- HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM FOR SECURE DATA STORAGE
- CT-2Development and Analysis of Message Embedding System for Embedded OS Using Spatial Watermarking Technique013-0904872-3
- q.pdf
- IJCSS_V5_I3
- Cryptography
- Lee 2002
- Improved Genetic Algorithm for Structural Damage Detection
- Network Security Protocols
- Analysing Tuning Performance of Evolutionary Algorithm for Search Based Software Testing
- Synopsis Nsp
- A New Algorithm for Digital Colour Image Encryption and Decryption
- Tài liệu Hướng dẫn giả lập ASA trên GNS3
- ECC
- 194(5+1) - Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems ((5+1)0) (cryptome)
- Lecture 02 Introduction Cryptography
- Vol32 Issue1 2013 Gruber
- V.ustimenko
- Information Technology 16
- New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithms
- EM-Faults
- CNS QB 2 MK WA
- Research Draft
- Genetic Algorithm Tutorial
- RSA.ppt
- D-37-385-392.pdf
- cerificate
- Optimization of Distributed Generation Placement for Minimizing Power Losses and Voltage Profile Improvement Using Genetic Algorithm
- Security of Image Processing Over a Network
- FYP Presentation
- Lecture 1
- Aristotle - Metaphysics
- Plato - Symposium
- Change Advisory Board
- Doing Business in India
- Aristotle - On Interpretation
- Plato - The Republic
- Aristotle - Nicomachean Ethics
- Security Overview-Cryptography and Network Security
- Plato - Timaeus
- Aristotle - Rhetoric
- Tsunami Investigation Reports
- Doing Business in China
- Aristotle - Politics
- Plato - The Seventh Letter
- Network Security
- Plato - Critias
- Plato - Laches, Or Courage
- Plato - Phaedrus
- Plato - Philebus
- Plato - Euthyphro
- Plato - Laws
- Plato - is
- Plato - Cratylus
- Plato - Ion
- Plato - Crito
- Plato - as
- Plato - Lysis, Or Friendship
- Plato - Euthydemus
- Plato - Gorgias
- Plato - Phaedo

Lekha J.R.

1

Dr.E.George Dharma Prakash Raj

2

1

M.Tech., Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli.

2

Assistant Professor, Dept. of CSE, BARD, Tiruchirappalli.

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of networked

system and application such as eCommerce,

the demand for effective internet security is

increasing. Cryptology is the science and study

of systems for secret communication. It

consists of two complementary fields of study:

cryptography and cryptanalysis. Evolutionary

Algorithms like Genetic Algorithms (GA) are

used for the cryptanalysis of many well-known

ciphers. However most of the Cryptanalytic

attacks using GA are sequential. The

experimental result of research indicates that

the efficiency of genetic algorithm attack on

knapsack cipher can be improved with

variation of initial assumption.

Keywords–Genetic Algorithm, Knapsack

Cipher.

I INTRODUCTION

The demand for effective internet security is

increasing exponentially day by day.

Businesses have an obligation to protect

sensitive data from loss or theft. Such sensitive

data can be potentially damaging if it is

altered, destroyed, or if it falls into the wrong

hands. So they need to develop a scheme that

guarantees to protect the information from the

attacker. Cryptology is at the heart of

providing such guarantee. Cryptology is the

science of building and analyzing different

encryption and decryption methods.

Cryptology consists of two subfields;

Cryptography & Cryptanalysis. Cryptography

is the science of building new powerful and

efficient encryption and decryption methods. It

deals with the techniques for conveying

information securely. The basic aim of

cryptography is to allow the intended

recipients of a message to receive the message

properly while preventing eavesdroppers from

understanding the message. Cryptanalysis is

the science and study of method of breaking

cryptographic techniques i.e. ciphers. In other

words it can be described as the process of

searching for flaws or oversights in the design

of ciphers.

II RELATED WORK

Though many researchers have tried

evolutionary computing approaches for

cryptnalysis, it is worth mentioning a few

important works with reference to current

context. In 1993, Spillman [3] tried to attack

the knapsack cipher with Genetic Algorithm.

He tried to formulate the cryptnalysis problem

as an optimization problem. In 1997,

Kolodziejczyk also tried with improved

versions of genetic algorithms to attack the

same knapsack cipher. In 1999, Yaseen [7]

presented a Genetic Algorithm for attacking

Chor-Rivest knapsack Cipher. In 2006,

Poonam Garg [9] and Aditya Shastri [2]

extended Spillman’s work by carefully

engineering the initialization parameters of

cryptanalyzing Genetic Algorithm. Their

results showed that initial parameters of GA

can widely affect the performance of the

attack.

III KNAPSACK CIPHER

A. Knapsack Problem

The knapsack problem is formally explained

as follows. Given a knapsack of volume V

units and K items each of volume I1 , I2 , I3

… IK units. We would like to find out if its

possible to fill the knapsack with some of the

items. Formally, we would like to find a

number V by summing a subset of numbers

from the set {I1, I2, I3 …IK}.

∑ Mj * Ij = V ; j = 1 to K; Mj € {0, 1}

B. Encryption

The knapsack problem can be formulated into

a public key cryptography based knapsack

cipher. A knapsack sequence is the sequence

of values I1, I2, I3 … IK that indicates the

values of the volumes of individual items.

Given a knapsack sequence and a V value, a

simple greedy strategy won’t work for all

cases. Depending on the nature of knapsack

sequence we could solve the knapsack

problem in polynomial time based on greedy

strategy. If the knapsack sequence is super

increasing in nature it can be solved using

greedy approach. A super increasing sequence

is one in which,

∑IJ < Ip; p = 1 to K; J = 1 to K-1

Example of super increasing sequence is

I={1 3 6 13 27 52 105 211}. This super

increasing knapsack sequence would serve as

the Public Key. Now a message W =

01010111 would be encrypted as follows

E=∑ Mj * Ij. This is shown inTtable-1.

Plain

Text

Binary

Knapsack

Sequence

Cipher text

W

0101011

1

1 3 6 13 27

52 105 211

(0*1) + (1*3) +

(0*6) + (1*13)

+ (0*27) +

(1*52) +

(1*105) +

(1*211) =384

Table-1

C. Decryption

Consider Table-2, 384 is the encrypted text

and is sent to receiver. The receiver uses

greedy algorithm of using the largest number

in the sequence that would fit with in the

encrypted text and recursively solve the

problem for the remainder R = E – Largest

number that could fit, until there is no

remainder i.e R becomes zero.

E

Sequenc

e

Largest

number

that could

fit

Binary

Plain

text

384 211 173 1

W

173 105 68 1

68 52 16 1

16 27 - 0

16 13 3 1

3 6 - 0

3 3 0 1

0 1 - 0

Table-2

The algorithm is given below:

Knapsack Cipher Algorithm:

Input

Read Message to be encrypted.

Read the Knapsack Sequence.

Output

Encrypted Message in numeric

form

Algorithm

Step-1: Split the message into character

Array

Step-2: Calculate the message length

Step-3: Assign the knapsack sequence

into character array as

knapsequence

Step-4: For 1 = 0 to message_length – 1

Step-5: Find ASCII value of a character

Step-6: Convert the integer value into

binary value(8 bit form)

Step-7: Assign the binary value into the

character array binary

Step-8: Initialize Sum=0

Step-9: For j=0 to 7

Step-10: If binary(j) = 1

Step-11: Sum=Sum + knapsequence(j)

Step-12: End if

Step-13: End For

Step-14: Append ‘O’ to the encrypted

message as separator

Step-15: Append Sum with encrypted

message.

Step-16: End For

Step-17: Display encrypted message

IV. GENETIC ALGORITHM

The genetic algorithm is based upon

Darwinian evolution theory. The genetic

algorithm is modeled on a relatively simple

interpretation of the evolutionary process,

however, it has proven to a reliable and

powerful optimization technique in a wide

variety of applications. Holland in 1975, was

first proposed the use of genetic algorithms for

problem solving. Goldberg and Dejong [1]

were also pioneers in the area of applying

genetic processes to optimization. Over the

past twenty years numerous application and

adaptation of genetic algorithms have

appeared in the literature. During each

iteration of the algorithm, the processes of

selection, reproduction and mutation each take

place in order to produce the next generation

of solution.

Genetic Algorithm begins with a randomly

selected population of chromosomes

represented by strings. The GA uses the

current population of strings to create a new

population such that the strings in the new

generation are on average better than those in

current population (the selection depends on

their fitness value).

Encoding :

The following restriction have been made for

encoding

(1) Only the ASCII code will be

encrypted.

(2) The superincreasing sequence will

have 8 elements; these number of elements

guarantee that each character has a unique

encoding (There are 256 ASCII codes and

8 elements length will allow to encrypt 28

characters)

(3) Plaintext has not more then 100

character length.

Initialization:

A random population of chromosomes (binary

string 0’s and 1’s) is generated. The size of the

population has range in between 10 to 100.

The number of bits in each chromosome is

equal to the number of elements key (i.e. 8).

Evaluation:

Based on the fitness function given in equation

1 the fitness value evaluates how the given

sum is close to the target value for the

knapsack. The value of the fitness function

should be in the range of 0 to 1. Fitness value

1 indicates an exact match with the target sum

for the knapsack. If the value of sum is greater

then targets then it have a lower fitness value

of chromosome, in this way it produces the

infeasible solution. If the value of sum is less

then target then it will produce a high fitness

value and produce feasible solutions. Feasible

solutions have a greater chance of being

followed by the algorithm.

Selection:

The important part of algorithm is selection of

predicted sequence. When the sum is equal to

the target sum, the predicted sequence is

considered as the knapsack sequence.

Stop (Terminating) condition:

After executing the above-mentioned steps a

knapsack sequence is found. Until the status

reaches the TRUE condition the resultant

knapsack sequence is applied for all the cipher

values.

V. FITNESS FUNCTION

Spillman [3] proposed the fitness measure

given in Equation-1.

Fitness =

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

>

,

`

.

| −

−

≤

,

`

.

| −

−

Target Sum if

MaxDiff

Target

1

Target Sum if

Target

Target

1

6

1

2

1

Sum

Sum

Let M={ m

1

, m

2

…… m

n

}, m

1

∈{0,1} be an

arbitrary solution and the public key

A = { a1, a2, ….. an}

Sum= ∑

·

n

j

j j

m a

1

;

Target =

'

∑

j

j

a

;

FullSum= ∑

·

n

j

j

a

1

MaxDiff = max{Target, FullSum – Target}

VI. PROPOSED ALGORITHM AND ITS

IMPLEMENTATION

Input

Read Encrypted message.

Output

Getting the original message

Algorithm

Step-1: Split the encrypted message into

character Array using the

appended character ‘O’

Step-2: First

Step-3: For I =0 to encry_length

Step-4: Predict a sequence in incremental

order // sequence as 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

Step-5: Convert the encrypt(i) to its

binary equivalent

Step-6: Initialize sum = 0

Step-7: For j = 0 to 7

Step-8: If binary(j) =1

Step-9: Sum = Sum + predictsequence(j)

Step-10: End if

Step-11: End For

Step-12: If Sum = target Sum

Step-13: Assign Status = True

Step-14: Else

Step-15: Assign Status = False

Step-16: End For

Step-17: If All_status = true

Step-18: Sequence found

Step-19: Get back message from the

sequence

Step-20: Goto Last

Step-21: Else

Step-22: Change the predicted sequence

and try again.

Step-23: Goto first

Step-24: Last:

Step-25: Message decrypted

successfully.

Reading the plain text:

In this, the message that has to be sent to the

receiver is selected for encryption in the Fig 1.

Fig 1

Generating Cipher text:

Using the knapsack as public key, the selected

message is encrypted.

Fig 2

The cipher text for the selected message is

shown in Fig 3.

Fig 3

Decryption using Knapsack sequence:

Recovering the plain text from the cipher text

using Knapsack sequence in Fig 4.

Fig 4

Decryption using GA based approach:

Breaking knapsack cipher and recovering the

plain text without the knowledge of knapsack

sequence using GA based approach.

Fig 5

VIII. CONCLUSION

Our paper presents the genetic algorithm based

approach attack on the knapsack cipher. Our

work has shown that the proposed algorithm

helped in decrease of computational time

complexity. Though the efficiency of genetic

algorithm based approach attack on knapsack

cipher can be improved by variation of initial

assumptions, there was no decrease in the

number of generations. It might be due to the

same fitness function used by Spillman [3].

Hence, Evolutionary Computing Approaches

like Particle Swarm Optimization could be

tried for the same problem in future.

REFERENCES

[1] Goldberg, D.E., “Genetic Algorithms in

Search, Optimization and Machine Learning”,

Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1989.

[2] Poonam Garg,Aditya Shastri, “ An

Improved Cryptanalytic Attack on Knapsack

Cipher using Genetic Algorithm”,

International Journal of Information

Technology, Volume 3,2006.

[3] Spillman R.” Cryptanalysis of knapsack

ciphers using genetic Algorithms”

Cryptologia, October 1993.

[4] J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and

Artificial Systems. The University of Michigan

Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 1975.

[5] Merkle R,Martin E Hellman “Hiding

information and signatures in trapdoor

knapsacks”, IEEE transanctions on

information theory,Volume 24, 1978.

[6] Shamir A.”A polynomial time algorithm

for breaking merkle hellman public key

cryptosystem”, Proceedings of IEEE

symposium on foundations on computer

science, IEEE New York, 1982.

[7] Yaseen and Sahasrabuddhe “A Genetic

Algorithm for cryptanalysis of Chor Rivest

Knapsack Public key cryptosystem”, Third

international conference on computational

intelligence and multimedia applications,

1999.

[8] Matousek R, “Hill Climbing and 0/1

knapsack problem”, Proceedings of Mendel

conference, July 2002.

[9] Poonam Garg, “Genetic Algorithm, Tabu

Search & Simulated Annealing Attack on

Transposition Cipher”, proceeding of third

AIMS International conference on

management at IIMA – 2006, 983-989

[10] Ragevan.”Cryptanalysis of

knapsackcipher using Parallel Evolutionary

Computing, International Journal of

Information Technology, Volume 1, No.1,

May 2009.

- HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM FOR SECURE DATA STORAGEUploaded byIJIRIS - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN INFORMATION SECURITY
- CT-2Development and Analysis of Message Embedding System for Embedded OS Using Spatial Watermarking Technique013-0904872-3Uploaded byYork Jin Sia
- q.pdfUploaded byabdullah azayem
- IJCSS_V5_I3Uploaded byAI Coordinator - CSC Journals
- CryptographyUploaded bySowmya Rayapati
- Lee 2002Uploaded byYoussef Majdoub
- Improved Genetic Algorithm for Structural Damage DetectionUploaded byCamilo Manrique
- Network Security ProtocolsUploaded byKaran Trivedi
- Analysing Tuning Performance of Evolutionary Algorithm for Search Based Software TestingUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Synopsis NspUploaded bySital Dahal
- A New Algorithm for Digital Colour Image Encryption and DecryptionUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- Tài liệu Hướng dẫn giả lập ASA trên GNS3Uploaded byLý Hoàng Đông
- ECCUploaded byYashwanth Reddy
- 194(5+1) - Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems ((5+1)0) (cryptome)Uploaded bybodymorph
- Lecture 02 Introduction CryptographyUploaded byNguyễn Huu Sang Nguyễn
- Vol32 Issue1 2013 GruberUploaded byjhon
- V.ustimenkoUploaded bybayareaking
- Information Technology 16Uploaded byBhavesh Gangani
- New Comprehensive Study to Assess Comparatively the QKD, XKMS, KDM in the PKI encryption algorithmsUploaded byInternational Journal on Computer Science and Engineering
- EM-FaultsUploaded byxxxxx_x
- CNS QB 2 MK WAUploaded bysenthilvl
- Research DraftUploaded byGrace Reyes
- Genetic Algorithm TutorialUploaded bykumargpalani
- RSA.pptUploaded byZaryab Arif
- D-37-385-392.pdfUploaded bylambanaveen
- cerificateUploaded byfatemiyvt
- Optimization of Distributed Generation Placement for Minimizing Power Losses and Voltage Profile Improvement Using Genetic AlgorithmUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Security of Image Processing Over a NetworkUploaded byIRJET Journal
- FYP PresentationUploaded byNasrul Sultan
- Lecture 1Uploaded byAziz Maqtri

- Aristotle - MetaphysicsUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - SymposiumUploaded byHaveit12
- Change Advisory BoardUploaded byHaveit12
- Doing Business in IndiaUploaded byHaveit12
- Aristotle - On InterpretationUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - The RepublicUploaded byHaveit12
- Aristotle - Nicomachean EthicsUploaded byHaveit12
- Security Overview-Cryptography and Network SecurityUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - TimaeusUploaded byHaveit12
- Aristotle - RhetoricUploaded byHaveit12
- Tsunami Investigation ReportsUploaded byHaveit12
- Doing Business in ChinaUploaded byHaveit12
- Aristotle - PoliticsUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - The Seventh LetterUploaded byHaveit12
- Network SecurityUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - CritiasUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - Laches, Or CourageUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - PhaedrusUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - PhilebusUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - EuthyphroUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - LawsUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - isUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - CratylusUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - IonUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - CritoUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - asUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - Lysis, Or FriendshipUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - EuthydemusUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - GorgiasUploaded byHaveit12
- Plato - PhaedoUploaded byHaveit12