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For a particle time evolving system one may look at two interesting observables: 1. The activity K : the total number of movements from time 0 to time t. 2. The integrated value of the current J. These quantities are time extensive : they are proportional to the elapsed time.

Thermodynamics of histories

Time evolving out of equilibrium systems may be described by a thermodynamic formalism for histories.

Equilibrium dynamics:

• • • Configurations C

Spatially extensive quantity E : the energy. Temperature parameter β=1/T : it selects configurations with a certain mean energy. large N limit Partition function

** Time evolving dynamics:
**

• • • • • Histories {C1-› C2 -›… -› Ct }

Time extensive quantity K : i.e. the activity. Chaoticity Temperature s : it selects histories with large or small activity. large t limit Partition function

• •

Z(β, N ) =< e−βH > −→ e−N f (β)

• Free energy f(β) •

N →∞

Z(s, t) =< e−sK > −→ e−tψ(s)

Large deviation function (LDF) ψ(s).

t→∞

**The ASEP with constrained dynamics
**

E

The Kinetically Constrained Models (KCMs) are simple particle or spin models where some rearrangements are forbidden by specific dynamic rules. They simulate the dynamical heterogeneities present in real glasses. The model is based on the Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process (ASEP), where the different directions have different hopping probabilities. Every direction has equal probability excepting the one opposed to the field, which is prop. to exp(-E) .

Model proposed by M. Sellitto in Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008)

2 empty neighbours before and after the move.

**Ohmic and non-ohmic regime
**

For densities below ρ≈0.79 one has the usual ASEP dynamic: the larger the field, the higher the current (with asymptotic saturation). For higher densities the behaviour is non trivial:

0.004

0.003

Shear thickening

0.002

J

0.001

Shear thinning

ρ=0.80

0.000 0 2 4 6 E 8 10 12

**Site persistence snapshots
**

φij (t) =

t

σij (t )dt

0

φ : site persistence σ : site occupation

τ= 9000 MCs , ρ=0.86

E E

Small E : isotropic distrib. of clusters.

Large E : shear banding?

**Results for the constrained ASEP model: Activity and Current
**

Two possible observables: the activity K and the current J. The driving parameter is the field intensity E.

< K/t >- L = 25 - ρ = 0.86

Total 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.012

K/t

Longitudinal

Transversal

0.010 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.000 0 0.5 1 E 1.5 2 2.5

**The activity : field dependence
**

0.04 L=15,ρ=0.86 E=0 E = 0.25 E = 0.5 (peak) E = 1.25

0.03

K (s) t

0.02

0.01

0 10

-4

30

ψK (s)

20

There are dynamical heterogeneities in both the ohmic and the non-ohmic regimes.

10

0

-0.10

-0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0 s

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

**The activity : field dependence
**

0.04 L=15,ρ=0.86 E=0 E = 0.25 E = 0.5 (peak) E = 1.25

0.03

K (s) t

0.02

0.01

J.P. Garrahan et al. J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. (2009)

0 10

-4

30

ψK (s)

20

There are dynamical heterogeneities in both the ohmic and the non-ohmic regimes.

10

0

-0.10

-0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0 s

K(s)/t

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

**The LDF for the current
**

0.05

J(s)

0

-0.05

L=15, ρ=0.86, E=2 ψJ (s) , tmax=104 J (s) , tmax=104

Without constraints (the pure ASEP) we have a symmetric curve with centre of symmetry in s=E/2, as expected from the fluctuation theorem.

10-3

10 5 0

ψ(s)

ψJ (E − s) = ψJ (s)

B. Derrida J. Stat. Mech. (2007)

-5 -10 -15 -0.5 0 0.5 1.0 s 1.5 2.0 2.5

**Small fields : the LDF in the ohmic regime
**

In the constrained model at small fields we have that for long times, the LDF converges to an almost symmetric shape which resembles what has already been obtained for the unconstrained ASEP model. No discontinuity in J(s).

10-4 15 10 5

J(s)

0 -5 -10 -15 -20 L=45, ρ=0.80 , E=0.1 τ=4 τ=128 τ=64 τ= 1024

10-6

50 40 30

ψJ (s)

20 10 0 -10 -20 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02

4.E-03 4.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 1.E-03 5.E-04 0.E+00 0 2 4 E 6 8

J

0

0.02

0.04

0.06 s

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

**Large fields : the LDF in the non-ohmic regime
**

1st order discontinuity in s=0: coexistence of high current and 0 current phases. Symmetry breaking at increased times.

J(s)

**0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 0.020 0.015 0.010
**

ψJ (s)

L=45, ρ=0.80 , E=2.8 τ=4 τ=128 τ=64 τ= 1024

4.E-03 4.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 1.E-03 5.E-04 0.E+00 0 2 4 E 6 8

0.005 0 -0.005

J

-2

-1

0

1 s

2

3

4

5

**Large fields : the LDF in the non-ohmic regime
**

1st order discontinuity in s=0: coexistence of high current and 0 current phases. Symmetry breaking at increased times.

J(s)

10

-3

0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 0.020 0.015

12 10 8 6 4 2 0

J(s)

0.010

4.E-03 4.E-03 3.E-03 3.E-03 2.E-03 2.E-03 1.E-03 5.E-04 0.E+00 0 2 4 E 6

s

ψJ (s)

-0.05

0

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

L=45, ρ=0.80 , E=2.8 τ=4 τ=128 τ=64 τ= 1024

0.005 0 -0.005

J

8

-2

-1

0

1 s

2

3

4

5

Conclusions & Perspectives

The constrained ASEP is a simple model showing a jamming transition. The activity’s LDF shows a phase coexistence for any field. The current’s LDF shows no phase separation for low fields; in the shear thickening regime there is a transition associated to the violation of the fluctuation theorem. For the future:

density profiles of the model analytical derivation of the current’s LDF.

More details

**Phase transition in KCMs
**

For several KCMs it has been shown that there is a phase transition for the activity which has been interpreted as the coexistence of active and inactive phases in such models:

Such phases correspond to active or inactive trajectories. J.P. Garrahan et al. J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 (2009)

**Comparison with the Fluctuation Theorem
**

For small fields, the Fluctuation Theorem is more and more respected as the evolution time increases.

FT prediction

Small E

M. Sellitto Phys. Rev. E (2009)

**Comparison with the Fluctuation Theorem
**

For large fields, the Fluctuation Theorem is more and more violated as the evolution time increases.

FT prediction

Large E

M. Sellitto Phys. Rev. E (2009)

10-3

14 12 10

Large E

J(s)

8 6 4 2 0

10

-4

20 15 10

L=45, ρ=0.80 , E=2.8 τ=4 τ=128 τ=64 τ= 1024

ψJ (s)

5 0 -5 -10 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 s 0.1 0.2 0.3

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