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Old IB History Exam Test Questions

Reminders:
1. You will not know every question you see here in this packet and that is to be expected. I gave you all of
the questions so that you can see that you will feel comfortable with a certain amount.
2. We focused our studies really from Bismarck and German unification through Khrushchev. IB has
teachers only focus on about 100 yearsnot all possible topics. Thus, you are better prepared to go into
detail on particular questions and not just skim over your answers.
3. When you take the test, cell phones, pagers, etc. are not allowed in the examining room.
4. You must take black or blue ink pens for all written texts.
5. Take time to plan your answers. This planning will help your answers be stronger.
6. Remember that with Paper II, you answer TWO questions, each from a different section.
7. Remember that with Paper III, you answer THREE questions.

Paper II--2002
Topic I: Causes, Practices and Effects of War
1. To what extent has any twentieth century war changed the role of women?
2. How far do you agree with the view of some recent historians that Chamberlains appeasement of Hitler
at Munich was NOT a mistake?
3. The First and Second World Wars were European civil wars that required outside intervention to
settle. How far do you agree with this quotation?
4. Examine the extent to which guerilla warfare has been successful since 1945 in any two wars each
chosen from a different region.
5. In what ways did Trumans policy of limited warfare in Korea set the pattern of military conflict up to
1990?
Topic 3: The Rise and the rule of Single Party States
1. Analyze the conditions which led to the establishment of two single party states each chosen from a
different region.
2. How and why have religious groups a) opposed, and b) supported single party regimes?
3. Assess the success and failure of two rulers of single party regimes, each chosen from a different region,
in solving the social and economic problems of their countries.
4. To what extent was the success of Stalin in retaining power in the USSR between 1929 and 1953 due to
the appeal of Communism?
5. Examine the impact outside their own countries of two of the following: Fidel Castro, Gamel Abdel
Nasser, Julius Nyerere, Mao Zedong.
Topic 5: The Cold War
1. Assess the significance for the development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1950 of three of the
following:
a. The Yalta Conference, 1945
b. The Iron Curtain speech, 1946
c. The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, 1947
d. The expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Soviet block, 1948
e. The Berlin Blockade and Airlift, 1948-1949
f. The formation of NATO, 1949.
2. A different kind of Cold War. To what extent is this a valid statement about the Cold War after 1953?
3. Explain how East/West relations a) affected and b) how the were affected by one of the following areas:
the Middle East, Latin America, Asia, Africa.
4. Using specific examples, evaluate the successes and/or failures of Dtente.
5. What role did economic issues play in ending the Cold War?

1999 Paper II
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
1.
2.
3.
4.

To what extent can it be said that the First World War was caused by the alliance system?
Evaluate the role of ideological differences in two civil wars each chosen from a different region.
In what ways and for what reasons have tactics changed in twentieth century warfare?
How valid is the claim that treaties are not necessary to end wars? Support your answer with evidence
from at least two regions.
5. Explain with specific examples from their work, how artists have reacted to two of the following:
Mexican Revolution, Spanish Civil War, Vietnam War.
Topic 3: The Rise and the rule of single party states
1. Single party states use education as propaganda to obtain support rather than to instill (increase)
knowledge. How far do you agree with this judgment?
2. In what ways and for what reasons did China develop its own brand of Marxism/Communism under
Mao Zedong?
3. To what extent was Spain under Franco (1939 to 1975) a Fascist state?
4. How far is it true to say that a successful foreign policy is the most important factor for a single party
ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a different
region.
5. In the twentieth century right-wing single party states have often been the result of a conservative
reaction to change whilst the left-wing single party states have achieved power as the outcome of a
revolutionary process against tradition. Using examples from at least two regions explain how far you
agree with this quotation.
Topic 5: The Cold War
1. Ideological differences played only a minor role in the origin and development of the Cold War. How
far do you agree with this statement?
2. In what ways and for what reasons did the Cold War affect the Middle East?
3. Analyze the importance of spheres of interest for one of the superpowers in the Cold War.
4. Assess the importance in the development of the Cold War of two of the following: the Yalta
Conference; Berlin; the arms race; non-alignment; South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
5. Examine the impact of the Cold War on the social life and culture of two countries each chosen from a
different region.

1998 TestPaper II
Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
1. To what extent should Germany be held responsible for causing both the First and Second World Wars?
2. Why was there so much civil strife and civil war in China during the first half of the twentieth century?
3. Compare and contrast the outcome and effects of two revolutionary wars, each chosen from a different
region.
4. How and why has guerilla warfare been used in the twentieth century? Examples should be given from
at least two different regions.
5. Explain the impact of war on two of the following: women, the arts, the media.
Topic 3: The Rise and rule of single party states
1. Account for the rise to power of either Juan Peron or Francisco Franco, and assess the impact upon
either Argentina or Spain of your chosen ruler.
2. To what extent is it true to say that a successful economic policy is the most important factor for a single
party ruler to remain in power? Examples should be given from two countries each chosen from a
different region.
3. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a
different region.
4. To what extent was Hitler a) responsible for, and b) driven by ideological beliefs of Nazism?
5. How far would you agree that single party states have been more interested in controlling the minds of
young people than in providing genuine education?
Topic 5: The Cold War
1. Examine the conflicting aims and policies of rival powers which caused the Cold War.
2. Assess the importance of two of the following in influencing the development of the Cold War: Marshall
Aid, Warsaw Pact, arms control, dtente.
3. Examine the impact of the Cold War on two countries (excluding the superpowers), each chosen from a
different region.
4. The build up of missiles in Cuba in 1962 was a deliberate, provocative and unjustified action. To what
extent do you agree with this statement?
5. What were the main social and cultural consequences of the Cold War?

2000 Test: Paper II


Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
1. Assess the importance of nationalism and selfish ambition as causes of twentieth century wars.
Reference must be made to at least two wars.
2. Examine critically two treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the armed conflicts which
necessitated the treaties.
3. Compare and contrast the effects for the country concerned of two of the following: the Chinese Civil
War, the Nigerian Civil War, the Spanish Civil War.
4. Assess the significance of either the Mexican Revolution (1910-1940) or the Vietnam War (1964-1975).
5. In what ways have wars a) causes suffering and hardship to women and b) helped promote womens
equality? Specific evidence must be given from at least two regions.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
1. In what ways and for what reasons did rulers of single party states play an important role in world affairs
between 1917 and 1945?
2. Identify the main principles of Communism and assess how far these principles were put into practice by
one Communist rule between 1900 and 1990.
3. Account for the rise to power and longevity of the rule of either Fidel Castro in Cuba or Julius Nyerere
in Tanzania.
4. Assess the contributions of organizational and leadership qualities in maintaining power two single party
rulers, each chosen from a different region.
5. Analyze the role and status of women in two of the following: Maoist China, Nazi Germany, Peronist
Argentina.
Topic 5: The Cold War
1. Ideological differences played little part in the origin of the Cold War. How far do you agree with this
judgment?
2. To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963?
3. Define superpower rivalry and assess its importance in international politics since 1945.
4. Analyze the role of either Cuba or Vietnam in the development of the Cold War.
5. Compare and contrast the economic and social impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen
from a different region.

2001 Test: Paper II


Topic 1: Causes, Practices and Effects of War
1. Analyze the reasons for the outbreak of war either in Algeria in 1954, or in Korea in 1950.
2. In what ways and for what reasons did foreign intervention play an important role in two civil war, each
chosen from a different region?
3. Evaluate the successes and failures of one twentieth century treaty in addressing the causes of conflict,
and restoring peace and normality.
4. Assess the results of both the Arab-Israeli War of 1956 (Sinai Campaign) and the 1967 Six Day War.
5. Using specific examples explain the popularity of war themes in a) films and b) novels and/or plays.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
1. Promises of improved social and economic conditions win more support for would-be single party
rulers than ideological pronouncements. How far do you agree with this claim?
2. Compare and contrast the organization of one Communist state with one Fascist state.
3. Analyze the methods by which either Castro or Stalin maintained his position as ruler of a single party
state.
4. Assess the successes and failures of two of the following: Nassers rule of Egypt; Nyereres rule of
Tanzania; Titos rule of Yugoslavia.
5. Evaluate the attempts of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a different region, to control
and use the media.
Topic 5: The Cold War
1. The Cold War was caused by fear, not aggression. To what extent does this view explain how the Cold
War developed between 1945 and 1949?
2. Examine the impact of the Cold War on educational developments in two countries, each chosen from a
different region.
3. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw
Pact up to 1970.
4. For what reasons, and with what results, up to 1963, did the United States adopt the policy known as
containment?
5. Excluding the superpowers, assess the role of two countries in the development of the Cold War after
1950.

2003 Test: Paper II


Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
1. What were the most frequent causes of twentieth century wars? Specific evidence from at least three
wars should be used.
2. In what ways, and to what extent, was the Second World War total war?
3. How and why did technological developments play an important part in twentieth century wars?
4. Analyze the causes and the results of one of the following: Chinese Civil War (1945-1949); Mexican
Revolution (1910-1940); Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).
5. War causes more suffering to women than to men.
War liberates women.
Using evidence from at least two wars explain which statement you consider is more appropriate.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
1. In order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single-party state needed to be ruthless, blind to
human suffering, and yet charismatic. To what extent do you agree with this assertion?
2. Account for the rise to power of one of the following: Castro; Mussolini; Nasser.
3. Compare and contrast the economic and social policies of Mao and Stalin.
4. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the aims and policies of two or more right wing rulers of single
party states differ?
5. Examine the role of education and/or the arts in two single party states, each chosen from a different
region.
Topic 5: The Cold War
1. How, and to what extent, did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945) contributed to the origin of
the Cold War?
2. Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous
development. To what extent do you agree with this judgment?
3. How and why did the policies of either the USA or the USSR affect superpower rivalry between 1950
and 1970?
4. In what ways were gender and social issues affected by the Cold War?
5. Assess the importance of dtente and internal opposition to Communist rule in Communist countries, in
ending the Cold War.

2004 Test: Paper II


Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war
1. In what ways did the causes of the Second World War differ from the causes of the First World War?
2. Evaluate the importance of naval warfare in twentieth century wars. Specific examples must be given
from at least two wars.
3. Why were there so many Arab-Israeli wars between 1948 and 1978?
4. Analyze the results of two wars, each chosen from a different region.
5. Assess the social and economic effects of one war on two of the countries involved, in the ten years
following the end of the war.
Topic 3: The rise and rule of single party states
1. Analyze the methods used by one single party state ruler in his successful bid for power.
2. Evaluate the importance of ideology in the policies of two of the following rulers of single party states:
Castro; Hitler; Lenin; Nyerere.
3. Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two rulers of single party states, each chosen from a
different region.
4. In what ways, and to what extent, did either Nasser or Peron improve social and economic conditions?
5. Examine the global impact of one ruler of a single party state.
Topic 5: The Cold War
1. To what extent did events in the final year of the Second World War turn wartime allies into Cold War
enemies?
2. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955.
3. Assess the impact of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan on the development of the Cold War
between 1945 and 1961.
4. In what ways, and to what extent, did the Cold War become less confrontational after 1970?
5. Assess the importance of social and economic issues in causing opposition to communist regimes.

Specimen Test: Paper III


1. Why, and with what results for the French monarchy did Louis XVI summon the States General in
1789?
2. How far is it true to say that Napoleon I was an enlightened despot?
3. In what ways was the Congress System important for Europe?
4. Account for the outbreak of revolution in any two European countries in 1848.
5. Cavour was the most important and the most successful of the exponents [promoters] of Italian
unification. How far do you agree with this assertion?
6. Compare and contrast the foreign and colonial policies (excluding Ireland) of Disraeli and Gladstone.
7. Assess the relative importance of the Zollverein and Bismarcks policies in bringing about the
unification of Germany.
8. Define the Eastern Question and assess its importance for Europe in the second half of the nineteenth
century.
9. Why was Alexander II called the Tsar Liberator?
10. Examine the effects of the spread of railways in nineteenth century Europe.
11. Assess the effects of two of the following on any one nineteenth century European country: the
extension of the franchise; scientific discoveries; urbanization.
12. In what ways did France benefit from the rule of Napoleon III?
13. Examine the impact on both countries of the union of Norway and Sweden between 1814 and 1905.
14. Why were there two revolutions in Russia in 1917?
15. How and why did the First World War bring about social and economic changes in any one European
country?
16. What were the main criticisms of the League of Nations and to what extent were they justified?
17. How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was a complete failure?
18. Compare and contrast the domestic policies of Hitler and Mussolini up to 1939.
19. What were the main causes and results of the Spanish Civil War?
20. What do you understand by the term appeasement? How far was appeasement responsible for the
outbreak of war in 1939?
21. Evaluate the domestic and foreign policies of Khrushchev.
22. Examine the impact of the Cold War on Western Europe between 1945 and 1965.
23. Compare and contrast the policies and importance to their countries of Adenauer and De Gaulle.
24. Analyze the main developments in education in any one European country in the twentieth century.
25. What were the main economic problems faced by the Soviet bloc (excluding the USSR) between 1950
and 1990?

1998 Test: Paper III


1. Account for the financial weakness of the French Monarchy in the second half of the eighteenth century
and show how far this weakness was responsible for the outbreak of revolution in France in 1789.
2. In what ways did Napoleon Is domestic policies benefit France in the period 1799-1815?
3. How far did the Congress of Vienna solve the problems faced by its delegates?
4. Evaluate the achievements of Robert Peel as Home Secretary and as Prime Minister of Britain.
5. Compare and contrast the contributions of Mazzini and Garibaldi to Italian unification.
6. What were the causes and results of the 1848 revolutions in the Austrian Empire?
7. In 1867, Bismarck said: Anyone who has looked into the eyes of a soldier dying on the battlefield will
think hard before starting a war. Analyze Bismarcks foreign policy in light of these words.
8. What was the Eastern Question and why did it cause problems for Europe in the second half of the
nineteenth century?
9. Assess the importance of the development in any one European country in the second half of the
nineteenth century, of two of the following: railways; social legislation; agricultural changes.
10. In what ways did educational reform affect any one European country between 1850 and 1900?
11. How far would you agree that Napoleon III was more successful in his domestic than his foreign policy?
12. Why, in spite of his efforts to reform Russian institutions, was Alexander II assassinated?
13. What were the main problems faced by the Third French Republic between 1870 and 1900?
14. Evaluate the relative importance of imperialism, the arms race and the failure of diplomacy in causing
the First World War.
15. Compare and contrast the roles of Lenin and Trotsky in establishing the USSR up to 1924.
16. How far is it true to say that the Weimar Republic was doomed from its foundation?
17. Its frown will soon be more dreaded than a nations arms. Why did this comment on the League of
Nations, made in 1929 prove to be incorrect?
18. Compare and contrast the foreign policies up to the outbreak of the Second World War of Mussolini and
Hitler.
19. Analyze the causes and results of the Spanish Civil War.
20. Assess the impact of Hitler, and the Second World War on one Scandinavian country.
21. How and why did the Second World War bring about the social and economic changes in one European
country excluding Scandinavia?
22. Why and with what results for Europe did the USSR become involved in the Cold War up to the death of
Stalin?
23. Explain whom you consider was more successful in his own country, Adenauer or de Gaulle?
24. Analyze the internal history of one East European country, excluding the USSR, from 1953 to 1990.
25. How has twentieth century Europe been affected by two of the following: increased leisure
opportunities; pressure groups; peace movements?

1999 Test: Paper III


1. To what extent was the weakness of the French Monarchy responsible for the outbreak and course of the
French Revolution between 1789 and January 1793?
2. He restored order and brought back prosperity. How far do you agree with this judgment of the
domestic policies of Napoleon I during the period 1799 to 1815?
3. Evaluate the economic and political causes of the 1848 Revolutions in the Austrian Empire and German
Confederation.
4. Analyze the events of 1848 which deposed Louis Philippe and explain why his reign ended in
revolution.
5. In what ways was the unification of Italy hindered between 1848 and 1870 by both the Papacy and the
division of Italy into separate spheres?
6. Why had Prussia replaced Austria as the leading Germanic power by 1866?
7. Napoleon III said, Some people say the Empire means war; personally I say the Empire means peace.
How far do you agree with Napoleon IIIs statement?
8. Explain the domestic policies of Gladstone and Disraeli in Britain between 1868 and 1880 and assess
their importance for Britain.
9. Examine the role of Russia in the Eastern Question between 1850 and 1878 and assess the success of
Russias policies in this area during this period.
10. Analyze the aims, successes, and failures of Bismarcks domestic policies 1871 to 1890.
11. Explain the nature and assess the importance of the development of either industry or transport in one
nineteenth century European country.
12. In what ways, and for what reasons, was there an increase of either education or the franchise [right to
vote] in one or more European countries during the nineteenth century?
13. Why was the Dual Monarchy of Austria/Hungary important in European history between 1867 and
1918?
14. Assess the political developments in one Scandinavian country in either the nineteenth or the twentieth
century.
15. Analyze the part played by the failure of Tsardom in causing the February/March Revolution in Russia
in 1917.
16. In 1914 Europe arrived at a point when every country was afraid of the present and Germany was
afraid of the future. What do you understand by this comment and how far do you agree with it?
17. Compare and contrast the economic aims and policies of Lenin (1917 to 1924) and Stalin (1928 to
1941).
18. How and why was Hitler able to become dictator of Germany?
19. Why was the League of Nations ignored in the pre-war crises of 1938 to 1939?
20. With what justification can the term total war be applied to the Second World War?
21. Compare and contrast political and economic developments under Adenauer in Germany and de Gaulle
in France.
22. How, why, and with what success, did Tito follow independent policies in Yugoslavia between 1945 and
1980?
23. Politically Khrushchev brought new hope to the USSR and to Europe, economically he was a disaster.
How justified is this comment of Khrushchev as leader of the Soviet Union 1953 to 1964?
24. Explain in what ways and to what extent either Spain or Portugal moved away from dictatorship in the
1970s.
25. Assess the importance of the changes in either the media or working conditions and patterns, in
twentieth century Europe.

2000 Test: Paper III


1. To what extent were the weaknesses of the French Monarchy responsible for the outbreak of revolution
in France in 1789?
2. What part did Napoleon Is policies play in his fall from power in 1814?
3. Evaluate the extent to which Metternich achieved his aims for Austria and for Europe.
4. How far is it true to say that, Louis XVIIIs policies proved that the Bourbon restoration in France
could work, but that the policies of Charles X ensured it would fail.
5. Account for the outbreak of any two revolutions in 1848 and assess their results.
6. Analyze the aims, motives and policies of Cavour between 1852 and 1861.
7. Compare and contrast Bismarcks policies towards Austria and France between 1862 and 1871.
8. In what ways did the domestic and foreign policies of Disraeli benefit Britain?
9. How far is it true to say that Russia was transformed into a modern country between 1855 and 1900?
10. How important was the search for raw materials and new markets as a reason for European imperialism?
11. To what extent, and with what results, did Napoleon III liberalize the Second Empire in France?
12. Discuss the changing relations between either Sweden and Norway or Finland and Russia in the
nineteenth century.
13. Account for the popularity of the novel in nineteenth century Europe.
14. In what ways did the crises and political scandals in France both weaken and strengthen the Third
Republic between 1880 and 1905?
15. Compare and contrast the causes of the 1905 and February/March 1917 revolutions in Russia.
16. The Versailles Treaty was criticized by both winners and losers. How justified was the criticism?
17. What were the political and economic successes and failures of the Weimar Republic?
18. Why did the history of Italy from 1900 to 1922 lead to the rise of Mussolini and the establishment of a
Fascist Regime?
19. What was the impact of the Wall Street crash upon any one European country (excluding Germany) up
to 1939?
20. Explain why Francos forces won the Spanish Civil War, and why the Republican forces lost.
21. Why, and with what results, was the policy of appeasement adopted by Britain and France in the 1930s?
22. Compare the Cold War policies of Stalin and Khrushchev from 1945 to 1964.
23. Explain how any one western European state recovered from the devastation of the Second World War.
24. What factors led to the collapse of Communist domination in Eastern Europe by 1990?
25. A revolution. How accurately does this describe changes in transport in twentieth century Europe?

2001 Test: Paper III


1. In what ways and for what reasons was the French Revolution, between 1789 and 1795, a period of
constitutional and legal changes?
2. In 1810 Napoleon I wrote My principle is France before everything. To what extent did the career of
Napoleon I from 1799 to 1815 follow this principle?
3. The success of the Congress of Vienna has been much exaggerated. How valid is this assessment of
the short-term and long-term results of the Congress?
4. Compare and contrast the aims and policies of Louis XVIII and Charles X.
5. Why has it been claimed that Italian unification needed both a Cavour and a Garibaldi?
6. Analyze the successes and the failures of one British Prime Minister between 1837 and 1901.
7. How far is it true to say that Austria lost control of Germany rather than Prussia gained it?
8. Evaluate the aims and results of Russian foreign policy between 1850 and 1900.
9. Bismarcks policies both at home and abroad, between the years 1871 and 1890, merely stored up
problems for the future, both for Germany and for Europe. To what extent do you agree with this
verdict?
10. In what ways did developments in transport and industry increase the prosperity of one European
country in the nineteenth century?
11. What were the important trends of intellectual and cultural developments in Europe in the nineteenth
century?
12. Analyze the successes and failures of Napoleon IIIs domestic policies.
13. Examine the impact during the nineteenth century of a) one Scandinavian country on Europe, and b)
Europe on one Scandinavian country.
14. Account for the weakness and decline of Austria-Hungary between 1867 and 1914.
15. Much of Lenins success was no doubt explained by his towering domination over his [Bolshevik]
party. To what extent does this explanation account for his rise to power and rule, 1917 to 1924?
16. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the Treaty of Versailles cause political problems in the 1920s in
Europe, for both the victorious and the defeated nations?
17. What is meant by a search for collective security, why was it necessary and how successful were
European countries in their search between 1919 and 1939?
18. Evaluate Mussolinis rule in Italy between 1922 and 1940.
19. Assess the impact of political and constitutional developments in either Spain between 1930 and 1939,
or Portugal between 1968 and 1976.
20. Examine the effects of Nazi Germany on either one Scandinavian or on one east or central European
country. (excluding USSR and Germany).
21. Account for the defeat of Germany and her allies in the Second World War.
22. For what reasons, and with what results, was Western Europe affected by the Cold War after 1945?
23. Compare and contrast the policies of Khrushchev and Gorbachev.
24. Analyze political and economic changes since 1953 in either one central or east European country
(excluding the USSR).
25. Examine the impact on one European country of, either education reforms or artistic movements.

2003 TestPaper III


1. To what extent was an outdated monarchy the cause of the 1789 French Revolution?
2. Evaluate the results for France, and for Europe, of Napoleon Bonapartes foreign policy.
3. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Congress of Vienna and the various meetings of the
Congress system take place?
4. Why did Louis Philippe become King of France in 1830, but lose his throne in 1848?
5. Compare and contrast Peel and Palmerston as statesmen and politicians of Victorian Britain.
6. Cavour united Italy not because he intended or wanted to, but because circumstances forced him to.
To what extent do you agree with this judgment?
7. In what ways, and with what results, did economic developments and the 1848 revolutions affect the
changing balance of power between Austria and Prussia between 1815 and 1862?
8. Alexander II tried to reform Russian institutions only because the Crimean War showed that Russia was
no longer a great military power. Use specific examples of Alexanders reforms to show to what extent
you agree with this assertion.
9. In what ways, and with what results, between 1862 and 1871, was Germany unified under Prussia?
10. In what ways, and with what results, did the daily life and status of women change during the nineteenth
century? Specific evidence should be given from one or more European countries.
11. Explain and evaluate the demands for, and the extension of, the franchise in one European country
during the nineteenth century.
12. Why and with what effects on both countries, was Norway ceded to Sweden in 1814, and the union
between the two countries dissolved in 1905?
13. Analyze the main political developments in either France or Spain between 1848 and 1914.
14. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the First World War lead to economic and social changes?
Specific examples should be given from one or more European countries for the period 1914 to 1930.
15. Compare and contrast the nature and results of the two 1917 Russian Revolutions.
16. Analyze the political developments and external relations of either Weimar Germany between 1919 and
1933 or Great Britain between 1918 and 1935.
17. Why had Stalin become ruler of the USSR by 1929?
18. For what reasons, and with what results, did Mussolini abandon his Stresa Front allies, France and Great
Britain, and ally with Hitler in 1936?
19. Evaluate Hitlers social, economic, and religious policies between 1933 and 1939.
20. To what extent was the failure and collapse of the League of Nations the cause of the Second World
War?
21. Assess the rule of either Franco in Spain or Caetano in Portugal.
22. In what ways, and for what reasons, did the Soviet Unions Cold War policies affect Germany between
1945 and 1961?
23. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of France under de Gaulle.
24. Account for and assess the rise and fall of a Communist regime in either one Eastern or one Central
European state excluding the USSR.
25. For what reasons, and with what effects, did leisure activities and the media become more widespread
and important in one or more European countries during the twentieth century?

2004Paper III
1. To what extent did the actions and policies of Louis XVI cause the outbreak, and affect the course, of the
French Revolution until 1793?
2. Analyze the effects of the policies upon France, of either Napoleon I between 1800 and 1815, or Charles
X between 1824 and 1830.
3. Assess the main weaknesses up to 1848 of the Vienna Settlement and the Congress System.
4. Victorian Britains most successful prime minister. To what extent do you agree with this assessment
of Gladstone?
5. Compare and contrast the contributions made by Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian unification.
6. Why was Germany unified under Prussia and not under Austria?
7. Why did Napoleon III become Emperor of France in 1852 and lose his empire in 1870?
8. The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexander II. To
what extent do you agree with this assertion?
9. Analyze the successes and failures of Bismarcks domestic policies between 1871 and 1890.
10. Assess the impact on nineteenth century Europe of two of the following: imperialism; industrialization;
urbanization.
11. Examine the main political and economic developments in Spain in the second half of the nineteenth
century.
12. Why was the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary formed in 1867, and dissolved after the First World
War?
13. To what extent, and with what results, did educational reforms take place in one European country in
either the nineteenth or the twentieth century?
14. Why did Germany and her allies lose the First World War?
15. Assess the part played by Lenin in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and in the new Soviet State until his
death in 1924.
16. Compare and contrast the economic problems faced by two European countries between 1919 and 1939.
17. Analyze the impact of Hitler either on Finland or on one Scandinavian country between 1933 and 1945.
18. To what extent were the aims of Mussolinis domestic and foreign policies achieved between 1923 and
1939?
19. In what ways, and to what extent, did foreign aid to both the Nationalists and the Republicans between
1936 and 1939 contribute to the outcome of the Spanish Civil War?
20. How important were appeasement and the collapse of the League of Nations as causes of the Second
World War?
21. Assess the impact of the foreign policy of either Stalin between 1941 and 1953 or Khrushchev between
1956 and 1964, on the USSR and Europe.
22. In what ways, and with what results, did one western European country recover from postwar problems
between 1945 and 1970?
23. What were the main political and economic problems faced by one central or eastern European country
(excluding the USSR) between 1945 and 1990?
24. Considering the difficulties he faced, the success achieved by Gorbachev was remarkable. To what
extent do you agree with this judgment?
25. Why did twentieth century Europe experience an increase in the availability and popularity of sport and
other leisure activities?