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AIR CONDITIONING

In a typical air conditioning system, a refrigerant circulates through a loop of copper


tubing that runs between an outdoor coilthe CONDENSERand an indoor coil, or
EVAPORATOR. Refrigerant travels between the two coils, absorbing heat from the
room and releasing it outside. In the process, the refrigerant cools the evaporator coils. A
blower sends the chilled and dehumidified air into the room. The cooling effect causes
the warm air to release its moisture, which drops into a drain pan and is carried away. A
heat pump works just like an air conditioner but has a valve that can be reversed to
deliver heat to the house instead of cooled air.

CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING


Central air conditioning is often combined with a forced-air furnace both share the
same blower and DUCTWORK. The furnaces air filter removes dust, hair, and lint and
should be checked every month when air conditioning or heating are in use to be sure it is
clean. Air conditioners are powered by electricity, and they can use a lot of it, depending
on the size of the house and its general weather-tightness. Proper maintenance and
service can help reduce the high cost of keeping your house cool.

PROVISION IN BUILDING FOR AIR CONDITIONING PLANTS:1. PLANT ROOM: Where possible it should be attached to the building; but for large plants
i.e. more then 500 tones there should be separate plant room.
Should be centrally placed.
Should have a clear height of 3.6m b/w finished floor level and soffit of
slab.
Thumb rule for plant capacity is
1 ton per10sq.mt. for single story
1.25 ton per 10sq.mt. For multi storied building
Area of plant room:-20sq.mt. +@27sq.mt. For 100sq.mt of carpet area to
be air conditioned.
Minimum area of plant room is 10sq.mt.
There should be adequate ventilation, lighting, and drainage facilities.
There should be no windows to prevent noise transmission.
Ramps should be provided for easy transportation of equipments.
Flooring should be strong enough to bear a load of approx.1300kg/cu.mt
S.NO.

CAPACITY

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

1*10 TONNES
2*20

2*50

2*100
2*120
3*120
2*200
1*500
2*500

SIZE OF PLANT
ROOM (SQ.MT.)
10
20
45
70
80
110
100
130
250

TYPE
Packed
Reciprocating

Centrifugal

2. AIR HANDLING UNITS: Minimum size 4.5sq.mt for 100sq.mt. of carpet area to be air conditioned or
1sq.mt.for each ton
Height shall be 3mt.
Fresh air opening should be provided at .3sq.mt.per ton.
3. COOLING TOWERS: Load transfer of cooling tower should be checked
Should not be located on ground as it is a source of noise.

Types: Forced drought.


Induced draught.

CONDITIONED AREA
COOLING POND AREA
Upto 1860sq.mt.
18sq.mt. per 100sq.mt.to be conditioned
1860-3720sq.mt.
15sq.mt. per 100sq.mt.to be conditioned
3720-5580sq.mt.
13sq.mt. per 100sq.mt.to be conditioned
5580sq.mt. and above
11sq.mt. per 100sq.mt.to be conditioned
NOTE: - Care should be taken that adequate space is provided around cooling tower
/pond for free flow of air.
4. MAKE UP WATER TANK: Due to water evaporation and drift there is certain amount of loss of water in
cooling tower or pond.
To make up this loss make up water tank are provided.
WATER LOSS DUE TO EVAPORATION AND DRIFT ARE:S.NO. TYPE OF COOLING
TOWER
1.
Natural
2.
Forced
3.
Induced

MAKE UP WATER REQ.FOR 100SQ.MT.


AREA TO BE CONDITIONED
90liters per hour
65 liters per hour
185liters per hour

5. DUCTING: Supply and return air ducts are taken from (air handling units) A.H.U. to
rooms through corridors.
False ceiling should be provided only after ducts have been erected .
In air conditioned area it is advisable that walls are erected only up to duct
level, and when complete ducting is done walls can be raised.
VERTICAL RISERS: - provided in multi storied building through which
ducts, chilled and condenser water pipes are taken vertically up or down ;
done to avoid breakage of slabs.
GLAZING: Double glazing or heat resistant glass should be used.
Big glazed opening should be avoided.
ROOF INSULATION: Should be insulated by some insulating material.
Co-efficient of heat transfer (u factor) 1.96k cal p per
degree centigrade.

DESIGNING AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMFORT AIR


CONDITION:

Comfort conditioning implies control on inside temperature, relative humidity,


air flow velocity, air flow direction, and level of freshness.

6. DIFFUSERS AND GRILLES: The conditioned supply air arrives through the ducts at the supply air diffusers
and enters the conditioned space.
Most diffusers are attached to the false ceiling and a variety of diffusers are
available for different air spreading needs.
For well distributed cooling, an air flow pattern needs to be created in the
conditioned space.
The design engineer takes care to separate the supply air diffusers and the
return air grilles to prevent short circuiting of the air.
Return air usually flows into the plenum or return-air box through grilles
placed in the false ceiling.

7. RETURN AIR:Since a substantial amount of energy goes into cooling the air in the first place it is a
practice to recycle the air. The air is therefore brought back to the AHU, or the packaged
air conditioner, using return air ducts. It is common to route the return air through the gap
between the false ceiling and the main ceiling, a space referred to as a 'plenum'. It is
desirable wherever possible to pass the supply air duct through the return air plenum,
because this works like a heat exchanger, thereby improving the efficiency of the plant.
Sometimes a separate system of return air ducts/boxing is employed to carry the return air
instead of using the plenum. Where the supply air ducts do not pass through the plenum,
they are usually insulated so that cool air does not pick up heat from the warmer
surroundings.
8. FRESH AIR INTAKE:A certain volume of fresh, outside air is sucked into the building near the AHU. This air is
usually drawn in through a 'damper' which is adjusted to allow the specified volume of air

into the building. This keeps the air pressure within the building a little higher than the
outside air pressure. This prevents dusty, moist or any undesirable external air from
infiltrating into the building.
INTERNATIONALLY ACEPTED NORMS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

Temperature

:- 24degree centigrade +/-1 degree centigrade


(75degree Fahrenheit +/-2degree Fahrenheit)
Relative humidity : - Less then 55%.
Air flow
: - 50 meters per minute.
Direction of flow : - From top to front.
Fresh air
: - 15 cubic meter per hour

THUMB RULE FOR AIR CONDITIONING LOADS: Air conditioning load on basis of floor area of 20sq.mt. per ton of
refrigeration.
Applicable only for insulated roofs and intermediate floors with
o
Occupancy of 6sq.mt.per person
o
Lighting level 20watts per sq.mt.
o
External glazing 15% of floor area
BUILDING DESIGN:

On west side glass should be minimized


Use of double glazed windows with sealed gaps.
Entire glazing should be kept minimum.
15% of floor area should be glazed.

WINDOWS AIR CONDITIONING UNITS: Can be provided 75 mm above finished floor level.
Can condition 100sq.mt space with depth up to 10mt.
Available in 1TR, 1.5TR, 2TR.
CAN COOL 15sq.mt, 25sq.mt, 30sq.mt. area respectively.

1.

PROBLEMS: Poor air distribution.


Block view aesthetically not desirable.
Produces noise.

Requires maintenance regularly.


2. SPLIT TYPE AIR CONDITIONING UNITS:
Available in 1TR -1.5TR.

Air cooled condensing unit mounted out side.

Suitable for: Apartments


Shops
Low rise offices buildings
Meetings room
As mounted outside noise and vibration problem is solved to great extent.
3. PAKAGE AIR CONDITIONING UNITS: Suitable for area 100 500sq.mt.
Air cooled condenser mounted outside.
Water cooled pipe can be of any length.
But inter connecting inter refrigerant pipe cannot be more then 15mt.long.
Available in 5TR, 7.5TR, 15TR.
Can cool area up to 80sq.mt. , 120sq.mt. , 100sq.mt. , 250sq.mt.
Package room for above sizes plants are 2mt.*1.5mt. , 2.5mt.*1.5mt. ,
3mt.*2.5mt.
Door should be 1.2mt wide double shutter opening outwards.
4.

CENTRAL DIRECT EXPANSION SYSTEM: Can cool more then 500sq.mt area.
Suitable for:
Cinemas

Auditorium

Double storied library

Shopping center
Available from 20TR to 150 TR.
All machinery located on lowest floor.
Plant room sizes are:
For 5TR
50sq.mt.* 3.2mt.high.

For 100TR 70sq.mt.*3.6mt.high.


No ventilation and lighting required.
Air handling units sizes 4.5mt.*4.5mt.*3mt.serves 500sq.mt. area.
Size of spray pond :
Water surface area .3sq.mt. Per TR.

Average depth
1.2mt.
Number of nozzles 4m for 10 TR.

5. CENTRAL CHILLED WATER SYSTEM:

Can cool more then 3000sq.mt.area.


Suitable for: Hospital
Multi storied buildings
Shopping malls
Offices
Provides privacy, individual room control, and medical insulation.
Available from 40TR to 600TR.
Cooling plant room located in lowest floor.
Cooling is achieved across chiller and transfer to terminal units
Plant room sizes : 100TR
80sq.mt.*3.6mt. high
500TR
200sq.mt.*4.2mt.high.
1600TR 300sq.mt.*4.2mt.high.
Temperature control is achieved by electric snap acting thermostats
mounted within terminal unit room.

THUMB RULE FOR POWER CONSUPTION BY A CENTRAL AIR


CONDITIONING SYSTEM IS 1.4 KILO WATT PER TR.

VARIOUS COMPANIES MANUFACTURING AIR CONDITIONERS


ARE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

VOLTAS
WHIRLPOOL
LG
CARRIER
BELL (COOLING
TOWERS)
AIRCON
TRAC FUJICO
AMTREX
VIDEOCON
SAMSUNG
HITACHI
BLUE STAR