthening

10

ACI Committee 440 (1996), State-of-the-Art Report on FRP for Concrete Structures, ACI440R-96,
American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 68 pgs.

11

Arduini, M. and Nanni, A., (1997). "Behavior of Pre-Cracked RC Beams Strengthened with Carbon FRP
Sheets," ASCE, Journal of Composites in Construction, Vol. 1, No. 2, May, pp. 63-70.

12

Sharif, A., Al-Sulaimani, G., Basunbul, A., Baluch, M., and Ghaleb, B., (1994). "Strengthening of Initially
Loaded Reinforced Concrete Beams Using FRP Plates," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp160168.

13

Nanni, A., Focacci, F., and Cobb, C.A., Proposed Procedure for the Design of RC Flexural Members
Strengthened with FRP Sheets, Proceedings, ICCI-98, Tucson, AZ, Jan 5-7, 1998, Vol. 1, pp. 187201.

14

Mayo, R.L., Nanni. A,. Gold, W., and Barker, M., Strengthening of Bridge G270 with Externally Bonded
CFRP Reinforcement, FRPRCS-4, Baltimore, MD, 1999 (submitted).

6-21

05/02

Chapter 7 Shear Strengthening


7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

GENERAL

7-2

7.1.1

7-2

Notation

SHEAR STRENGTHENING OPTIONS

7-3

7.2.1

Bonded Surface Configuration

7-3

7.2.2

Shear Reinforcement Distribution

7-4

7.2.3

Fiber Orientation

7-4

7.2.4

Bi-axial Reinforcement

7-5

STRENGTH DESIGN

7-5

7.3.1

Shear Capacity of a FRP Strengthened Section

7-5

7.3.2

Contribution of FRP Reinforcement to the Shear Capacity

7-5

7.3.3

General Application of the Equations to Shear Problems

7-9

7.3.4

Design Recommendations

7-9

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

7-11

7.4.1

Correcting the Omission of Steel Stirrups

7-11

7.4.2

Accomodating a New Load Pattern

7-16

REFERENCES

7-19

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 7
7.1

Shear Strengthening

General
This chapter addresses the design of bonded FRP reinforcement as a means of
increasing the shear capacity of a concrete beam. Partial or complete beam
wrapping with transversely oriented FRP has been shown to improve the shear
strength of beams1, 2, 3. The amount of additional strength that may be achieved
is dependent on several factors including the wrapping scheme, the amount and
type of FRP, the existing concrete strength, and the nature of the loads and
support conditions. It is also important to realize that because the overall beam
shear strength is significantly dependent on the interfacial bond between the FRP
and concrete (especially in the case of partially wrapped beams); the additional
shear strength is not necessarily proportional to the amount of FRP used. This
phenomenon will become evident in the design procedure.

7.1.1
Afv

Notation
= Total area of one strip of transverse FRP reinforcement = 2 n tf wf (in2)

bw

Width of the web of the cross section (average width for tapered sections) (in.)

Depth to the tension steel reinforcement centroid (prestressed and/or mild) (in.)

df

Depth of the FRP shear reinforcement (typically d hs) (in.)

dfe

Effective depth of the FRP shear reinforcement considering only sufficiently bonded
areas (in.)

Ef

Elastic modulus of FRP (psi)

f'c

Nominal compressive concrete strength (psi)

ffe

Stress level in the FRP shear reinforcement at failure (psi)

ffu

Ultimate (rupture) strength of FRP (psi)

hs

Thickness of the monolithic slab or flange, if present (in.)

k1

Multiplier on the effective bond length to account for the concrete strength

k2

Multiplier on the effective bond length to account for the wrapping scheme

Le

Effective bond length of the FRP strip (in.)

Lo

Effective bond length of one ply of FRP (in.)

Number of plies of FRP shear reinforcement with fibers oriented in the primary (E)
direction

Reduction factor on the ultimate strength of the FRP to find the stress level in the FRP
at failure

sf

Spacing of the strips of FRP shear reinforcement. If continuous reinforcement is used,


the spacing of the strips should be set equal to the width of the strip, wf. (in.)

tf

Thickness of one ply of fiber reinforcement (in.)

Vc

Shear strength of the concrete in a given section (lb.)

Vf

Shear strength of the transverse FRP reinforcement in a given section (lb.)

7-2

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

Vn

Nominal shear strength of a given section (lb.)

Vs

Shear strength of the transverse mild steel reinforcement in a given section (lb.)

wf

Width of one strip of FRP shear reinforcement (in.)

Orientation of the primary fibers with respect to the longitudinal beam axis (degrees).

Hfu

Ultimate strain (elongation) of the FRP material (in./in.)

Strength reduction factor for shear

7.2

Shear Strengthening Options


The WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System offers the designer several
options for shear strengthening. The system is used to wrap a concrete section
with the fibers in the transverse direction in order to reinforce diagonal tension
cracks in much the same way as steel stirrups. From this general approach,
several configurations of FRP shear reinforcement have been devised and
investigated4. The goal of this section is to describe several alternatives that are
available to the designer. The figures in this section all reference a simply
supported T-beam for clarity.
7.2.1

Bonded Shear Strengthening Configurations


The most effective method of shear strengthening with FRP sheets is to wrap the
entire cross section of the beam with FRP as shown in Figure 7.1(a). Typically,
this is not practical from a constructability standpoint. The presence of monolithic
slabs or other supported elements often prevents wrapping the sheet around the
top of the section. One option might be to drill holes through the slab and wrap
strips or bands of FRP around the section. However, this method is often too
complicated and costly.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 7.1 Various schemes for wrapping transverse FRP reinforcement. (a) FRP
wrapped entirely around the beam. (b) FRP U wrap. (c) FRP bonded to the two sides
of the beam.

The most common method of shear strengthening is to wrap the sides and
bottom of the section. This method referred to as a U wrap and shown in
Figure 7.1(b). The U wrap is practical and is effective in increasing the
sections shear strength. The use of the U wrap is, however, only highly
effective in positive moment regions. In negative moment regions, shear
cracking initiates from the top of the section near the slab. Due to its location
below the slab, the FRP may not be able to control the initiation of these cracks.
Once these cracks open, there is the potential for the crack to drive through
section without any reinforcing effect from the FRP.

05/30/02

7-3

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

In some situations, it may not be possible to wrap the top or bottom of the
section. Shear strengthening is still possible by placing the reinforcement on
both sides of the section as shown in Figure 7.1(c). However, the effectiveness
of this configuration is limited due to possible anchorage confines of the FRP
sheet.
7.2.2

Shear Reinforcement Spacing

(a)

(b)

Figure 7.2 Various reinforcement distributions. (a) Continuous reinforcement. (b)


Reinforcement placed in strips.

The transverse FRP reinforcement may be in the form of a continuous jacket or


as spaced strips as shown in Figure 7.2. The use of strips may be effective in
optimizing the amount of material used. Furthermore, if the entire length of the
beam is to be wrapped, the use of strips may allow for better moisture migration
through the concrete.
7.2.3

Fiber Orientation
Because FRP is an anisotropic material with high strength in the direction of the
fibers, the fibers may be oriented in such a way to best reinforce diagonal tension
cracks. This is achieved by the use of inclined strips, Figure 7.3(a). However,
vertically oriented plies are easier to install and may reduce the total length of the
wrap, Figure 7.3(b).

(a)

(b)

Figure 7.3 Sheets with their fibers oriented in various primary directions. (a) 45q wrap. (b) 90q
wrap.

7-4

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

7.2.4

Bi-axial Reinforcement
It has been found that the use of bi-axial FRP reinforcement increases the overall
performance of the system5. Bi-axial FRP reinforcement is achieved by placing
two unidirectional FRP plies in mutually perpendicular directions, Figure 7.4. The
ply in the primary direction acts to provide most of the reinforcement. While the
ply in the secondary direction limits shear crack openings and provides
anchorage for the ply in the primary direction.

(a)

(b)

Figure 7.4 Beams with bi-axial FRP shear reinforcement. (a) 0q/90q wrap. (b) r45q wrap.

7.3

Strength Design
At the ultimate limit state, it is not possible to attain the full strength of the FRP in
a shear strengthening situation. Failure is governed by either rupture of the
sheet at average stress levels well below ultimate due to stress concentrations,
debonding of the FRP sheet from the concrete surface, or a significant decrease
in the post-cracking concrete shear strength from a loss of aggregate interlock.
The strength design procedure takes all of these failure modes into
consideration.
7.3.1

Shear Capacity of a FRP Strengthened Section


The nominal shear strength of a reinforced concrete section, per ACI 318-95, is
the sum of the shear strength of the concrete and the strength of the steel shear
reinforcement6. For beams strengthened with FRP shear reinforcement, the
nominal shear strength may be computed by the addition of a third term to
account for the contribution of the FRP sheet. The nominal shear strength is
expressed in Equation (7-1). A factor of 0.85 is applied to the contribution of
FRP to the shear capacity because of the novelty of this repair technique.*
Vn

Vc  Vs  0.85Vf

(7-1)

The design shear strength, IVn, is obtained by multiplying the nominal shear
strength by a strength reduction factor for shear, I. It is suggested that the
reduction factor of I = 0.85 for shear given in ACI 318-956 be maintained. The
designer may wish to incorporate a more conservative factor if there are
uncertainties about the condition of the existing structure.
7.3.2

Contribution of FRP Reinforcement to the Shear Capacity


The general expression for the additional capacity afforded by FRP shear
reinforcement is given in Equation (7-2). The determination of the capacity of
FRP shear reinforcement is similar to that for the shear contribution of transverse
steel reinforcement7, and the equation is consistent with the ACI format. As in

As with the factor used for flexural FRP reinforcement, there is no theoretical reliability basis for this factor at this time.

05/30/02

7-5

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

the ACI equation, the shear contribution is computed by assuming a shear crack
angle of 45 degrees, computing the area of reinforcement that crosses this
potential crack, and multiplying the area by the strength of the material.6

Vf

A fv f fe sin E  cos E d f
d 4 f cc b w d
sf

A reasonable limit on the maximum amount of additional shear strength that may
be achieved is placed in terms of the shear strength of the concrete. This limit is
imposed primarily to establish a basis for judging when the use of FRP is not
suitable for shear reinforcement. Furthermore, this limit maintains the use of
FRP as supplemental reinforcement.
In order to determine the area of FRP reinforcement that crosses a potential 45degree shear crack, the terms Afv, df, sf, and E are required. Afv is the area of one
strip of transverse FRP reinforcement covering two sides of the beam. This area
may be expressed by Equation (7-3), where n is the number of plies, tf is the
thickness of one ply, and wf is the width of the strip.

A fv

2nt f w f

In a positive moment region, the depth of the strip, df, is the horizontal projection
of the shear crack (assumed to be 45q) minus the distance from the top of the
crack to the top of the sheet. Because shear cracks typically initiate as vertical
cracks until they reach the depth the longitudinal steel reinforcement, the
effective depth of the FRP strip should be measured from the centroid of the
steel at the bottom of the section. Typically, strips extend only to the soffit of the
slab at the top of the beam. Therefore, the effective depth of the FRP strip may
be computed by subtracting the slab depth, hs, from the depth to the steel, d.

df
E
wf

wf

sf
(a)

sf
(b)

Figure 7.5 Dimensions used to define the area of FRP for shear.
(a) Vertically oriented FRP strips. (b) Inclined strips.

7-6

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

The spacing between the strips, sf, is defined as the distance from the centerline
of one strip to the centerline of an adjacent strip. Note that for continuous shear
reinforcement, as shown in Figure 7.5(b), the spacing of the strip, sf, and the
width of the strip, wf, are equal.
The angle E defines the orientation of the primary fibers with respect to the
longitudinal axis of the beam. The primary fibers are most effective when
oriented perpendicular to the potential crack. Figure 7.5 summarizes the
definition of the variables used to define the area of FRP that crosses a potential
shear crack.
The final variable in Equation (7-2) that is required to compute the shear capacity
of the FRP sheet is the effective stress in the sheet at failure. As stated earlier,
the ultimate strength of the sheet cannot be attained in a shear strengthening
situation. The effective stress is therefore computed by applying a reduction
factor, R, on the ultimate strength as shown in Equation (7-4).

f fe

Rf fu

The reduction factor is determined by the governing mode of failure. For sheets
which do not entirely wrap the beam cross section, the primary mode of failure is
debonding of the sheet from the concrete. By wrapping the section entirely,
adequate anchorage is provided, and bond is less critical.
The other failure mode of interest is the loss of aggregate interlock in the
concrete. If the shear crack width becomes too large, aggregate interlock is lost
along with the majority of the shear strength of the concrete, Vc. In order to
control the shear crack width, the strain (and thus the stress) of the FRP sheet
must be limited. This limiting factor applies mainly to beams that are wrapped
entirely, however it must be considered a general limiting factor for all wrapping
schemes.
Consideration of these two failure modes was made in the development of
Equation (7-5).

k 1 k 2 L e 0.005
d
468H fu
H fu

The first part of this equation addresses debonding of the FRP sheet. This
equation was developed from a combination of empirical and experimental work
involving a determination of the bond strength of FRP, loaded in tension, to
concrete.8 This bond test arrangement is particularly well suited to a shear
strengthening situation because the method of force transfer is similar*.

Note that for flexural FRP reinforcement, this bond mechanism is less applicable because flexural curvature tends to
stabilize the progressive debonding of FRP from the concrete. See reference 11.

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7-7

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

The limit of 0.005/Hfu on the equation addresses the loss of aggregate interlock.
Aggregate interlock is maintained by limiting the shear crack opening. It has
been suggested that this may be achieved by limiting the strain in the FRP to
values on the order of 0.004 to 0.005 in/in.9 The limit used in this manual, 0.005,
is not on the conservative end of this range. However, this value has been
selected in recognition of additional safety factors in place for the calculation of
the design capacity (strength reduction factors and the factor of 0.85 applied to
the contribution of FRP).
The other possible failure mode, FRP rupture, has not been considered.
However, this failure mode typically occurs at strains above 0.005 in/in.
Therefore, this failure will only occur after loss of aggregate interlock.
In determining the limiting factor for bond, the effective bond length, Le, must be
determined. According to experimental observations, the ultimate tensile force
that the CFRP strip carries is not dependent on its total bonded length. The
reason for this is that load is sustained by bond only in a concentrated area of
active bonding. Bond stresses in the remaining portion of the sheet are relatively
small. If delamination occurs in this vicinity, the area of active bonding is shifted
to a new area. This action is repeated until delamination propagates completely
through the length of the CFRP. Therefore, the maximum force that can be
carried by bond stresses in the active bonding area governs the highest tensile
force that the sheet can carry. The effective bond length times the width of the
strip defines this active bonded area.
The effective bond length decreases with increasing stiffness of the sheet (more
plies). Physically, this results in the stress in the sheet being transferred to a
smaller area of concrete and increasing the stress in the concrete. Thus, the
addition of more plies increases the overall strength, but the efficiency of the FRP
system decreases. The equation for the effective bond length is given in
Equation (7-6).10

Le

1
Lo
n

In this equation, Lo is the effective bond length for one ply of FRP. The effective
bond length for one ply of each of the WaboMBrace Fiber Reinforcement
Systems has been computed and are given as follows:*
Lo = 2.0 in for CF 130
Lo = 1.5 in for CF 530
Lo = 2.5 in for EG 900

In general, the effective bond length of one ply of FRP may be determined by the equation:

Lo

2500
t f E f 0.58

. Also see

reference 10.
The experimental base for shear strengthening with glass FRP is not extensive at this time. The designer should take
particular care in specifying EG 900 for shear strengthening.

7-8

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

The effective bond length is further effected by the concrete strength and the
bonded configuration (Figure 7.1). Thus two additional factors are applied to
compensate for these effects. The factor, k1, given in Equation (7-7) accounts for
concrete strengths other than 4000 psi.11

k1

f cc

4000

2/3

(7-7)

The factor k2 accounts for the type of wrapping scheme used. This factor is
given in Equation (7-8).

k2

(7-8)

d fe
df

After a shear crack develops only that portion of FRP extending past the crack by
the effective bonded length will be capable of carrying shear. The depth of the
FRP reinforcement will, therefore, be reduced unless the FRP is anchored by
wrapping it around the section. The effective depth may be computed based on
the wrapping scheme from the criteria given below.12

d fe

d f  Le

d fe

d f  2 L e if the FRP strip is bonded only to the two sides of the beam,

if the FRP strip is U wrapped, Figure 7.1(b)

Figure 7.1(c)
As stated earlier, bond becomes less of a concern when the sheet is wrapped
entirely around the beam cross section. In this case the limiting factor for bond
may be disregarded, and the reduction factor, R, may be taken as the maximum
value.

0.005
if the beam is wrapped entirely, Figure 7.1(a)
H fu

7.3.3

General Application of the Equations to Shear Problems


The procedure given in Section 7.3.2 applies directly to FRP used to reinforce
flexure-shear cracking in beams. This is only one of a wide variety of shear
problems that may exist in a concrete structure. The procedure in Section 7.3.2
can be extended to apply to other shear problems by modifying the term df.
Instead of taking this variable as the depth to the steel minus the slab thickness,
this variable may be set to the horizontal projection of a potential shear crack.

7.3.4

Design Recommendations
In addition to strength considerations, there are several detailing issues that are
of importance in design of FRP shear reinforcement. The details that apply
specifically to shear strengthening are addressed in this section.

7.3.4.1 Bi-axial FRP Reinforcement


The design equations presented do not address the use of bi-axial FRP
reinforcement where the fibers are oriented in two perpendicular directions.
Although the effect of this reinforcement is not quantifiable at this time, its use is
05/30/02

7-9

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

highly recommended. When shear cracks form, it is typically assumed that the
displacement is in the vertical direction and the vertical component of the
resistive force supplied by reinforcement is effective. However, in reality the
displacement has a horizontal component as well resulting from rigid body
rotation about the shear crack tip. If only vertical plies of FRP are used (E = 90q),
there is nothing to resist this horizontal strain component. (In the case of steel
stirrups, this component is resisted by dowel action of the stirrup.) It is, therefore,
recommended to use an additional horizontal ply (E = 0q) to resist this movement
and further limit shear crack opening.
The horizontal ply also acts to arrest the vertical crack that starts at the bottom of
the section (for positive bending) below the longitudinal steel centroid. Due to
this crack control mechanism, the horizontal ply should always be located as
close as possible to the bottom of the section for positive bending and as close
as possible to the top of the section for negative bending as possible.
Without a quantifiable method for determining the amount of secondary
reinforcement to use, a general approach will suffice. In general, one secondary
ply should be used when one primary ply is used, and another secondary ply
should be used for every two additional primary plies. For example, a design
using 3 primary plies should include 2 secondary plies. Placement of the plies
should alternate between primary and secondary with the primary ply placed first.
7.3.4.2 Spacing Requirements
Similar to steel shear reinforcement, the spacing of FRP strips should not be so
wide as to allow the full formation of a diagonal crack without intercepting a strip.
For this reason the strips should not be spaced by more than the maximum given
in Equation (7-9).

s f ,max

wf 

d
4

7.3.4.3 Limit on Total Shear Reinforcement


ACI 318-95 Section 11.5.6.7 and 11.5.6.8 set a limit on the total shear strength
that may be provided by more than one type of shear reinforcement.6 FRP shear
reinforcement should be included in this limit. A modification to ACI 318-95
Section 11.5.6.8 is suggested by Equation (7-10).

Vs  Vf d 8 f cc b w d

7-10

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

7.3.5

Comparison to Experimental Data


The design procedure outlined has been compared to data from various
experimental programs available in the literature*. This comparison is shown in
Figure 7.6.

Calculated FRP Shear Contribution (kips)

50

FRP Bonded to Sides Only


FRP U-wrap
FRP Wrapped around Beam Entirely
Nominal Datum
Design Datum

40

30

20

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Experimental FRP Shear Contribution (kips)


Figure 7.6 Comparison between experimental results and results obtained through the proposed
design procedure.

In the figure, the line labeled Nominal Datum represents a perfect correlation
between the computed nominal shear strength provided by the FRP, Vf, and the
experimental shear strength provided. The line labeled Design Datum
represents a perfect correlation between the computed design shear strength
provided by the FRP, I(0.85Vf), and the experimental shear strength provided.
Data points falling below the Design Datum represent beams with shear
strengths that were higher than the computed design value and therefore,
represent the design procedure as conservative. From the data, the design
procedure tends to be conservative in nearly all cases.
7.4

Example Problems
7.4.1

Correcting the Omission of Steel Stirrups


The T-beam shown in Figure 7.7 is simply supported on each end by masonry
walls. The beam has a span of ln = 30 ft and supports a uniformly distributed
dead load of wdl = 1.3 k/ft (including its own self-weight) and a uniformly

The experimental data originate from several sources, however the data is summarized in Reference 8.

05/30/02

7-11

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

distributed live load of wll = 1.6 k/ft. The beam was originally designed with #3
stirrups spaced at 12 over mid-span and 6 near the support. However, some of
the stirrups near the support were omitted during construction leaving stirrups
spaced at 12 throughout the entire length of the beam. It is desired to correct
the omission by using WaboMBrace CF 130. Other pertinent data from the
construction specifications are as follows: fc = 4000 psi, fy = 60 ksi, fvy = 40 ksi.
b = 36 in
hs = 6 in

d = 24 in
#3 Stirrups
@ 12 o.c.

bw = 12 in

Figure 7.7 T-Beam cross section for Example 7.4.1.

Compute the existing capacity


Based on analysis, the shear capacity of the concrete is Vc = 34.6 kips and the
shear capacity of the stirrups is Vs = 17.6 kips. Thus, the nominal shear capacity
of the as-built beam is Vn,existing = 54 kips. The factored shear demand at a
distance, d, away from the support is (Vu /I) = 71 kips. Shear strengthening will,
therefore, be required. Figure 7.8 shows the shear diagram with the locations
where shear strengthening is required along the length of the beam.

Capacity to be taken by
supplemental FRP
Reinforcement

71 kips

Beam
Centerline
Vn

54 kips
Vu / I
12 kips

d
69 in

Figure 7.8 Shear diagram showing demand versus existing capacity. The FRP reinforcement
must correct the deficiency shown shaded.

7-12

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

Find the FRP contribution to shear capacity, Vf

Vf ,req 'd
x

0.85

0.85

20.0 kips

Assume one ply of CF 130 will be used and compute the effective bonded length

Le
x

Vu I  Vn ,existing 71 kips  54 kips

1
Lo
n

2 in

Compute the effective depth of the FRP shear reinforcement


The FRP wrap can only extend to the slab soffit. Therefore, the FRP must be in
the form of a U wrap. The total depth of the FRP will, therefore, be df = d hs.
df = d hs = 24 in 6 in = 18 in
The effective depth will be:
dfe = df Le = 18 in 2 in = 16 in

Find the reduction factor on the ultimate strength of the FRP

k 1 k 2 L e 0.005
d
468H fu
H fu
k1

f cc

4000

k2

d fe
df

2/3

16 in
18 in

(1.0 )( 0.889 )( 2 )
468( 0.017 )

1
0.889
0.223

Checking the upper limit on R, 0.005/Hfu = 0.294, it is found that the computed
value of
R = 0.223 is acceptable.
Compute the effective stress level in the FRP sheet
ffe = R ffu = 0.223(550 ksi) = 123 ksi

Find the required amount of CF 130


For constructability and to conserve materials, the FRP will be oriented in the
vertical
(E = 90q) direction. The amount of FRP can be found from Equation (7-2).
The spacing and the width of the strips are the two design variables. For
convenience it will be helpful to compute the ratio wf / sf. Based on the wf / sf
ratio, the following conclusions can be drawn:
If wf / sf < 1.0, it is acceptable to use one-ply strips with a width to spacing ratio greater
than or equal to wf / sf.
If wf / sf = 1.0, it is acceptable to use a continuous one-ply sheet (i.e., wf = sf).
If wf / sf > 1.0, one-ply will not be sufficient; more plies will be required.

05/30/02

7-13

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

With Afv = 2 n tf wf this ratio may be computed as follows:

20.0 kips

Vf

2(1)( 0.0065 )w f (123 ksi )(18 in )


w
f
sf
sf

0.695

Thus, it will be permissible to use evenly spaced, one-ply strips.


x

Design the width and spacing of the FRP strips


Considering WaboMBrace CF 130 comes in 20 in wide rolls, material may be
conserved by using strip widths that are divisors of 20 inches (i.e., 4, 5, 10, or 20
inch widths). In addition, the placement of the existing steel should be
considered. It will be most beneficial to place the FRP strips between the
existing steel reinforcement. A configuration that satisfies both of these criteria
plus the strength criteria is to use 10 inch wide strips spaced at 12 inches on
center. Thus, the wf /sf ratio becomes 0.833 which is greater than the required
ratio.

Check capacity and spacing requirements


The capacity of the FRP as designed is:

A fv f fe sin E  cos E d f
sf

Vf

2(1)( 0.0065 in )(10 in )(123 ksi )(1  0 )18 in


12 in

This is less than the upper limit of:

4 f cc b w d

4 4000 psi (12 in )( 24 in )

72.8 kips 9

The 12 inch spacing is less than the maximum of:

s f ,max

wf 

d
4

10 in 

24 in
4

16 in 9

Checking the total capacity of the entire cross section:

Vc  Vs  0.85Vf

Vn
Vn
x

74.3 kips !

Vu
I

71 kips

36.4 kips  17.6 kips  0.85( 23.9 ) kips


9

Detailing longitudinal plies


In addition to the vertical strips, strips running in the longitudinal direction will
prevent the propagation of shear cracks and anchor the vertical strips. These
longitudinal strips should be placed on the sides of the web and be located as
close as possible to the top of the vertical strip (for anchorage) and the bottom of
the section (for crack control). For this purpose a 5 inch wide strip will be placed
longitudinally in these two locations.

Final design
The final ply sheet dimensions and orientation are shown in Figure 7.9. This
figure also shows the shear requirement of the beam and the shear
strengthening provided by the WaboMBrace repair.

7-14

05/30/02

23.9 kips

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

Existing
Stirrups

5 Horizontal Plies
of CF-130

10 Vertical Plies
of CF-130 @ 12
o.c.

74.3 kips

Beam
Centerline
Vn

Vu / I
12 kips

d
72 in

Figure 7.9 Final design and shear diagram for Example 7.4.1.

05/30/02

7-15

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

7.4.2

Accommodating a New Load Pattern


The beam shown in Figure 7.10 was originally designed to carry two point loads
from mechanical equipment spaced 6 ft apart. New equipment was installed that
resulted in the same load magnitude but with a smaller footprint; the point loads
from the new equipment were spaced 3 ft apart. In the original construction,
stirrups were left out of the 6 ft region at mid-span because of the low shear
demand. The new load pattern may, therefore, result in a shear deficiency in this
region. In order to accommodate this new load pattern, Wabo MBrace shear
reinforcement may be designed to correct the deficiency. The beam cross
section is shown in Figure 11 and the following material properties have been
determined: fc = 4000 psi, fy = 60 ksi.

Pu = 27 k

Pu = 27 k

Pu = 27 k

Pu = 27 k

wu = 3.27 k/ft

10 ft

6 ft

wu = 3.27 k/ft

10 ft

11.5 ft

3 ft

11.5 ft

New Load Pattern

Original Load Pattern

Figure 7.10 Beam elevation for Example 7.4.2 showing the change in load pattern.

5
18
17

12
Figure 7.11 Cross section of beam at mid-span.
69.51 k
36.81 k
31.9 k

Vu, original
9.81 k

10

Vu, new

1.5

1.5 1.5 1.5


This part of the beam needs
strengthening

7-16

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

Figure 7.12 Shear requirements.

Assess the current condition

Vc

2 f 'c b w d

2 4,000 psi (12 in )(18 in )

27,322 lb

27.3 kips

There are no stirrups in the portions of the beam that require strengthening,
because Vu was less than (IVc).

IVc
2

0.85( 27.3 kips)


2

11.6 kips ! Vu

9.81 kips

But in the new condition, Vu became 36.81 kips > (IVc), so additional shear
reinforcement must be provided.
x

Determine the shear contribution that must be provided by the FRP

Vu

I( Vc  0.85Vf )

36.81 kips
Vf req 'd
x

0.85( 27.3 kips  0.85Vf )

18.8 kips

Select materials and geometry


WaboMBrace CF 130 reinforcement is chosen for the shear retrofit. Due to
geometric considerations, it is desired to use a 20 wide U-wrap to cover each of
the two 1.5 ft lengths of the beam that are deficient in shear. Assuming one ply,
the shear contribution may be computed.

Determine the effective bond length

Lo
Le

2 in for WaboMBrace CF 130


1
Lo
n

05/30/02

2 in for one ply (n = 1)

7-17

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Determine the reduction factor on the ultimate strength of the sheet


2/3

k1

f cc

4000

df

d  hs

18 in  5 in 13 in

d fe

d f  Le

k2

d fe
df

R
x

13 in  2 in 11 in

11 in
13 in

k 1k 2 L e
468 H fu

0.846

1( 0.846 )( 2 in )
468( 0.017 )

0.213

Determine the stress level in the fiber at ultimate.

f fe
x

Rf fu

0.213( 550 ksi ) 116.9 ksi

Find the shear contribution of the FRP and compare to the required value.

Vf

A fv f fe sin E  cos E d f
d 4 f cc b w d
sf
2(1)( 0.0065 in )( 20 in )(116.9 ksi )(1  0 )13 in
d 4 4,000 psi (12 in )(18 in )
12 in
32.9 kips  54.6 kips

Vf
x

32.9 kips ! Vf ,req' d

18.8 kips ? One ply is sufficient

Final design
The final design is summarized in Figure 7.13.
One ply of MBrace CF-130 in a Uwrap configuration

9-11

20

2-10

20

9-11

Figure 7.13 Beam elevation showing the location and configuration of the designed FRP shear
reinforcement.

7-18

05/30/02

Chapter 7  Shear Strengthening

7.4.3 References

Chajes, M. J.; Januska, T.F.; Mertz, D.R.; Thomson, T.A.; and Finch, W.W., Shear
Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Externally Applied Composite Fabrics,
ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 92, No. 3, May - June 1995, pp. 295-303.

Umezu, K.; Fujita, M.; Nakai, H.; and Tamaki, K., Shear Behavior of RC Beams with Aramid
Fiber Sheet, Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, Proceedings of the
Third Symposium, Vol. 1, Japan, Oct 1997, pp. 491-498.

Funakawa, I.; Shimono, K.; Watanabe, T.; Asada, S.; and Ushijima, S., Experimental Study on
Shear Strengthening with Continuous Fiber Reinforcement Sheet and Methyl Methacrylate
Resin, Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, Proceedings of the Third
Symposium, Vol. 1, Japan, Oct 1997, pp. 475-482.

Triantafillou, T.C., Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Epoxy-Bonded


FRP Composites, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 95, No. 2, March-April 1998, pp. 107-115.

Rizkalla, S.; Abdelrahman, A.; Hutchinson, R.; and Donald, D. Shear Strengthening of the
Maryland Bridge Using CFRP Sheets. Submitted to the City of Winnipeg, July 1997, 23 pgs.

ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-95) and
Commentary (ACI 318R-95), American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI, 1995, 369 pgs.

Ohuchi, H; Ohno, S.; Katsumata, H.; Kobatake, Y.; Meta, T.; Yamagata, K; Inokuma, Y.; and
Ogata, N., Seismic strengthening Design Technique for Existing Bridge Columns with
CFRP, Seismic Design and Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Bridges, edited by Park, R.,
1994, pp. 495-514.

Khalifa, A.; Gold, W.; Nanni, A., and Abel-Aziz M.I. Contribution of Externally Bonded FRP to
the Shear Capacity of RC Flexural Members. J. of Composites in Construction, ASCE, Vol.
2, No. 4, Nov. 1998.

Seible, F. and Innamorato, D. Earthquake Retrofit of Bridge Columns with Continuous Carbon
Fiber Jackets. Report to Caltrans, Division of Structures, La Jolla, CA, August 1995, 56 pgs.

10

Maeda, T.; Asano, Y.; Sato, Y.; Ueda, T.; and Kakuta, Y., A Study on Bond Mechanism of
Carbon Fiber Sheet, Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures,
Proceedings of the Third Symposium, Vol. 1, Japan, Oct 1997, pp. 279-286.

11

Horiguchi, T.; and Saeki, N., Effect of Test Methods and Quality of Concrete on Bond Strength
of CFRP Sheet, Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, Proceedings of
the Third Symposium, Vol. 1, Japan, Oct 1997, pp. 265-270.

12

Sato, Y.; Ueda, T.; Kakuta, Y.; and Tanaka, T., Shear Reinforcing Effect of Carbon Fiber
Sheet Attached to Side of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Advanced Composite Materials in
Bridges and Structures, edited by El-Badry, M.M., 1996, pp. 621-627.

05/30/02

7-19

Chapter 8 Enhancement of Axial Performance


8.1

GENERAL
8.1.1

8.2

8.3

Notation

BEHAVIOR OF FRP CONFINED CONCRETE

8-2
8-2

8-3

8.2.1

Behavior of FRP Confined Concrete in Circular Sections

8-5

8.2.2

Confining Pressure as a Function of Longitudinal Strain

8-7

8.2.3

Modified Consitutive Law for FRP Confined Concrete

8-8

COMBINED AXIAL AND BENDING FORCES

8-8

8.3.1

Ultimate Strength Analysis

8-8

8.3.2

Serviceability Considerations

8-9

8.4

INCREASE IN SHEAR CAPACITY

8-9

8.5

FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS

8-9

8.6

8.5.1

Strengthening Purpose

8-10

8.5.2

Existing Reinforcement

8-10

8.5.3

Size Effect

8-10

8.5.4

Seismic Retrofit

8-10

DESIGN EXAMPLE
8.6.1

8.7

Increasing the live load capacity of a column

REFERENCES

8-11
8-11

8-12

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 8

Enhancement of Axial Performance

8.1 General
The use of FRP reinforcement to enhance the axial compressive performance of concrete
members is a commonly used FRP retrofit technique. By wrapping a concrete column with an
FRP jacket, the shear, moment, and axial capacity are improved. In addition, the ductility of the
member may be significantly improved. Wrapping the column with the FRP fibers oriented in the
transverse (hoop) direction forms the FRP jacket. The jacket provides significant confinement to
the concrete, which leads to the mechanical performance improvements.
Both glass and carbon FRP are very effective in enhancing the axial performance of concrete
columns. Creep rupture of glass FRP is not a concern with column wrapping because under
normal sustained service loads, the FRP jacket remains virtually stress free. On a weight basis,
the strength improvements afforded with glass FRP are lower than those achieved with carbon.
This chapter deals specifically with circular cross sections. The technique has been shown to
improve the performance of rectangular cross sections as well. However, these improvements
are not quantifiable at this time.
8.1.1

Notation

Ec

= Elastic modulus of concrete (psi)

Ef

= Elastic modulus of FRP (psi)

fc

= Longitudinal stress level in the concrete (psi)

f'c

= Nominal compressive strength of unconfined concrete (psi)

f'cc

= Nominal compressive strength of confined concrete (psi)

fcp

= Confining pressure provided by the FRP jacket (psi)

ff

= Stress state in the FRP fibers (psi)

ffu

= Ultimate (rupture) strength of the FRP fibers (psi)

fy

= Yield strength of longitudinal mild steel (psi)

= Height or diameter of the circular column section (in.)

= Number of plies of FRP reinforcement with fibers oriented in the hoop


direction

= Reduction factor on the ultimate strength of the FRP to find the stress level in
the FRP at failure

tf

= Thickness of one ply of fiber reinforcement (in.)

Vc

= Shear strength of the concrete in a given section (lb.)

Vf

= Shear strength of the transverse FRP reinforcement in a given section (lb.)

Vn

= Nominal shear strength of a given section (lb.)

Vs

= Shear strength of the transverse mild steel reinforcement in a given section


(lb.)

8-2

05/30/02

Chapter 8  Enhancement of Axial Performance

Hc

= Concrete strain (confined or unconfined) in the axial (longitudinal) direction


(in./in.)

Hc,cr

= Longitudinal strain corresponding to the onset of transverse cracking in the


concrete (in./in.)

H'c

= Unconfined concrete strain level corresponding to the peak value of stress, f'c
(in./in.)

H'cc

= Confined concrete strain level corresponding to the peak value of stress, f'cc
(in./in.)

Hf

= Strain in the FRP jacket in the direction of the fiber orientation (in./in.)

Hfu

= Ultimate strain (elongation) of the FRP fibers (in./in.)

Hs

= Tensile strain in the longitudinal steel (in./in.)

Hy

= Strain corresponding to yield in the longitudinal steel reinforcement (in./in.)

Ht

= Concrete strain (confined or unconfined) in the transverse (hoop) direction


(in./in.)

Ht,cr

= Transverse strain corresponding to the onset of transverse cracking in the


concrete (in./in.)

H't

= Strain corresponding to the peak value of tensile stress in the concrete (in./in.).
A typical value of 0.0002 is recommended.

= Strength reduction factor

Qc

= Poissons ratio for concrete in the elastic range. Typically Poissons ratio is
assumed to be equal to 0.19.

Uf

= Volumetric FRP reinforcement ratio; ratio of the volume of fibers to the


volume of the encased concrete.

8.2 Behavior of FRP Confined Concrete


As concrete is uniaxially compressed, Poissons effect induces transverse strains that result in
radial expansion of the concrete. At low levels of longitudinal strain, the concrete behaves
elastically and the transverse strain is related proportionally by Poissons ratio to the longitudinal
strain. At a critical value of longitudinal stress (typically 75% to 80% of f'c), cracks forming in the
concrete paste between the aggregate result in large increases in transverse strain with relatively
small increases in longitudinal stress. This rapid increase in transverse strain results in an
equally rapid volumetric expansion. This behavior is best summarized in Figure 8.1.1

05/30/02

8-3

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Stress
Ht

fc

Hc

Tension

f'c

Unconfined Concrete

~0.70f'c

Ht

Ht,cr

Hc,cr

H'c Compresssion

Strain

Figure 8.1 Typical relationship for uniaxially loaded unconfined


concrete showing stress versus longitudinal, transverse, and volumetric
strain
By wrapping the concrete with a continuous FRP jacket, the fibers resist the transverse
expansion of the concrete. This resistance provides a confining pressure to the concrete. At low
levels of longitudinal stress, the transverse strains are so low that the FRP jacket induces little
confinement. However, at longitudinal stress levels above the critical stress, the dramatic
increase in transverse strains engages the FRP jacket and the confining pressure becomes
significant. The effect of the confining pressure is to induce a triaxial state of stress in the
concrete. It is well understood that concrete under triaxial compressive stress exhibits superior
behavior in both strength and ductility than concrete in uniaxial compression.1

FRP Jacket

Fiber Direction
for Confinement

Figure 8.2 Schematic of an FRP wrapped column showing fiber


orientation
The improvement to the behavior of concrete is quantified based on the observation that concrete
encased by an FRP jacket exhibits a bilinear stress-strain response.2 Initially the stress strain
behavior is unchanged from that of unconfined concrete. However, beyond the peak stress for
unconfined concrete, the stress level in confined concrete continues to increase with increasing
strain. The rate of increase is roughly proportional to the stiffness of the confining jacket.3

8-4

05/30/02

Chapter 8  Enhancement of Axial Performance

Stress

Because the FRP jacket acts to contain damaged sections of concrete; the maximum usable
strain level in the concrete is only limited by the ultimate strain obtainable in the FRP jacket. The
generalized stress-strain behavior of concrete confined with an FRP jacket is shown in Figure 8.3.

Strain

Figure 8.3 Generalized stress-strain relationship for concrete confined


by an FRP jacket

Increasing
Confinement

Stress

As shown in Figure 8.4, the improvements to the behavior of the concrete are proportional to the
degree of confinement provided.

Unconfined

Strain

Figure 8.4 Stress-strain curves for concrete under various levels of


confinement

8.2.1 Behavior of FRP Confined Concrete in Circular Sections


To quantify the behavior of concrete encased by an FRP jacket, it is necessary to determine the
amount of confining pressure the FRP jacket supplies. The confining pressure is a function of the
stiffness of the jacket and the transverse expansion of the concrete.

05/30/02

8-5

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

fcp = 2 tj ff / h

ff

fcp

FRP Jacket
(Thickness = tj = n tf)

ff
Concrete Column
(Diameter = h)

fcp

Figure 8.5 Free body diagram showing the internal and external forces
on the FRP jacket and concrete column
By strain compatibility, the strain in the jacket is equal to the transverse strain in the concrete as
expressed in Equation (8-1). The confining pressure may then be found by analyzing the statics
of a thin-walled cylindrical cylinder (Figure 8.5). This analysis yields the confining pressure given
by Equation (8-2).

Hf

Ht

(8-1)

f cp

0.85E f H t U f
2

(8-2)

where, U f

4nt f
h

In the expression for the confining pressure, the 0.85 factor is intended to account for any
localized debonding that may result in incompatibility between the strains in the concrete and the
jacket and as a general reduction factor to account for the novelty of this repair technique. There
is no theoretical reliability basis for this factor at this time.
The apparent increase in the compressive strength of concrete under the confining pressure
supplied by the jacket may be quantified by Equation (8-3) and the strain corresponding to this
peak value of stress is given by Equation (8-4)4

f ccc

7.9f cp 2f cp
f cc 2.25 1 

 1.25

f cc
f cc

(8-3)

H ccc

fc

H cc 6 cc  5
f cc

(8-4)

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Chapter 8  Enhancement of Axial Performance

In the above expressions, f'c and 'c are properties of unconfined concrete. The term 'c is the
strain corresponding to the peak value of unconfined compressive stress and can be found from
Equation (8-5).

1.71f cc
Ec

H cc

(8-5)

8.2.2 Confining Pressure as a Function of Longitudinal Strain


The strain in the FRP (and therefore the confining pressure it supplies) is equal to the transverse
strain in the concrete. The transverse expansion of the concrete, in turn, is dependent on the
longitudinal strain in the concrete. Thus, as the axial strain is increased, the transverse strain
increases, and the confining pressure will increase. It is necessary to define a relationship
between the transverse strain in the concrete and the longitudinal strain. Such a relationship has
been developed based on research of concrete under a triaxial state of stress5. For a variable
confining pressure depending on the properties of the FRP jacket, the relationship for the axial
strain, c, in terms of the transverse strain, t, may be expressed as Equation (8-6).

H t 1  2Q c f cp
for H t d H t ,cr

EcQc
Q c

Q H c  H c ,cr H ccc  H c ,cr

H  c cc
 g (H t ) for H t ! H t ,cr
c , cr

1  2Q c H ccc

Hc

where, g (H t )

1

1  2Q c
Q c2 H ccc

(8-6)

Q c H c ,cr  1
 1
H t ,cr  2H t  Q c H c ,cr
1
2

Q
c

This expression states that the transverse strain and longitudinal strain are initially related by
Poissons ratio. After the onset of transverse cracking in the concrete, the transverse strain
increases rapidly. The transverse strain at which cracking initiates is given by Equation (8-7).
The corresponding longitudinal strain is given by Equation (8-8).

H ct 

H t ,cr
H c ,cr

f cp 1  2Q c

H t ,cr
Qc

05/30/02

Ec

(8-7)
(8-8)

8-7

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

8.2.3

Modified Consitutive Law for FRP Confined Concrete

The stress corresponding to any value of longitudinal strain may be computed by Equation (8-9).

fc

H
1.8f ccc c
H ccc
H
1  c
H ccc

(8-9)

The complete stress-strain behavior of FRP confined concrete may be developed by selecting a
strain in the FRP (or transverse strain in the concrete), computing the confining pressure
supplied, computing the peak value of stress for this confining pressure, finding the longitudinal
strain corresponding to the transverse strain, and finally calculating the stress corresponding to
this value of longitudinal strain. This procedure is valid for all values of strain in the FRP from
zero up to the ultimate elongation of the FRP fiber material ( fu).
8.3 Combined Axial and Bending Forces
The axial and moment strength interaction of the FRP confined column may be computed by
applying strain compatibility, the constitutive laws of the materials, and equilibrium of stress
resultants in the traditional fashion. The FRP jacket only has the effect of modifying the
constitutive law for concrete as described in Section 8.2. This constitutive law may be used for
any distribution of stress in the section assuming that the confinement remains active in partially
cracked conditions or if the column is subjected to cyclic loading.
8.3.1 Ultimate Strength Analysis
Theoretically, the ultimate longitudinal strain that is achievable in the concrete is only limited by
the strain corresponding to the strain in the FRP material at rupture. However, the transverse
strain in the concrete should be limited to 0.005 in./in. to maintain the shear integrity of the
concrete6.
In the process of determining stress resultants, it is necessary to integrate the stress-strain
relationship given in Equation (8-9) over a circular concrete cross section to find the magnitude
and location of the concrete stress resultant. The computational effort involved can become quite
complex, and the use of computer programs to automate the process is highly recommended.
Alternately, dimensionless interaction diagrams for several concrete strengths and configurations
of longitudinal steel reinforcement are given in Appendix A.
The interaction diagrams in Appendix A use the same I factors given in ACI 318-957 for columns
with spiral reinforcement*. If the purpose of the FRP confinement is to replace deficient spiral
reinforcement, it is recommended to use more conservative I factors. In particular, the I factors

associated with tied columns would be appropriate .

I= 0.75 for compression controlled sections with a maximum axial force of 0.85IPn. Additionally, the I
factors are adjusted in the tension controlled region per ACI Section B.9.9.3.2 (I = 0.90 if Hs,max > 0.005, I
= 0.65 50 Hs,max if Hy < Hs,max < 0.005)

I= 0.70 for compression controlled sections with a maximum axial force of 0.80IPn. The adjustment in
the tension controlled region per ACI Section B.9.3.2 is I = 0.90 if Hs,max > 0.005, I = 0.56 58 Hs,max if Hy <
Hs,max < 0.005.

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05/30/02

Chapter 8  Enhancement of Axial Performance

8.3.2 Serviceability Considerations


At load levels near ultimate, the designer should be aware that damage to the concrete in the
form of significant cracking in the radial direction might occur. The FRP jacket contains the
damage and maintains the structural integrity of the column. However, at service load levels, this
type of damage should be avoided. In this way, the FRP jacket will only act during overloads that
are temporal in nature.
To insure that radial cracking will not occur under service loads, the strain in the concrete should
remain below cr at service load levels. This corresponds to limiting the stress in the concrete to
0.65fc. In addition, the stress in the steel should remain below 0.60fy to avoid plastic deformation
under sustained or cyclic loads. By maintaining the specified stress in the concrete at service,
the stress in the FRP jacket will be virtually zero. The jacket is only stressed when the concrete
is strained above cr the rate of the transverse expansion becomes large.*
8.4 Increase in Shear Capacity
Because the FRP jacket provides additional strength in the transverse direction, the shear
strength is improved as well. Similar to the shear strength of beams wrapped with transverse
FRP reinforcement, the shear capacity of a FRP wrapped column may be determined from
Equation (8-10). The 85% multiplier is the same as that used for computing the shear capacity of
a beam section (see Chapter 7) and is intended to account for the novelty of this strengthening
technique.

Vn

Vc  Vs  0.85Vf

(8-10)

The contribution of the FRP jacket to the shear capacity may be determined from Equation (811).8

Vf

S
nt f Rf fu h
2

(8-11)

Because the FRP jacket completely encases the column, the reduction factor, R, can be
computed from Equation (8-12).

0.005
H fu

(8-12)

This factor is the same as that given for a beam wrapped entirely with transverse FRP
reinforcement (see Chapter 7). This factor also remains consistent for the limit imposed on the
jacket acting as confinement. As stated previously, the value of this factor is chosen to limit the
transverse strain in the concrete so that aggregate interlock is maintained.
8.5 Further Considerations
The following observations are presented to help the designer make an educated judgement as
to the applicability of FRP confinement to a specific project.

The stress levels indicated are not intended to be Allowable stresses. These values are only to insure
that damage to the column under service loads is avoided.

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8-9

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

8.5.1 Strengthening
Columns may require retrofit due to a number of circumstances such as changes in load
requirements, design/construction deficiencies, physical damage, corrosion or other durability
problems, etc. Depending on the circumstance, the condition of the existing concrete may range
from excellent to very poor. The following considerations should be made depending on the
condition of the existing concrete and the reason for the retrofit.
1) If the existing concrete is damaged then subsequently repaired (by epoxy injection for
instance), the designer may consider reducing the nominal compressive strength of the concrete,
fc depending on the extent of the damage. This reduced compressive strength may be
incorporated into the design methods presented in this chapter.
2) If there is an active corrosion problem, the source of the corrosion must be
investigated and the problem corrected before any strengthening work is commissioned. This is
especially critical considering that the FRP jacket will hide visual signs of corrosion.
3) Similarly, other durability related concerns such as the presence of efflorescence or
exudation, any form of chemical attack, and non-structural cracking should be addressed and
corrected prior to strengthening.
8.5.2 Existing Reinforcement
For columns with high, existing steel reinforcement ratios, the effect of the confining jacket may
be limited due to decreased volumetric expansion of the concrete in the column. In the absence
of further study, it is suggested to use FRP confinement only in columns with reinforcement ratios
lower than Ug = 0.03.
Similarly, the presence of existing spirals or ties may effect the volumetric expansion of the
column. Further research into this topic is required for an adequate assessment of the effect of
the presence of spirals or ties.
8.5.3 Size Effect
The procedures outlined in this chapter do not imply a restriction on the column diameter
(although the reinforcement ratios for large columns may result in excessive jacket thickness that
may become economically restrictive). However, the effect of the confining jacket may be
reduced or may be non-existent in very large diameter columns. Until further research is
available, it is suggested to use the methods provided in this chapter only for columns with a
diameter smaller than 72 inches.
8.5.4 Seismic Retrofit
Future editions of this manual will contain specific guidelines on the use of FRP jacketing for
seismic retrofits. Topics that remain to be addressed are the effect of cyclic loading, the
formation of plastic hinges, and a quantitative assessment of the ductility improvements afforded
by the FRP jacket.
8.6

Example Problem

8.6.1 Increasing the ultimate load capacity of a column


A 16 diameter circular column with 10-#7 bars was originally designed to carry a factored axial
load of 570 kips and a factored moment of 134 kip-ft. The column has 1.5 of clear cover and #3
spiral transverse reinforcement. Design the number of plies of CF 130 needed to be able to
support a 20% increase in factored loads. The concrete and steel properties are fc = 5000 psi, fy
= 60,000 psi.

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05/30/02

Chapter 8  Enhancement of Axial Performance

Compute the factored axial force and bending moment for the 20% live load increase

1.2( 570kips )

Pu

684k

1.2(135k ft ) 162k ft

Mu

To use the non-dimensional interaction diagrams given in Appendix A, the following values must
be calculated:
x

Compute the existing steel reinforcement ratio

Ug
x

6.0 in 2
201in 2

As
Ag

0.03

Compute the diameter of the circle defining the reinforcement centroid

Jh 16 in  2(1.5 in )  2(3 / 8 in )  (11 / 8 in ) 10.875 in


J
x

Jh
h

10.875 in
16 in

0.68

Find the factored unit axial force and bending moment

Pu
Ag

684 kips
201in 2

Mu
Agh

3.40 ksi

in
ft
2
201in 16 in

162 k ft 12

0.60 ksi

With these values, the required FRP reinforcement ratio may be determined from the nondimensional interaction diagrams given in Appendix A.

From Figure A.8 (J Ug = 0.03 Uf = 0.003


From Figure A.10 (J Ug = 0.03 Uf = 0.0015
From linear interpolation, if J = 0.68 then Uf = 0.0026
x

Compute the required jacket thickness

nt f
x

Uf h
4

0.0026 16 in
4

0.010 in

Compute the required number of plies

0.010 in
in
0.0065
ply

1.6 plies

? Use 2 plies

Thus, 2 plies of CF 130 will be adequate to allow a 20% increase in factored loads.

05/30/02

8-11

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

8.7

References

MacGregor, J.G. (1997) Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, 939 pg.

Nanni, A. and Bradford, N. (1995), FRP Jacketed Concrete Under Uniaxial Compression,
Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 115-124

Samaan, M.; Mirmiran, A.; and Shahway, M., Modeling of Concrete Confined by Fiber
Composites, submitted

Mander, J.B.; Priestley, M.J.N.; and Park, R. (1988), Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for
Confined Concrete, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 114, No. 8, pp. 18041826.

Imran, I., and Pantazopoulou, S.J. (1996), Experimenal Study of Plain Concrete Under Triaxial
Stress, Materials Journal, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 93, No. 6, pp. 589-601.

ACI Committee 440 (1996), State-of-the-Art Report on FRP for Concrete Structures, ACI440R96, Manual of Concrete Practice, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 68 pg.

ACI 318 (1995), Building Codes and Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, American
Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI 369 pg.

Seible, F. and Innamorato, D. (1995), Earthquake Retrofit of Bridge Columns with Continuous
Carbon Fiber Jackets, Report to Caltrans, Division of Structures, La Jolla, CA, 56 pg.

8-12

05/30/02

Chapter 9 Other Applications


9.1 CLAMPING THE DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF EXISTING
REINFORCEMENT

9-2

9.1.1

Notation

9-2

9.1.2

Basic Theory

9-2

9.1.3

Quantifying the Reduction in Development Length

9-3

9.2 REFERENCES

9-4

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 9

Other Applications

9.1 Clamping the Development Length of Existing Reinforcement


The MBrace System can be used to clamp the concrete along the development length of existing
steel reinforcement in tension to reduce the development length of this reinforcement.1 This is
particularly useful in retrofitting existing columns in which inadequate lap splices were used in the
original construction. The analysis of the MBrace System used for this purpose is similar to
utilizing the area of transverse steel reinforcement to reduce the development length of bars in
tension.
9.1.1

Notation

f'c

= Nominal compressive concrete strength of unconfined concrete (psi)

ffe

= Effective stress in the FRP fibers (psi)

ffu

= Ultimate (rupture) strength of the FRP fibers (psi)

k1

= Multiplier on the reduction factor, R, to account for various concrete strengths

Ktr

= Transverse reinforcement factor (modified to reflect contribution of FRP)

Ktr,f

= Transverse reinforcement factor due to transverse FRP reinforcement

Ktr,s

= Traditional transverse reinforcement factor due to transverse steel


reinforcement

Le

= Effective bonded length of the FRP transverse strip (in.)

= Number of plies of FRP reinforcement with fibers oriented in the transverse


direction that intersect a potential splitting failure plane

nb

= Number of existing longitudinal bars being developed

= Reduction factor on the ultimate strength of FRP based on the bond


mechanism

sf

= Spacing of transverse FRP strips (in.)

tf

= Thickness of one ply of fiber reinforcement (in.)

wf

= Width of one strip of transverse FRP reinforcement (in.)

Hfu

= Ultimate elongation (strain) of the FRP fibers (in./in.)

9.1.2 Basic Theory


As steel reinforcement embedded in concrete is pulled in tension, the deformations on the steel
bar produce an outward radial pressure on the surrounding concrete. This pressure may produce
splitting cracks in the concrete if sufficient development length is not provided.
FRP reinforcement may be used to wrap the concrete section transversely and thus reinforce
these splitting cracks. It is recommended to wrap the section entirely where possible, particularly
for columns. However a U wrap may also be used to clamp a beam section.

9-2

05/30/02

Chapter 9  Other Applications

Potential
Splitting
Failure
Potential
Splitting
Failure

FRP U Wrap
Reinforcement

Full FRP Wrap


(a)

(b)

Figure 9.1 FRP reinforcement used to clamp the development length of


longitudinal bars. (a) A U wrap used for a beam section (b) A full
wrap used for a column section.
9.1.3 Quantifying the Reduction in Development Length
The development length of bars in tension reinforced with transverse FRP wraps may be
determined in the traditional fashion presented in ACI 318 Section 9.3.32. The effect of the FRP
reinforcement may be accounted for by introducing a new transverse reinforcement index, Ktr.

K tr

K tr ,s  0.85K tr ,f

(9-1)

The first term, Ktr,s, is the traditional transverse reinforcement factor given in ACI 318 Section
12.2.4 for transverse steel reinforcement. The second term is a new transverse reinforcement
factor for transverse FRP reinforcement. The 85% reduction factor is meant to account for the
novelty of this strengthening technique.
The transverse FRP reinforcement factor may be computed based on the general principles
presented in Chapter 7. The expression for this factor is similar to that for steel and is given by
Equation (9-2).

K tr ,f

A tf f fe
1500 s f n b

(9-2)

Where the area of transverse FRP reinforcement may be computed by the following expression.

A tf

nt f w f

(9-3)

In this expression, n is the total number of plies which cross a potential plane of splitting along
the longitudinal steel being developed and wf is the width of the FRP strip. Note that, similar to
shear strengthening, the width of the strip and the spacing of the strips, sf, should be equal for a
continuous FRP wrap.

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WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

The effective stress in the sheet, ffe, is dependent on the bond mechanism of the FRP to the
concrete. This variable is quantified similarly to the effective stress for shear strengthening given
in Chapter 7.

f fe

Rf fu

(9-4)

0.005
k1 L e
for " U" wraps
468H d H
fu
fu
0.005

for Full wraps


H fu

(9-5)

Where,
k1

f cc

4000

2/3

(9-6)

Effective lengths, Le, are given for various fiber reinforcement systems in Chapter 7. Alternately,
the value of R for U wraps may be determined from tables given in Appendix A with df/dfe equal
to 1.0.
With the modified transverse reinforcement factor, the basic tension development length
expression given in ACI 3182 as Equation 12-1 may be used to compute the development length.

9.2

References

Seible, F. and Innamorato, D. (1995), Earthquake Retrofit of Bridge Columns with Continuous
Carbon Fiber Jackets, Report to Caltrans, Division of Structures, La Jolla, CA, 56 pgs.

ACI 318 (1995), Building Codes and Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, American
Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI 369 pgs

9-4

05/30/02

Chapter 10 Details of Reinforcement


10.1

10.2

GENERAL

10-2

10.1.1

Notation

10-2

10.1.2

General Detailing Guidelines

10-3

BOND AND DELAMINATION

10-3

10.2.1

Cover Tension

10-3

10.2.2

Beam Shear

10-4

10.2.3

Interfacial Shear and Peeling

10-4

10.2.4

Planar Surface Irregularities

10-5

10.2.5

Mechanical Anchorage

10-6

10.3

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH

10-6

10.4

SPLICES

10-7

10.4.1

Beams

10-7

10.4.2

Columns

10-8

10.5

CUTOFF POINTS

10-8

10.6

REFERENCES

10-10

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Chapter 10 Details of Reinforcement


10.1 General
This chapter is presented to offer guidance in finalizing the design of an WaboMBrace
strengthening system. Full structural capacity of the FRP sheets will depend on the design, the
type of structure, and the quality and soundness of the concrete substrate.
Similar to designing traditional reinforced or prestressed concrete members, the procedure for
designing FRP flexural reinforcement involves the following steps:
x

Determine the amount of FRP required at critical sections based on the analysis procedures
given in Chapter 6

Determine the development length of the laminate

Find the required length of the laminate based on development lengths and allowable cut-off
points

Detail any additional anchorage and splices if required

Insure that the general detailing guidelines given in Section 10.1.2 are met

For FRP reinforcement used for shear strengthening or column wrapping the only detailing
necessary is determining splice dimensions and locations and insuring that the general detailing
guidelines are met.
10.1.1 Notation

Ef

= Elastic modulus of FRP (psi)

f'c

= Nominal compressive concrete strength of unconfined concrete (psi)

fct

= Direct tensile strength of concrete determined by in-situ pull-off tests (psi)

ffu

= Ultimate (rupture) strength of the FRP fibers (psi)

= Number of plies of FRP reinforcement with fibers oriented in the hoop


direction

tf

= Thickness of one ply of fiber reinforcement (in.)

Mcr

= Moment to cause cracking of the concrete section (lb.-in.)

Mu

= Design moment under factored loads (lb.-in.)

= Shear force in the concrete section

= Interfacial bond stress between the FRP and the concrete substrate (psi)

df

= Length required to develop the ultimate strength of the FRP laminate in tension
(in.)

10-2

05/30/02

Chapter 10  Details of Reinforcement

10.1.2 General Detailing Guidelines


The following list provides general guidelines for detailing FRP reinforcement. Many bond-related
failures may be avoided by following these recommendations.
x

Do not turn inside corners

Provide a minimum radius when the sheet is wrapped around outside corners

Inject all cracks prior to FRP installation

Do not use externally bonded reinforcement on a concrete substrate with a nominal


compressive strength, fc, less than 2000 psi

Additionally, some standard details for FRP reinforcement are contained in Appendix B.
10.2 Bond and Delamination
Because of shear transfer mechanisms and local regions of tension at the interface between the
concrete and the FRP, delamination before ultimate design strength may be encountered. The
cause of this phenomenon is complex. However, schemes can be implemented to avoid this
situation.
The weak link in the concrete/FRP interface is the concrete. The soundness and tensile strength
of the concrete substrate will limit the overall effectiveness of the FRP bonded to it. It is important
to recognize the possible types of delamination failure. The basic types of delamination are1:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Cover tension
Beam shear
Interfacial shear
Planar surface irregularities

It is important to realize that delamination typically occurs at loads significantly higher than
service loads.
10.2.1 Cover Tension
For externally bonded FRP reinforcement using sheet materials, the cover tension delamination
condition starts developing at the location of flexural cracks and propagates towards the laminate
end2. This is different from the case of bonded steel plates where the delamination usually starts
at the plate end due to stress concentration and propagates toward the centerline of the beam3.
Because the reinforcing steel essentially acts as a bond breaker in a horizontal plane, the
reduced area of bulk concrete pulls away from the rest of the beam. This situation is illustrated in
Figure 10.1.
The use of over-wraps has been shown to lessen the effect of cover tension delamination. Overwraps are highly efficient if distributed over the length of the member. If the over-wrap is simply
added at the at the FRP curtailment, its function is simply to add a safety device.

05/30/02

10-3

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Cover
Tension
Failure

FRP

CL

Figure 10.1 Delamination caused by tension failure of the concrete


cover
10.2.2 Beam Shear
Beams which are over reinforced for moment will fail by either shear or a combination of flexural
and shear. Typical behavior is governed by shear cracking near the high shear region. As the
shear cracks open, local displacements along the tension face cause a delamination of the FRP,
Figure 10.2. The delamination typically initiates at the shear crack and propagates toward the
support. This situation has been identified in steel plate bonding as well. A check of the repaired
beam with increased loads with respect to the nominal shear capacity of the beam will likely avoid
this situation.

Figure 10.2 Delamination caused by beam shear cracks


10.2.3 Interfacial Shear and Peeling
Previous research on steel and FRP bonded plates has demonstrated that the interfacial shear
and out-of-plane tension (peel) distribution in the vicinity of the plate end to be significantly
different than the average stress distribution4, Figure 10.3. In situations where peel is the true
failure mode, the difference between the local peak stresses and the average stress partially
explains delamination.
In the case of the curtailment zone for externally bonded FRP sheets, the stress distribution
shown in Figure 10.3 may not be highly relevant due to the relative small thickness of adhesive
and laminate. However, existing practice is to taper multiple sheets of FRP at 6 inches/ply.

10-4

05/30/02

Chapter 10  Details of Reinforcement

End of FRP

Centerline of beam

Compression

Tension

Interfacial Shear Stress, W

Normal Stress, V
Distance along FRP

Figure 10.3 Interfacial shear and normal stress (peel) distributions


along the length of a bonded FRP laminate
10.2.4 Planar Surface Irregularities
Because the MBrace sheet FRP can follow the contour of most concrete surfaces, it is important
to fill low spots and grind high spots flat. If the FRP follows the contour of a hole, snap-through
phenomenon caused by beam curvature can create a localized delamination. In the case of the
FRP sheets bridging over protrusions (such as concrete filling formwork knotholes), the resulting
behavior is similar to the beam shear case on a much smaller scale. Proper surface preparation
and use of WaboMBrace Putty are the keys to avoiding these types of delaminations. Figures
10.4 and 10.5 illustrate what to avoid.

Snap-through forces

FRP

Figure 10.4 Snap-through behavior of FRP bonded to contour

FRP

Figure 10.5 FRP bridging over a protrusion

05/30/02

10-5

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

10.2.5 Mechanical Anchorage


It is not recommended to use the WaboMBrace System with mechanical anchorage. Because of
complications regarding fastener shear out, corrosion, fiber crushing from fastener bearing stress,
durability of fiber ends after drilling and significantly increased installation costs, use of
mechanical fastening systems requires rigorous design and analysis.
10.3 Development Length
The development length of externally bonded FRP in tension is based on an assumed bond
stress distribution and the maximum tensile stress in the FRP. An appropriate bond stress
distribution for FRP bonded to cracked concrete is a triangular distribution starting at 0, ramping
up to the direct tensile strength of the concrete, and ramping down to 0. This stress distribution is
assumed to act over the development length of the FRP. This assumption for bond stress
distribution has been commonly used for bonded steel plates5 and is appropriate for FRP. Its
validity has been confirmed in recently conducted tests using 4,000 psi concrete and
WaboMBrace CF 130.
The tensile capacity of the in-situ concrete may be determined by approximation using a multiple
of the square root of the nominal compressive strength or it may be determined directly by
performing direct pull-off tests on the concrete substrate to which the FRP is to be installed.
By equating the force developed in the sheet at ultimate to the area of the bond stress
distribution, Equations (10-1) and (10-2) result.

df
n

f fu t f
3 f cc

(10-1)

df
n

2 f fu t f
f ct

(10-2)

10.4 Splices
Splices are often required for constructability and geometric reasons. Although WaboMBrace
fibers are delivered in rolls containing several hundred feet of continuous material, the installer is
typically only capable of handling sheets in 6 to 8 ft lengths.* For most strengthening projects, it
therefore becomes necessary to incorporate splices. Furthermore, in cases where a section is to
be completely wrapped with the sheet (such as shear strengthening or column wrapping), splicing
is necessary to maintain continuity of the laminate. The recommended method of splicing
WaboMBrace laminates is simple lap splicing.
If the splice runs parallel to the direction of the fibers, the sheets being spliced may be butted
against one another. All of the design procedures assume that no force transfer exists in the
direction perpendicular to the fibers. Therefore, no overlap is required.
Full tensile capacity of the WaboMBrace CF 130 and CF 530 carbon fiber sheets are developed
within a 2-inch lap splice. However, for additional safety and application convenience, a 4 inch lap
splice is typically used. Design tensile capacity of the WaboMBrace EG 900 glass fiber is
developed within 6 inches.

6 to 8 ft is a conservative length that all installers can manage; however some installers are capable of
handling sheets in excess of 25 ft. The designer is encouraged to consult the contractor involved in the
installation for more specific guidance.

10-6

05/30/02

Chapter 10  Details of Reinforcement


For splices in the non-load carrying direction (90q to the longitudinal fibers), butting the sides of
the sheets will be sufficient. For some applications where sheets wider than 20 inches are
required (e.g. slabs), it may be prudent to detail the sheets with a space between each sheet
instead of continuous butt joints. The space between the sheets will allow the substrate to
breath in case moisture vapor transmission (MVT) is a concern. Preventing equilibrium of MVT
may cause blistering of the FRP sheets.
10.4.1 Beams
Similar to lap splicing steel reinforcement, splices should be made away from areas of highest
stress in the sheet (e.g., mid-span for positive moment strengthening) where possible. Where
more than one splice is required, splices should be staggered. This includes splices for multiple
ply sheets. Each fiber layer in the multiple ply laminate should be spliced at a different location.
Splices of sheets that are butted together or spaced evenly along the transverse direction should
be spliced at staggered locations as well.
Stirrup web reinforcement placed transverse to the longitudinal axis of the beam should
continuous. If a splice is necessary, the splice location should be on the bottom face of the beam.
10.4.2 Columns
Lap splices along the circumference of a column are treated the same as on the tension face of
beams. For round columns, a 4-inch lap splice for carbon fiber and a 6-inch lap splice for glass
fiber is typically sufficient. For columns under 10 inches in diameter, more rigorous analysis is
required of the hoop and radial stresses. This analysis is beyond the scope of this manual.
Splices of FRP jackets for columns should be staggered along the height of the column.
10.5 Cutoff Points
In lieu of a more detailed analysis, the following general guidelines for the location of cut-off
points for the laminate may be used to avoid failures at the termination of the laminate.
x For continuous beams, a single ply laminate should be terminated 6 beyond the inflection
point (point of zero moment resulting from factored loads). For multiple ply laminates, the
termination point of the fiber layers should be tapered. The outermost ply should be terminated
6 beyond the inflection point. Each successive ply should be terminated an additional 6 beyond
the inflection point. For example if a 3-ply laminate is required, the ply directly in contact with the
concrete substrate should be terminated at least 18 past the inflection point (Figure 10.6). These
guidelines apply for positive and negative moment regions.
x For simply supported beams, the same general guidelines apply, however the plies should
extend past the point on the beam corresponding to the cracking moment, Mcr, under factored
loads instead of the inflection point.
x Similar to steel reinforcement, the FRP laminate must extend at least its development length
from the point of maximum stress in the sheet.

05/30/02

10-7

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

M=0

M = Mu
(a) Continuous Beam

M = Mcr
M = Mu
(b) Simply Supported Beam

6 6 6

t df

Figure 10.6 Graphical representation of the guidelines for allowable


termination points of a 3-ply FRP laminate

10-8

05/30/02

Chapter 10  Details of Reinforcement

10.6 References
1

Blaschko, M., Niedermeier, R., and Zilch, K. (1998) Bond Failure Modes of Flexural Members
Strengthened with FRP, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
Composites in Infrastructure, Tucson, AZ, Vol. 1, pp. 315-327.

Arduini, M., A. Di Tommaso, and A. Nanni, "Brittle Failure in FRP Plate and Sheet Bonded
Beams," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 94, No. 4, July-Aug. 1997, pp. 363-370.

Roberts, T.M. and Haji-Kazemi, H. (1989) Theoretical Study of the Behavior of Reinforced
Concrete Beams Strengthened by Externally Bonded Steel Plates, Proceedings of the
Institute of Civil Engineers, Part 2, Vol. 87, No. 9344, pp. 39-55.

Malek, A., Saadatmanesh, H., and Ehsani, M. (1998) Prediction of Failure Load of R/C Beams
Strengthened with FRP Plate Due to Stress Concentrations at the Plate End, Structural
Journal, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 95, No. 1, January-February 1998, pp. 142-152

Brosens, K. and Van Gemert, D. (1997) Anchoring Stresses Between Concrete and Carbon
Fibre Reinforced Laminates, Non-metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures,
Proceedings of the Third International Symposium, Vol. 1, October 1997, pp. 271-278.

05/30/02

10-9

Chapter 11 Engineering Specifications

SPECIFICATION
WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System
with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement
NOTE TO THE SPECIFIER
The specification information below is intended for use by architects, engineers, or other specifiers in defining the
criteria needed to specify carbon fiber reinforcement systems.

1.

PART 1: General

1.01

Work Including

1.02

A.

Existing concrete or steel surfaces shall be repaired and reinforced with dry, fiber
fabric sheet.

B.

The bid is deemed to include furnishings of materials, labor and equipment and all
items necessary for repair and reinforcing of the concrete or steel as specified on
contract drawings and specifications, complete.

C.

Drawings and the general provisions of the contract, including general conditions
and general requirements are hereby made a part of this section.

D.

Cooperate and coordinate with all other trades in executing the work described in
the contract.

E.

Inspect the structural members specified to be reinforced with Carbon Fiber


Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) on the contract drawings to check the location and
inspect cracks and existing conditions of members.

F.

Design and install CFRP laminates to reinforce (Beams, Slabs, Columns, Walls,
Pipes, or other).

Codes and Reference Standards


A.

Comply with provisions of the following codes, specifications and


except as otherwise indicated.
Standard specifications of the
societies, Manufacturer's associations and agencies shall include
issues of the specifications. The Contractor shall have the following
and shall be familiar with the reference contents.
1.
2.

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standards,
applicable
the latest
references

State of Art Report on Fiber Reinforced Plastic Reinforcement for


Structures (ACI 44OR-96).
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-95) and
(ACI 318R-95).

SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

1.03

3.

Pull-Out Test-Relates Pull-Out Resistance of Driven Pins to Concrete


Strength (ACI503R).

4.

ICRI Surface Preparation Guidelines for Repair of Deteriorated Concrete


Resulting from Reinforcing Steel Oxidation, selection of repair materials
and placement of repair materials.

5.

SACMA 4-88 Test method for tensile properties of oriental fiber resin
composites.

6.

Concrete Repair Guide (ACI546R).

7.

Guide to the Use of Waterproofing, Dampproofing, Protective, Decorative


Barrier Systems for Concrete (ACI 515.R-85).

Quality Control and Quality Assurance


A.

Manufacturer/Contractor Qualifications
Materials Manufacturer/Supplier Company must be
manufacturing of the products specified in this section.

specialized

in

the

Materials Manufacturer/Supplier Company must have been in business for a


minimum of 5 years, with a program of training and technically supporting a
nationally organized Contractor Training Program.
Contractor shall be a trained Contractor of the Manufacturer/Supplier of the
specified product, who has completed a program of instruction in the use of the
specified material.
B.

Quality Control
The Contractor shall conduct a quality control program that includes, but is not
limited to the following:
1.

Inspection of all materials to assure conformity with contract requirements,


and that all materials are new and undamaged.

2.

Inspection of all surface preparation prior to CFRP laminate application.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

C.

3.

Inspection of work in progress to assure work is being done in accordance


with established procedures and established Manufacturer's instructions,
specific Engineer Instructions, if given, or recommended practices listed in
the references of Section 1.02.

4.

Inspection of all work completed including sounding all repairs to check for
debonding and correction of all defective work.

Quality Assurance
1.

2.

1.04

Attend pre-installation conference to be held with a representative of the


Owner, Engineer, the Contractor's Field Supervisor, and other trades
involved to discuss the conduct of the work of this Section.
In-situ load testing of concrete structural member prior to and after
installation of CFRP sheets as required by these specifications. Quantity
and location of member (s) to be tested shall be determined by Engineer
of Record prior to proposal.

Submittals
A.

Contractor's Qualifications

B.

Manufacturer's product data indicating product standards, physical and chemical


characteristics, technical specifications, limitations, installation instructions,
maintenance instructions and general recommendations regarding each material.

C.

Test results on the properties of the epoxy and the carbon fiber (CF) s
heet/systems to be used on the project.

D.

Provide a record of performance of strengthening projects with CFRP laminates


(in North America).

E.

Provide Field Supervisor specifically trained in the installation of CRFP laminates.

F.

Samples of all materials to be used, each properly labeled as specified in Section


2.01.

G.

Manufacturer's MSDS for all materials to be used.

H.

Certifications (in time to prevent delay in the work) by the Producers of the
materials that all materials supplied comply with all the requirements and
standards of the appropriate ASTM and other agencies.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

1.05

1.06

I.

Submit to the Owner's representative two copies of the strengthening layout


details prepared by the Contractor's and/or Owners professional Engineer using
the CFRP laminates to be used on the job.

J.

Submit design drawings by a professional Engineer, including the necessary


information listed above in a timely manner to obtain a building permit for the
work.

K.

Adhesion testing process for 3.07-D1.

L.

Load testing program (process, loads, and shoring) as required.

Structural Design
A.

Design the repair with CFRP laminates according to the design guides for the
CFRP laminates and instructions supplied by the manufacturer.

B.

Structural drawings of the existing structure included in the contract drawings.

General Procedures
A.

Work only in areas permitted by the Owner approved schedule.

B.

Remove all tools, buckets and materials from work areas and store neatly at an
approved location daily at the end of work.

C.

Protect the building and its contents from all risks related to the work in this
Section. Schedule and execute all work without exposing adjacent building areas
to water, dust, debris or materials used by the Contractor. Protect adjacent areas
from damage and stains with appropriate barriers and masking. Repair all
damage as a result of the work to its condition at the start of work, or if such
cannot be determined, to its original condition.

D.

Protect the work from damage such as impact, marring of the surfaces and other
damage.

E.

Compliance with OSHA and all other safety laws and regulations is the exclusive
responsibility of the Contractor, his Subcontractors, Suppliers, Consultants and
Servants.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

1.07

Technical Support
A.

The contractor shall provide the services of a trained Field Supervisor at the work
site at all times to instruct the work crew in the CRFP application procedures.
1.

The Field Supervisor must be fully qualified to perform the work.

2.

The Contractor shall be completely responsible for the expense of the


services of Manufacturer's Field Representative if needed at the work site
and the contract price shall include full compensation for all costs in
connection therewith.

2.

PART 2: Products

2.01

Product Delivery, Storage and Handling

2.02

A.

Deliver materials clearly marked with legible and intact labels with Manufacturer's
name and brand name, product identification and batch number.

B.

The products shall be in original, unopened containers (except carbon fiber


material).

C.

Store materials in areas where temperatures conform with Manufacturer's


recommendations and instructions.

Acceptable Manufacturere/Suppliers
A.

The following vendors shall be used:

CFRP laminates: (dry sheet only). Wabo MBrace Fiber Reinforcement Systems
supplied by Watson Bowman Acme Corp. 95 Pineview Drive, Amherst, NY
14228 , 716-691-7566, 800-677-4WBA, FAX: 716-691-9239
Epoxy

adhesive: an approved epoxy system for


Wabo MBrace Composite System. The system shall include:
a.
b.
c.
d.

resin

application

Primer
Putty/Filler
Saturant
Topcoat

Substitutions:
No
substitutions
allowed,
except
as
requested
by
Manufacturer/Supplier of the product and approved by the Engineer of Record.
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of

the

SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

3.

Part 3: Execution

3.01

General Preparation for Application


The contract drawings show locations of CFRP reinforcement.
A.

Ambient Temperature
Conditions of CFRP process application must be examined carefully during the
winter season and/or cold zones. DO NOT APPLY CFRP SHEET WHEN
AMBIENT TEMPERATURES ARE LOWER THAN 40 DEGREES qF (5 degrees
qC). Auxiliary heat may be applied to raised surface and air temperature to a
suitable range. Utilize "clean" heat source (electric, propane) so as not to
contaminate bond surfaces by the carbonation of the substrate.

B.

Condensation
Presence of moisture may inhibit adhesion of primer and/or resin. DO NOT
APPLY CFRP WHEN RAINFALL OR CONDENSATION IS ANTICIPATED.

C.

Concrete Surface Defects and Corners


UNEVEN CONCRETE SURFACE IRREGULARITIES (OFF SETS) MUST BE
GROUND AND SMOOTHED TO LESS THAN 0.04 in. (1 mm). WHEN CFRP
SHEET IS TO RUN PERPENDICULAR TO CORNERS, CONCRETE CORNERS
MUST BE ROUNDED TO A RADIUS OF AT LEAST 0.5 in. (15 mm). INTERNAL
CORNERS MUST BE SMOOTHED. NO DETAILING IS REQUIRED IF SHEET
IS RUN PARALLEL TO CORNERS.

D.

Handling of Primer and Resin


Refer to Manufacturer's specifications. DO NOT DILUTE PRIMER AND RESIN
WITH ANY SOLVENT. After the resin has been mixed with hardener, the mixed
resin batch must be used within its batch-life. The mixed batch resin must not be
used after expiration of its batch-life because increased resin viscosity will prevent
proper impregnation of CFRP Sheet.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

E.

Handling of CFRP Sheet


CFRP Sheet must not be handled roughly. CF Sheet must be stored either by
being rolled to a radius greater than 12 in. (300 mm) or being dry stacked after
cutting. When multiple lengths of CFRP Sheet are adhered to a concrete or steel
surface, a 4 in. (100 mm) OVERLAPPING LENGTH MUST BE APPLIED IN
LONGITUDINAL (FIBER) DIRECTION. No overlapping is required in the lateral
direction (unidirectional sheet only).

3.02

Surface Preparation
A.

All substrates must be clean, sound and free of surface moisture and frost.
Remove dust, laitance, grease, curing compounds, waxes, impregnations, foreign
particles and other bond inhibiting materials from the surface by blast cleaning or
equivalent mechanical means. Any concrete surface including any exposed steel
reinforcement or steel surface should be cleaned and prepared thoroughly by
abrasive cleaning. Any spalled concrete areas should be patched prior to
installation of CFRP laminates.
Any deteriorated concrete or corroded reinforcing steel must be repaired as per
ICRI Specifications. Do not cover corroded reinforcing steel with CFRP.

B.

Existing uneven surfaces must be filled with either the epoxy putty or a repair
mortar or must be ground flat. If required, the strength of a concrete repair area
can be verified after preparation by random pull-off testing. Minimum tensile
strength required is 200 psi (1.4 MPa).

C.

Prior to initiating surface preparation procedures, the Contractor shall first prepare
a representative sample area. The sample area shall be prepared in accordance
with the requirements of the Specification, and shall be used as a reference
standard depicting a satisfactorily prepared surface.

D.

Where applicable for concrete members, Contractor shall install a sample area (2
ft2 or 0.2 m2) of CFRP for purposes of in-situ bond testing to verify bond.

E.

Maintain control of concrete chips, steel particles, dust and debris in each area of
work. Clean up and remove such material at the completion of each day of
blasting.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

3.03

Application Steps
A.

The deteriorated surface layer of the base concrete or steel (weathered layer,
laitance, surface lubricants, broken mortar pieces, paint coatings, staining, rust,
etc.) must be removed and the surface ground using a grinder or abrasive
blasting.
Dusting from surface grinding must be removed using an air blower or other
suitable means. If the dust has been removed by means of water washing, the
surface must be thoroughly dried.

B.

Restoration of Concrete Cross Section


Defects in the concrete (such as broken pieces, voids, honeycomb, corrosion,
etc.) must be chipped off and removed. If reinforcing bar has been exposed and
corrosion exists, it must be repaired before the concrete restoration commences.
The repair material shall be selected as per ICRI "Guide to Selecting Repair
Material", and project requirements.
Epoxy resin or similar material must be injected into concrete cracks greater than
0.010 in. (0.25 mm) wide.
If water leaks through cracks or concrete joints are significant, water protection
and a water conveyance or run-off must be provided prior to concrete surface
restoration.

3.04

Mixing Epoxy Resin


A.

Epoxy based material used in the composite system may develop higher viscosity
and/or slow curing and insufficient curing at low ambient temperature. The
ambient temperature of the epoxy components shall be between 50 and 100
degrees Fq (10 to 38 degrees qC) at the time of mixing. Presence of moisture
may inhibit adhesion of the system to the concrete or steel substrate. Provide
necessary weather protection to protect surfaces from rain or cold.

B.

Premix each component of the primer according to Manufacturer's


recommendation. Use the appropriate mixing tools, at proper speed to achieve
the proper mix. Take care to scrape the sides of the pail during mixing.

C.

Components which have exceeded their shelf-life shall not be used.

D.

Mix only that quantity of epoxy which can be used within its pot life.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

3.05

Applications
A.

B.

No primer coat should be applied if the ambient temperature is lower than 40


degrees Fq (5 degrees qC), or if rainfall or condensation is anticipated.
1.

Primer must be thoroughly mixed with hardener at the specified ratio in the
mixing pot until it is uniformly mixed (about 2 minutes). Agitation shall be
by means of electric hand mixer. Volume of primer prepared at one time
must be such that it can be applied within its batch life. A mixed primer
batch that has exceeded its batch life must not be used. (The batch life
may vary subject to ambient temperature or volume of the mixed primer
batch and care must be taken accordingly.)

2.

Prime the concrete or steel surface with the penetrating primer prior to
application of any subsequent coatings using brush or roller. Alternatively,
the primer may be spray applied with airless spray equipment, followed
immediately by thorough back rolling to work the primer into the concrete
surface. The primer shall be applied uniformly in sufficient quantity to fully
penetrate the concrete or cover the steel and produce a nonporous film on
the surface not to exceed two (2) dry mils (50 micrometers) in thickness
after application. Volume to be applied may vary depending on direction
and roughness of the concrete or steel surface.

3.

Surface irregularities caused by primer coating must be ground and


removed using disc sander, etc. If any minor protrusions on the concrete
or steel surface still remain, such surface defects may be corrected again
using epoxy resin base putty/filler as needed.

4.

Apply base putty/filler to primed surfaces to fill all substrate voids and
irregularities. (See 3.01-C.)

Adhesion of CFRP Sheet


CFRP Sheet shall not be applied whenever ambient temperature is lower than 40
degrees Fq (5 degrees Cq), or whenever rainfall or condensation is anticipated.
1.

CFRP Sheet must be cut beforehand into prescribed sizes using scissors
and/or cutter. The size of CFRP Sheet to be cut is preferable less than 10
ft. (3 m) in length, but may be longer if access allows.

2.

When the primer coat has been left unattended for more than one week
after the application, the surface of the primer coat must be roughened
using sandpaper. Do not solvent wipe.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

3.

Apply saturant coat to primed surface or CFRP sheet using a medium nap
roller (3/8 in. or 9.5 mm) to approximately 20 mil (500 micrometers) film
thickness.

4.

CFRP Sheet is placed onto the concrete or steel surface where the wet
saturant coat has been applied. The surface of adhered CFRP sheet must
be squeezed in the fiber direction(s) using a defoaming roller in order to
impregnate resin into CFRP Sheet and to defoam the resin coat.
For joining strips of CFRP Sheet in the fiber direction, a 4 in. (100 mm)
overlapping length is required. At the overlapping location, additional
resin is applied to the outer surface of the CFRP Sheet layer to be
overlapped.
No lapping is required in the fiber lateral direction
(unidirectional sheet only).
Minimize the elapsed time between mixing and application of the saturant
to ensure the material is applied to the sheet at least 15 minutes prior to
any thickening or gelling.

3.06

5.

The secondary saturant coat of mixed resin must then be applied onto the
surface of the CFRP Sheet. The surface onto which resin has been
applied must be applied in fiber direction, in order to impregnate and
replenish resin into the CFRP Sheet using a roller in the same film
thickness as detailed in Item 3 above.

6.

In case more than one layer of CFRP Sheet must be laminated, the
processes as detailed in Items 3 through 5 must be repeated.

7.

In the case of outdoor application, the work must be protected from rain,
sand, dust, etc. by using protective sheeting and other barriers. Curing of
adhered CFRP must be for no less than 3 hours (dry to touch) prior to
application of topcoat.

Repair of Defective Work


A.

Repair of all the defective work after the minimum cure time for the CFRP
laminates. Comply with material and procedural requirements defined in this
specification. Repair all defects in a manner that will restore the system to the
designed level of quality. Repair procedures for conditions that are not
specifically addressed in this specification shall be approved by the Owner's
representative. All repairs and touch up shall be made to the satisfaction of the
Owner's representative.

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

3.07

3.08

Testing of the Installed CFRP Laminates


A.

Test all the repaired areas to check for voids, bubbles and delaminations. Repair
all voids, bubbles and delaminations by approved methods per manufacturer's
direction.

B.

Conduct direct pull-off test (concrete member only) to verify the tensile bond
between the CFRP and the existing concrete substrate. Inspect the failure
surface of the core specimen. Failure at the bond line at tensile stress below 200
psi (1.4 Mpa) is unacceptable.

C.

Perform a minimum of one pull-off test (concrete member only) per_____ ft2
(___ m2) strengthened with the CFRP laminate system. The test is to be
completed prior to the application of topcoat finishes on the CFRP laminates.

D.

Repair the test areas of the composite system to the satisfaction of the Owner's
representative.

Quality Control and Inspection


A.

In Process Control
The Field Supervisor shall observe all aspects of onsite material preparation and
application, including surface preparation, resin component mixing, application of
primer, resin and CFRP Sheet, curing of composite, and the application of
protective coating.

B.

Inspection for Void/Delaminations


After allowing at least 24 hours for initial resin cure to occur, perform a visual and
acoustic tap test inspection of the layered surface. Large delamination shall be
marked for repair. For small delaminations, which are typically less than 2 in.2
(1300 mm2 ) do not require corrective action.

C.

Adhesion Testing
Adhesion Test: The Contractor will conduct adhesion testing of the fully cured
CFRP Sheet concrete assembly. (See 3.07.)

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SPECIFICATION

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System


with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement

D.

Load Testing
If required by the Engineer, a representative area(s) shall be in-situ load tested
before and after application of CFRP Sheet to verify results. The insitu test shall
be designed by the Engineer of Record and carried out by a designated third
party at owners expense.

E.

Report
The Field Supervisor shall keep a copy of daily log report for inspection of the
Engineer of Record.

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Appendix A Design Aids

MBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Appendix A Design Aids


Table A.1 Design Material Properties for Various Fibers
Design
Thickness,
tf

Design
Strength,
ffu

Design
Strength/Unit
Width

Design
Strain,
Hfu

Tensile
Modulus,
Ef

(in/ply)

(ksi)

(lb/in)

(in/in)

(ksi)

CF 130 High
Tensile Carbon

0.0065

550

3575

0.017

33,000

CF 530 High
Modulus Carbon

0.0065

510

3300

0.009

54,000

EG 900 E-Glass

0.0139

220

3050

0.021

10,500

WaboMBrace
Fiber

0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75

0.7
3000 psi
4000 psi
5000 psi
6000 psi
8000 psi
10000 psi

0.65
0.6
0.55
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.001

0.0012

0.0014

0.0016

0.0018

0.002

0.0022

0.0024

0.0026

0.0028

0.003

Hc

Figure A.1 J as a Function of Hc, strain in the concrete

A-2

06/26/02

Appendix A  Design Aids

0.9

3000 psi
4000 psi
5000 psi
6000 psi
8000 psi
10000 psi

0.85

E1

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.6
0.001

0.0012

0.0014

0.0016

0.0018

0.002

0.0022

0.0024

0.0026

0.0028

0.003

Hc

Figure A.2 E1 as a Function of the Strain in the Concrete

Table A.2 Reduction factor for shear strength of U-wraps


R
f'c =

CF 130

CF 530

EG 900

3000 psi

4000 psi

5000 psi

dfe/df =

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.0

0.9

0.8

1.0

0.9

0.8

1 ply

0.210

0.189

0.168

0.254

0.229

0.203

0.295

0.265

0.236

2 plies

0.148

0.134

0.119

0.180

0.162

0.144

0.209

0.188

0.167

3 plies

0.121

0.109

0.097

0.147

0.132

0.117

0.170

0.153

0.136

1 ply

0.298

0.268

0.238

0.361

0.325

0.289

0.419

0.377

0.335

2 plies

0.211

0.189

0.168

0.255

0.230

0.204

0.296

0.266

0.237

3 plies

0.172

0.155

0.138

0.208

0.187

0.167

0.242

0.218

0.193

1 ply

0.324

0.292

0.259

0.392

0.353

0.314

0.455

0.410

0.364

2 plies

0.229

0.206

0.183

0.278

0.250

0.222

0.322

0.290

0.258

3 plies

0.187

0.168

0.150

0.227

0.204

0.181

0.263

0.237

0.210

06/26/02

A-3

MBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

C4-60.60.01

6.50

5.50
5.00

IPn/Ag (ksi)

4.50
4.00
3.50
3.00
2.50

h
Jh

f 'c = 4 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.60
Ug = 0.01

6.00

Uf = 0.006

CF-130

Uf = 0.0045
Uf = 0.003
Uf = 0.0015
Uf = 0

2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.3 Interaction diagram for a column with fc = 4000 psi, J =


0.60, and Ug = 0.01 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
C4-60.60.03

6.50

IPn/Ag (ksi)

5.50

Uf = 0.006

5.00

Uf = 0.0045

4.50

Uf = 0.003

4.00

Uf = 0.0015

3.50

Uf = 0

h
Jh

f 'c = 4 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.60
Ug = 0.03

6.00

CF-130

3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.4 Interaction diagrams for a column with fc = 4000 psi, J =


0.60, and Ug = 0.03 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
A-4

06/26/02

Appendix A  Design Aids

C4-60.90.01

6.50

5.50
5.00

IPn/Ag (ksi)

4.50
4.00
3.50
3.00
2.50

h
Jh

f 'c = 4 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.90
Ug = 0.01

6.00

Uf = 0.006

CF-130

Uf = 0.0045
Uf = 0.003
Uf = 0.0015
Uf = 0

2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.5 Interaction diagram for a column with fc = 4000 psi, J =


0.90, and Ug = 0.01 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
C4-60.90.03

6.50

IPn/Ag (ksi)

5.50

Uf = 0.006

5.00

Uf = 0.0045

4.50

Uf = 0.003

4.00

Uf = 0.0015

3.50

Uf = 0

h
Jh

f 'c = 4 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.90
Ug = 0.03

6.00

CF-130

3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.6 Interaction diagram for a column with fc = 4000 psi, J =


0.90, and Ug = 0.03 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
06/26/02

A-5

MBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

C5-60.60.01

6.50

5.50
5.00

IPn/Ag (ksi)

4.50
4.00

h
Jh

f 'c = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.60
Ug = 0.01

6.00
Uf = 0.006
Uf = 0.0045

CF-130

Uf = 0.003
Uf = 0.0015

3.50
Uf = 0

3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.7 Interaction diagram for a column with fc = 5000 psi, J =


0.60, and Ug = 0.01 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
C5-60.60.03

6.50
6.00

Uf = 0.006

5.50

Uf = 0.0045

IPn/Ag (ksi)

5.00

Uf = 0.003

4.50

Uf = 0.0015

4.00

Uf = 0

h
Jh

f 'c = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.60
Ug = 0.03
CF-130

3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.8 Interaction diagram for a column with fc = 5000 psi, J =


0.60, and Ug = 0.03 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
A-6

06/26/02

Appendix A  Design Aids

C5-60.90.01

6.50

5.50
5.00

IPn/Ag (ksi)

4.50
4.00

h
Jh

f 'c = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.90
Ug = 0.01

6.00
Uf = 0.006
Uf = 0.0045

CF-130

Uf = 0.003
Uf = 0.0015

3.50
Uf = 0

3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.9 Interaction diagram for a column with fc = 5000 psi, J =


0.90, and Ug = 0.01 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
C5-60.90.03

6.50
6.00
5.50

IPn/Ag (ksi)

5.00

Uf = 0.0045
Uf = 0.003

4.50

Uf = 0.0015

4.00

Uf = 0

h
Jh

f 'c = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi
J = 0.90
Ug = 0.03

Uf = 0.006

CF-130

3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

IMn/Agh (ksi)

Figure A.10 Interaction diagram for a column with fc = 5000 psi, J =


0.90, and Ug = 0.03 wrapped with CF 130 FRP hoop reinforcement
06/26/02

A-7

MBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Table A.3 Development Length of Sheets in Tension


d
(in)
n
f'c = 3000 psi

f'c = 4000 psi

f'c = 5000 psi

CF 130

21.8

18.8

16.9

CF 530

20.2

17.5

15.6

EG 900

18.1

15.7

14.0

A-8

06/26/02

Appendix B Standard Details

Appendix C Equivalent Metric Equations

WaboMBrace Composite Strengthening System Design Guide

Appendix C Equivalent Metric Equations


The following lists metric equivalents of equations given in the text. Only those
equations that are effected by the use of metric units are listed (any equations not listed
are applicable for U.S. or metric units). All the equations listed herein require units of
mm for lengths, MPa for stresses or pressures, and N for forces.
Chapter 6
f ps

for H p d 0.008
HpEp

0.52
f 
 13.8 for H p ! 0.008
pu

H p  0.0065

for Grade 270 steel

(6-28M)

f ps

for H p d 0.008
Hp E p

f  0.40  13.8 for H ! 0.008


p
pu H p  0.006

for Grade 250 steel

(6-29M)

Chapter 7
A fv f fe sin E  cos E d f
Vf
d 10.5 f cc b w d
sf
R

k1k 2 L e
0.005
d
11900H fu
H fu

k1

f cc

27

(7-5M)

2/3

(7-7M)

Vs  Vf d 32.5 f cc b w d
Chapter 9
A tf f fe
K tr ,f
263 s f n b

0.005
k1 L e
for " U" wraps
11900H d H
fu
fu
0.005

for Full wraps


H fu

k1

f cc

27

C-2

(7-2M)

(7-10M)

(9-2M)

(9-5M)

2/3

(9-6M)

05/30/02

Appendix C  Equivalent Metric Equations

Chapter 10
df
f fu t f
n
0.25 f cc

05/30/02

(10-1M)

C-3