Archimedes

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Archimedes

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immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weightof the fluid that the

body displaces. Archimedes' principle is a law of physics fundamental to fluid

mechanics. Archimedes of Syracuse[1] formulated this principle, which bears his name.

Contents

[hide]

1Explanation

2Formula

3Refinements

4Principle of flotation

5See also

6References

Explanation[edit]

In On Floating Bodies, Archimedes stated (c. 250 BC):

Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the

fluid displaced by the object.

Archimedes of Syracuse

Practically, the Archimedes principle allows the buoyancy of an object partially or wholly

immersed in a liquid to be calculated. The downward force on the object is simply its weight. The

upward, or buoyant, force on the object is that stated by Archimedes' principle, above. Thus the

net upward force on the object is the difference between the buoyant force and its weight. If this

net force is positive, the object rises; if negative, the object sinks; and if zero, the object is

neutrally buoyant - that is, it remains in place without either rising or sinking. In simple words,

Archimedes' principle states that when a body is partially or completely immersed in a fluid, it

experiences an apparent loss in weight which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the

immersed part of the body.

Formula[edit]

Consider a cube immersed in a fluid, with its sides parallel to the direction of gravity. The fluid will

exert a normal force on each face, and therefore only the forces on the top and bottom faces will

contribute to buoyancy. The pressure difference between the bottom and the top face is directly

proportional to the height (difference in depth). Multiplying the pressure difference by the area of

a face gives the net force on the cube the buoyancy, or the weight of the fluid displaced. By

extending this reasoning to irregular shapes, we can see that, whatever the shape of the

submerged body, the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. apparent loss in

wt of water= wt of object in air-wt of object in water

The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid (if the

surrounding fluid is of uniform density). The weight of the object in the fluid is reduced, because

of the force acting on it, which is called upthrust. In simple terms, the principle states that the

buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object, or

the density of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times the gravitational constant, g.

Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal masses, objects with greater volume

have greater buoyancy.

Suppose a rock's weight is measured as 10 newtons when suspended by a string in

a vacuum with gravity acting on it. Suppose that when the rock is lowered into water, it displaces

water of weight 3 newtons. The force it then exerts on the string from which it hangs would be 10

newtons minus the 3 newtons of buoyant force: 10 3 = 7 newtons. Buoyancy reduces the

apparent weight of objects that have sunk completely to the sea floor. It is generally easier to lift

an object up through the water than it is to pull it out of the water.

For a fully submerged object, Archimedes' principle can be reformulated as follows:

then inserted into the quotient of weights, which has been expanded by the mutual volume

yields the formula below. The density of the immersed object relative to the density of the

fluid can easily be calculated without measuring any volumes:

a dasymeter and of hydrostatic weighing.)

Example: If you drop wood into water, buoyancy will keep it afloat.

curve, the air moves in the opposite direction to the car's acceleration. However, due

to buoyancy, the balloon is pushed "out of the way" by the air, and will actually drift in

the same direction as the car's acceleration.

When an object is immersed in a liquid, the liquid exerts an upward force, which is

known as the buoyant force, that is proportional to the weight of the displaced liquid.

The sum force acting on the object, then, is equal to the difference between the

weight of the object ('down' force) and the weight of displaced liquid ('up' force).

Equilibrium, or neutral buoyancy, is achieved when these two weights (and thus

forces) are equal.

Refinements[edit]

Archimedes' principle does not consider the surface tension (capillarity) acting on

the body.[2] Moreover, Archimedes' principle has been found to break down

in complex fluids.[3]

Principle of flotation[edit]

Archimedes' principle shows buoyant force and displacement of fluid. However, the

concept of Archimedes' principle can be applied when considering why objects float.

Proposition 5 of Archimedes' treatise On Floating Bodies states that:

Any floating object displaces its own weight of fluid.

Archimedes of Syracuse[4]

In other words, for an object floating on a liquid surface (like a boat) or floating

submerged in a fluid (like a submarine in water or dirigible in air) the weight of the

displaced liquid equals the weight of the object. Thus, only in the special case of

floating does the buoyant force acting on an object equal the objects weight.

Consider a 1-ton block of solid iron. As iron is nearly eight times denser than water, it

displaces only 1/8 ton of water when submerged, which is not enough to keep it

afloat. Suppose the same iron block is reshaped into a bowl. It still weighs 1 ton, but

when it is put in water, it displaces a greater volume of water than when it was a

block. The deeper the iron bowl is immersed, the more water it displaces, and the

greater the buoyant force acting on it. When the buoyant force equals 1 ton, it will

sink no farther.

When any boat displaces a weight of water equal to its own weight, it floats. This is

often called the "principle of flotation": A floating object displaces a weight of fluid

equal to its own weight. Every ship, submarine, and dirigible must be designed to

displace a weight of fluid at least equal to its own weight. A 10,000-ton ship must be

built wide enough to displace 10,000 tons of water before it sinks too deep in the

water. The same is true for vessels in air: a dirigible that weighs 100 tons needs to

displace 100 tons of air. If it displaces more, it rises; if it displaces less, it falls. If the

dirigible displaces exactly its weight, it hovers at a constant altitude.

It is important to realize that, while they are related to it, the principle of flotation and

the concept that a submerged object displaces a volume of fluid equal to its own

volume are not Archimedes' principle. Archimedes' principle, as stated above,

equates the buoyant force to the weight of the fluid displaced.

One common point of confusion regarding Archimedes' principle is the meaning of

displaced volume. Common demonstrations involve measuring the rise in water level

when an object floats on the surface in order to calculate the displaced water.This

measurement approach fails with a buoyant submerged object because the rise in

the water level is directly related to the volume of the object and not the mass

(except if the effective density of the object equals exactly the fluid density). Instead,

in the case of submerged buoyant objects, the whole volume of fluid directly above

the sample should be considered as the displaced volume. Another common point of

confusion regarding Archimedes' principle is that it only applies to submerged

objects that are buoyant, not sunk objects. In the case of a sunk object the mass of

displaced fluid is less than the mass of the object and the difference is associated

with the object's potential energy.

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